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Astor place riots, growing out of the rivalry of the act. War breaks out at Taranaki; the British repulsed with ors Macready and Forrest; several lives lost ..10 May, 1849

..30 June, 1860 Taylor's machine-shop fire; 63 lives lost..... .4 Feb. 1850 Great excitement in Australia; troops sent to New ZeaGreat Crystal Palace Exhibition; opened .14 July, 1853 land, under gen. Pratt, land..

.3 Aug. Harper & Brothers' publishing house burned; 33 steam

Indecisive actions..

.. 10, 19 Sept., 9, 12 Oct. presses and thousands of tons of books destroyed; loss, Gen. Pratt defeats the Maoris at Mahoetahi, and destroys $1,250,000; although 600 operatives were in the build

their fortitied places.

...6 Nov. ing, no lives were lost...

.....10 Dec.

New Zealand colonists in England justify the conduct of Burning of ship Great Republic and other ships. .24 Dec.

the governor..

22 Nov. 20 firemen killed at 221 Broadway..

.25 April, 1854 The Maoris defeated, 29 Dec. 1860; 23 Jan., 24 Feb., Financial panic and bread riot.

1857

16-18 March, 1861 Crystal Palace burned; loss $2,000,000 ...5 Oct. 1858 The war ends; surrender of natives. 19 March, Fire at the City Hall..

.. 17 Aug

Sir George Grey reappointed governor. ....June, Great tire in Elm street; 50 lives lost. ...2 Feb. 1860 Gold discovered at Otago, etc..

.. June, Draft riot; mob in possession of the city.. 13 to 17 July, 1863 A native sovereignty proclaimed; 5000 British soldiers [Many buildings, including the Colored Orphan Asy

in the island...

..July, lum, were destroyed, and the number of persons killed Loyalty of the natives increasing

May, 1862 during the riots is estimated at 1000. The city paid The Maori chiefs sign a poctical address of condolence to $1,500,000 indemnity for damage done.)

the queen on the death of the prince consort; received, Attempt to burn the city by firing the principal hotels

Nov. simultaneously; supposed to have been the work of Natives attack a military escort and kill 8 persons, conspirators in sympathy with the rebellion..25 Nov. 1864

4 May, 1863 Bonded warehouses in South street burned; loss $2,000,- Waikato tribe driven from a fort..

.17 July, 000....

16-18 April, 1865 War spreads; natives construct ritle pits. .... Aug Cholera caused 5071 deaths in 1849, 374 in 1855, and 1212 Proposed confiscation of Waikato lands. ... Sept. in

1866 Gen. Cameron severely defeats the Maoris at Rangariri, Barnum's Museum burned, 13 July, 1865; again 2 March, 1868

20 Nov. Black Friday panic; gold rises to 162. .24 Sept. 1869 Continued success of gen. Cameron; capitulation of the Orange riot, between Catholic and Protestant Irish; 62

Maori king.....

.....9 Dec. persons killed..

.12 July, 1871 British attack on Galepa (the gate pah) repulsed with Exposure of the Tweed "ring" frauds.

loss of officers and men

. 29 April, 1864 Citizens' committee of 70 to obtain redress, appointed

Loan of 1,000,0001. to New Zealand; guaranteed by par. 4 Sept. liament..

..July, James Fisk, shot by Stokes, died ..... . 7 Jan. 1872 Several tribes submit.

...Aug. Overthrow of the Gould-Fisk directory of the Erie R. R., Maori prisoners escape and form the nucleus of a new

March,
insurrection...

....Sept. Epizootic catarrh prevails..

Oct. Sir George Grey issues proposals of peace, 25 Oct.; the Great financial panic.

19 Sept. 1973 Aborigines Protection Society send religious, moral, Tweed sentenced to imprisonment.

19 Nov.

and political advice to the Maoris (considered injudi. Tweed escapes. ..4 Dec. 1875 cious).

Nov. Great fire, with loss of life; 30 buildings destroyed, Change of ministry and policy; seat of government to

8 Feb. 1876 be removed from Auckland to Wellington, ou Cook's Tweed arrested at Vigo...

Strait..

.24 Nov. Hell Gate reefs blown up.

.24 Sept.

Maoris' attack on Cameron severely defeated, 25 Jan.; Brooklyn theatre burned; 300 lives lost, ...5 Dec.

again

.25 Feb. 1965 Burning of Greentield's candy works; 50 or 60 lives lost, Outbreak of the Pai Mariri or Hau-hau heresy, a com

20 Dec. 1877 pound of Judaism and paganism, among the Maoris; Elevated railroads in operation..

1877-8 the rev.C.S. Volkner murdered and many outrages comTweed dies in jail. ....

12 April, 1878 mitted, 2 March; proclamation of governor sir George 0. B. Potter's newspaper building burned; 6 lives lost, Grey against it; it is checked by the agency of a 31 Jan. 1882 friendly native chief, We-tako

.. April, (See under Uniled States.)

William Thompson, an eminent chief, surrenders on be. half of the Maori king...

.25 May, New Zealand (in the Pacific Ocean), discovered New Zealand still unsettled..

.....July,

The Hau-haus beaten in several conflicts, Ang ; the gov. by Tasman in 1642. The country remained unknown,

ernor proclaims peace, 2 Sept.; British troops about and was supposed to be part of a southern continent,

to leave. till 1769–70, when it was circumnavigated by capt. Cook. The Maoris treacherously kill the envoys of peace; res. In 1773 he planted several spots of ground on this island ignation of the Weld ministry; one formed by Mr.

Stafford ..... with European garden-seeds, and in 1777 he found some Bishopric of Dunedin, Otago, founded. fine potatoes. European population in 1860, 84,294; Gen. Chute subdues the Hau-haus. .

.Jan. 1866 Dec. 1865, 190,607; 1874, 310,895; natives, 46,016. Value Progress of peace measures.....

April,

Murderers of Mr. Volkner executed. of imports in 1859, 1,551,030l. ; 1874, 6,464,6871.; 1876, Governor announces cessation of the war.

..17 May,

...3 July, 6,905,1711

. Esports, 1859, 551,481l.; in 1874,5,610,3711.; Death of William Thompson, the Maori chief .... 28 Dec! in 1876, 4,533,3591.

Sir George F. Bowen appointed to succeed sir George
Grey; gazetted.

.19 Nov. 1807 The right of Great Britain to New Zealand recognized at Act relating to the government of New Zealand passed the peace in,... 1814 in the British parliament..

1868 No constitutional authority placed over it until a resi. Gen. Samuel Evans (an eminent colonist, 1838–9) dies, dent subordinate to New South Wales.. 1833

23 Sept. New Zealand Company established; Wellington founded, 1839 Te Kooti, a chief, and about 150 Maori convicts, escape Capt. Hobson, the first governor, landed, 29 Jan.; treaty

from Chatham island to the mainland, 4 July; they of Waitangi signed, by which the chiefs cede a large

repulse troops sent against them, 7 Sept.; massacre amount of land.. 5 Feb. 1840 the whites at Poverty bay..

10 Nov. New Zealand an independent colony and a bishop's see, Te Kooti and the rebels defeated by col. Whitmore; 130 April, 1841 Maoris killed.

..5 Jan. 1869 Capt. (afterw. admiral) Fitzroy governor.. Dec. 1843-Nov. 1845 Massacre of settlers at Taranaki

..12 Feb. Sir George Grey governor..

1846 Change of ministry; hon. Mr. Fox's proposal to pay for A charter, founded upon an act passed in 1846, creating

British troops declined by the home government.Sept. powers municipal, legislative, and administrative,

Te Kooti, thrice defeated by the colonists and friendly 29 Dec. 1847 natives, a fugitive..

Oct. This charter was not acted on; a legislative council Despatch from earl Granville, insisting on the withopened by the governor.

.20 Dec. 1818 drawal of the British troops (18th regiment) causes Foundation of Auckland, 1840; Nelson and Taranaki (or

much dissatisfaction

7 Oct. New Plymouth), 1841; Otago, 1818; Canterbury. 1850 Friendly interview between Mr. McLean and the Maori New Zealand Company relinquish charter..

king's minister..

.8 Nov. New constitution granted.

1852 Increased demand for the New Zealand fibrous plant, Col. Wynyard governor.. .Jan. 1854-Sept. 1865 Phormium tenar ..

1860-70 Governor Browne... Oct. Departure of the last British troops

.22 Jan. 1870 An earthquake; not much damage done. 23 Jan. Te Kooti, refusing to surrender at discretion, 24 Jan., Constitution modified.

1857
narrowly escapes.

..5 Feb. New bishopries established: Christ Church, 1856; Nelson Te Kooti's party attacked and dispersed; his speedly and Wellington, 1858; Waiapu.

1859 capture anticipated

.31 July, Insurrection of the natives (Maoris) under a chief named The duke of Edinburgh, in the Galatea, at Wellington, William King (Wirrimu Kingi), arising out of disputes

27 Aug respecting the sale of land; the bishop (Selwyn) and Increase of prosperity reported; loan of 4,000,0001. pro. others consider the natives unjustly treated... March, 1860 posed

Aug. Indecisive actions between the militia and volunteers and Political union of the islands effected.

Aug. the Maoris....

14-28 March, " Murder of Mr. Todd, surveyor, by Maoris.. ..29 Dec.

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Te Kooti reported as living by plunder; acting as a fa- by two political parties—that of the president, Chamornatical potentate..

.Nov. 1871

ro, who held Grenada, the capital, and that of the deinFriendly meeting of Mr. McLean with Wirrimu Kingi and other chiefs, who submit to the British govern

ocratic chief, Castellon, who held Leon. The latter inment. ...,

... March, 1872 vited Walker, the filibuster, to his assistance, who in a Mr. Stafford's ministry resigns; succeeded by one under

short time became sole dictator of the state.* By the Mr. Waterhouse (the Fox party).

.about Oct. Sir James Fergusson appointed governor..

::.... March, 1873 united efforts of the confederated states the filibusters The marquess of Normanby governor.

.Nov. 1874 were all expelled in May, 1857. On 1 May, 1858, NicThe Maori king submits to the British government. Feb. 1875 aragua and Costa Rica appealed to the great European The colony reported highly prosperous by sir Julius Vogel, ex-premier...

1.31 Oct. 1877 powers for protection. Nicaragua railway, a transit route Sir Hercules G. R. Robinson governor.

.Dec. 1878 between the Pacific and Atlantic, proposed, and comDisputes with the Maoris; they expel British settlers pany formed Nov. 1866. President T. Martinez elected near New Plymouth, Taranaki; and plough the land,

1859 and 1863; Fernando Guzman elected 1 March, 1867;

25 May, 1879 The settlers recover their land by force..... ...22 June,

Vicente Quadra elected 1 Feb. 1871; Pedro Joaquin ChaGreat influence of Erueti, now Te Whiti, a fanatical Chris. morro, 1 Feb. 1875; Joaquin Zavala, 1 March, 1879. tian Maori, aged 45; he supports Maori claims, but

Population estimated at 300,000. checks bloodshed.. Sir George Grey, too energetic liberal premier, compelled Louis Napoleon, afterwards emperor, proposed the making a to resign; succeeded by hon. Jobn Hall...

Oct

ship.canal by the lake Nicaragua from the Atlantic to the Sir Arthur Hamilton Gordon appointed governor........ 1880 Pacific, between 1842 and 1844; the government of Nicara

gua proposed it in 1846; col. Childs made a survey in 1851; Ney's Execution. Ney, duke of Elchingen, a company was chartered for 85 years, and conventions prince of the Moskwa, and one of the most valiant of the were signed, but the capitalists declined their support. marshals of France, was shot as a traitor, 7 Dec. 1815. The scheme was revived in Feb. 1875 (see Panania and Loans). On 7 Dec. 1853, his statue was erected on the spot where Nice, or Nicæa, a town in Bithynia, Asia Minor, he fell.

N.W. Antigonus gave it the name Antigoneia, which After the abdication of Napoleon I., 5 April, 1814, Ney took Lysimachus changed to Nicæa, the name of his wife. It

the oath of allegiance to the king, Louis XVIII. On Napo. became the residence of the kings of Bithynia about 208 leon's return to France from Elba, he marched against him;

B.C. At the battle of Nice, A.D. 194, the emperor Serebut his troops deserting, he regarded the cause of the Bourbons as lost, and opened the invader's way to Paris, March, rus defeated his rival, Pescennius Niger, who was again 1815. Ney led the attack of the French at Waterloo, where defeated at Issus, and soon after taken prisoner and put he fought in the midst of the slain, his clothes pierced with to death, The first general council was held here 19 bullet-holes, live horses having been shot under him; night and defeat obliged him to fice. Though included in the de. June-25 Aug. 325, which adopted the NICENE CREED cree of 24 July, 1815, which guaranteed the safety of all and condemned the Arians. It was attended by 318 Frenchmen, he was sought out, and on 5 Aug. taken at the bishops from divers parts, who settled both the doctrine castle of a friend at Urillac, and brought to trial before the of the Trinity and the time for observing Easter. An Chamber of Peers, 4 Dec. The 12th article of the capitulation of Paris, fixing a general amnesty, was quoted in his fa. addition was made to the creed, 381, was rejected, 431 vor in vain.

(when it was decreed unlawful to make further addiNezib (Syria). Here Ibrahim and the Egyptians tions), but accepted, 451. When the Crusaders took defeated the Turks, 24 June, 1839.

Constantinople, and established a Latin empire there in Niagara (North America). At the head of this 1204, the Greek emperors removed to Nice, and reigned river, on the western shore, is Fort Erie, which was taken there till 1261, when they returned to Constantinople;

see Eustern Empire, Nice was taken by the Ottoman by the English, 24 July, 1759. It was abandoned in the

Turks in 1330. war with the United States, 27 May, 1813, but was retaken 19 Dec. following. A suspension-bridge of a sin

Nice (N. Italy) was the seat of a colony from Masgle span of 820 feet over the Niagara, connecting the silia, now Marseilles, and formed part of the Roman emrailways of Canada and New York, was opened in March, pire. In the middle ages it was subject to Genoa, and 1855. It is elevated 18 feet on the Canadian and 28 feet

* William Walker was born in Tennessee, in the United on the American side.

States, where he became successively doctor, lawyer, and About 18 miles below Fort Erie are the remarkable falls. The journalist, and afterwards gold seeker in California, whence

river is here 740 yards wide; the half-mile immediately he was invited to Nicaragua by Castellon, with the promise of above the cataracts is a rapid, in which the water falls 58 52,000 acres of land, on condition of bringing with him a band feet; it is then thrown, with astonishing grandeur, down a of adventurers to sustain the revolutionary cause. Walker stupendous precipice of 150 feet perpendicular, in three dis accepted the terms, and on 28 July landed at Realejo with 68 tinct and collateral sheets; and, in a rapid that extends to men.

He increased his forces at Leon, and soon after attacked the distance of nine miles below, falls nearly as much more. the town of Rivas, where he was repulsed with loss. He then The river then flows in a deep channel till it enters lake joined col. Kidney, who bad occupied and governed Grey Ontario at Fort Niagara.

Town), 6 Sept. On 13 Oct. Walker captured Grenada by sur. The falls visited by the prince of Wales, Sept. 1860.

prise when in a defenceless state, shot Mayorga, one of the Blondin crossed the falls on a tight-rope, 17 Aug. 1859.

ministers, and established a rule of terror. By intervenProfessor Tyndall visited the falls, Nov. 1872, and lectured on tion of the American consul he made peace with the general them at the Royal Institution, 4 April, 1873.

of the state army, Corral, but shot him on 7 Nov., on tinding him corresponding with fugitives at Costa Rica.

Walker at Niagara, Fort; taken from the French by the Eng- tirst was only general.in chief; but on Rivas, whom he had lish, 1759; garrisoned by Americans, 1812; bombarded made president, deserting him, he became sole dictator. from Fort George, 21 Nov. 1812; surprised and captured 14 May, 1856, his envoy Vijil was recognized by the president

of the United States, whence also he obtained reinforcements by a British force, 19 Dec. 1813.

during his retention of power. Costa Rica declared war against Nibelungenôt, or NIBELUNGEN- Lien, a popular him, 28 Feb. 1856; the other states of Central America soon German epic of the twelfth century, composed of various followed the example, and a sanguinary struggle ensued, last

ing till May, 1857. On 25 Nov. 1856, Walker totally burned ancient mythical poems, termed sagas, which, according Grenada, being unable to defend it, and removed the seat of to the poet William Morris, should be to our race what government to Rivas. This place he surrendered to gen. Homer was to the Greeks.

Mora on 1 May, 1857, on the intervention of capt, Davis, of the

St. Mary's, U.S. Himself, his staff, and 260 men were conThe first critical erlition, by K Lachmann, appeared 1826 and veyed in that vessel to New Orleans, where they were received

1846. The best translation in modern German, by Simrock, with great enthusiasm. On 25 Nov. 1857, he again invaded 1827; a useful edition, with translation and glossary, by L. Nicaragua, landing at Punta Arenas with 400 men; but on 8

Braunfels, 1846; in English, by W. N. Lettsom, 2d ed. 1874. Dec. was compelled to surrender to capt. Paulding, U. S., and Richard Wagner's musical dramas, “ The Ring of the Nibel- was conveyed to New York. He escaped punishment by nolle

ungen," are based on this poem: the persous include the prosequi (2 June, 1858); but capt. Paulding was tried for exgreat Northern gods and goddesses, the giants, the dwarfs, ceeding orders, and blamed --- yet excused by president Buand the daughters of the Rhine (see under Music).

chanan, On 5 Aug. 1860. Walker landed near T'ruxillo, Hondu.

ras, and took the fort on the 6th. On the oth he proclaimed that Nicæa, see Nice.

he made war on the government, not on the people of HonduNicaragua, a state in Central America (which see). ras. On being summoned to surrender his booty by capt.

Salmon, R.N., of the Icarus, he refused and fled. He was pur. The present constitution was established 19 Aug. 1858, sued, caughit, given up to the Honduras gorernment, tried, aud At the commencement of 1855 it was greatly disturbed shot (12 sept.). His followers were dismissed.

On a

suffered from the frequent wars, being taken and retaken Nihilism, a popular name for the school of philosoby the imperialists and French. It was taken by the phy which believes nothing without physical evidence, Austrians under Melas, 1800 ; seized and annexed to renounces all forms of divine revelation, and gives nothFrance, 1792; restored to Sardinia in 1814. Nice was ing in their place. again annexed to France in virtue of the treaty of 24 Nihilists, ultra-reformers in Russia said to propose March, 1860, the people having voted nearly unani- the destruction of all government and to begin society mously for this change by universal suffrage. The

afresh. They became known and spread in 1872; their French troops entered 1 April, and definite possession alleged leader, Zychareff. The government began to was taken 14 June following. Garibaldi, a native, ve- suppress them, Sept. 1875. One of the leaders, Michael hemently protested against this annexation. Popula- Bakounin, died at Lugano, 1 July, 1876. They evidenttion of the province in 1857, 256,593.

ly possess wealth, For recent events, see Russia, 1877Fire at the opera-house, and panic, about 160 killed, 81.

23 March, 1881

“ The Nihilists ask concessions, which are the commonplaces Nicias, PEACE OF, between Athens and Sparta for of every free community.”'_Times, 16 April, 1881. 50 years, 421 B.C., negotiated by that unfortunate Athe- Nika Contests, see Circus. nian general, who, with his colleague Demosthenes, was

Nikolsburg (Moravia). Here were signed, 26 put to death after the disastrous termination of the ex

July, 1866, the preliminaries of a peace between Austria pedition against Syracuse, 413 B.C.

and Prussia, Nickel, a white, ductile, malleable, magnetic metal,

Niksich, a strong Turkish fortress in Montenegro, employed in the manufacture of German silver. Cronstadt, in 1751, discovered nickel in the mineral copper with insufficient garrison, it was capt

many times besieged, having been left by the Turks

by Montewickel.

negrins, 7, 8 Sept. 1877, causing great rejoicings. Nicobar Isles, Indian ocean, S. of Bay of Bengal, given up by Denmark and occupied by Great Britain to

Nil Darpan, see India, June, 1861. suppress piracy; announced June, 1869.

Nile (Egypt). This great river rises in the MounNicolaitanes, a sect mentioned in Rev. ii. 6, 15, in a known course of 1250 miles receives no tributary

tains of the Moon, in about ten degrees of N. lat., and said to have sprung from Nicolas, one of the first seven

streams. The travels of Bruce were undertaken to disdeacons (Acts vi.), and to have advocated a community of wives, and to have denied the divinity of Christ.

cover the source of the Nile. He set out from England

in June, 1768; on 14 Nov. 1770 discovered the source of Nicomedia, the metropolis of Bithynia, Asia Minor, the Blue Nile; and returned home in 1773. This river N.W., founded by king Nicomedes I., 261 B.C., on the overflows regularly every year, from about 15 June remains of Astacus; destroyed by an earthquake, A.D. to 17 Sept., when, having given fertility to the land, 115; and restored by the emperor Adrian, 124. The Ro- it begins to decrease. It must rise 16 cubits to insure man emperors frequently resided here during their east- that fertility. The first Nilometer (a pillar) was set up ern wars. Here Diocletian resigned the purple, 305; and by Solymari the Caliph, 715. In 1829, the inundations Constantine died at his villa in its neighborhood, 337. of the Nile rose to 26 instead of 22, by which 30,000 It surrendered to the Seljukian Turks, 1078; and to Or- people were drowned and immense property lost. Mr. chan and the Ottoman Turks in 1338.

Petherick set out early in 1861 to explore the country Nicopolis, on the Danube, Bulgaria, founded by at the source of the Nile. For recent discoveries, see Trajan. Here was fought a battle between the allied Africa, 1863. A bridge over the Nile (above 1300 feet) Christian powers under Sigismund, king of Hungary, af- at Cairo was completed by a French company, Aug. 1872. terwards emperor, and the Turks under Bajazet; said to Nile, BATTLE OF THE (or Aboukir), 1 Aug. 1798, have been the first battle between the Turks and Chris- near Rosetta, between the French fleet under Brueys, tians; the latter were defeated, losing 20,000 slain, and and the British under sir Horatio Nelson. Nine of the as many wounded and prisoners, 28 Sept. 1396. Nicop- French line-of-battle ships were taken, two were burned, olis was taken by the Russians after a severe conflict (2 and two escaped. The French ship L'Orient, with Brueys pachas, about 6000 men, 2 monitors, and 40 guns were and 1000 men on board, blew up, and only 70 or 80 escaptured), 15, 16 July, 1877.

caped. Nelson's exclamation upon commencing the batNiello-work, believed to have been produced by tle was “ Victory or Westminster Abbey !" rubbing a mixture of silver, lead, copper, sulphur, and Nimeguen (Holland). Here was signed the treaty borax into engravings on silver, etc., an art known to of peace between France and the United Provinces, 1678. the ancients, was practised in the middle ages, and said The French were successful against the British under to have given to Maso Finiguerra the idea of engraving the duke of York, before Nimeguen, 28 Oct. 1794, were upon copper, about 1460.

defeated by them, 3 Nov.; but gained the place, 8 Nov. Niemen, or MEMEL, a river flowing into the Baltic, and separating Prussia from Russia. On a raft on this of totally different opinions; first appeared March, 1877;

Nineteenth century, a magazine open to writers river the emperor Napoleon met Alexander of Russia, 22

editor, James Knowles. June, 1807, and made peace with him and Prussia. He crossed the Niemen to invade Russia, 24 June, 1812, and

Ninety-six, SIEGE OF. In May, 1781, gen. Greene recrossed with the remains of his army, 28 Dec. Near commenced the siege of Fort Ninety-six, in Abbeville it the Poles defeated the Russians, 27 May, 1831.

District, South Carolina, with less than a thousand reg

ulars, and a few raw militia. The garrison was comNiger Expedition, see Africa, 1811.

manded by lieut.-col. Cruger, a New York loyalist. The Nightingale Fund. On 21 Oct. 1854, Miss Flor- siege continued from 22 May until 18 June, when an unence Nightingale left England with a staff of thirty-sev- successful attempt was made to take the works by storm. en nurses, and arrived at Scutari 5 Nov. She rendered The siege was raised on the following evening, and the invaluable services to the army, and returned to Lon- Americans retreated beyond the Saluda River. Greene don 8 Sept. 1856. In honor of this, a meeting was held lost 150 men during the siege. at Willis's Rooms on 29 Nov. 1855 to raise funds to establish an institution for the training of nurses and Assyria), founded by Ashur about 2245 B.C.

Nineveh, the capital of the Assyrian empire (see

Ninus other hospital attendants. Madame Jenny Lind-Gold- reigned in Assyria, and named this city Nineveh, 2069 schmidt sang at Exeter Hall on 11 March, 1856, and B.C.-Abbé Lenglet. Jonah preached against Nineveh gave the proceeds (18727.) to the fund. The subscrip- (about 862 1.c.), which was taken by Nebuchadnezzar, tions closed 24 April, 1857, amounting to 44,0391. The

606 B.C.

The discoveries of Layard and others since queen gave Miss Nightingale a valuable jewel

.

1839, in the neighborhood of Mosul, at Kovunjik, the Nigritia, see Soudun,

site of the ancient Nineveh, and other places, have in a

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manner disinterred and repeopled a city which for cen- | in 1847, is produced by adding glycerine (in successive turies had ceased to figure on the page of history. Botta small quantities) to a mixture of one part of nitric acid commenced his explorations at Khorsabad in 1843, and and two parts of sulphuric acid. Alfred Nobel, a Swede, published his great work, “Monuments de Ninive,” first attempted its application as an explosive agent in 1849–50. In 1848 Mr. Layard published his “Nineveh 1864. It has caused several most disastrous accidents, and its Remains," and in 1853 his “Discoveries,” in his with great loss of life. In attempting to bury some second visit in 1849-50. Mr. Hormusd Rassam, in 1854, nitro-glycerine in the town moor at Newcastle-ondiscovered an ancient palace. Mr. George Smith de- Tyne, 17 Dec. 1867, an explosion took place, and seven scribed his excavations and their results in 1873-4, in persons lost their lives, including Mr. Mawson, the “ Assyrian Discoveries,” 1875. He died at Aleppo, 19 sheriff, and Mr. Bryson, town surveyor; see Dynamite. Aug. 1876; see Assyria. Mr. Rassam, appointed his Mr. Alfred Nobel's nitro-glycerine manufactory, near successor, among other valuable discoveries at Balawât, Stockholm, blown up—15 persons killed, many injured mine miles N.E. of Nimroud, and at Koyunjik, etc., found 1–10 June, 1868. An act prohibiting its importation for a bronze monument with inscriptions recording the names, a time, and regulating its transmission, was passed in title, genealogy, and exploits of king Assur-nazir -pal 1869; see Explosives. (B.C. 885-860), builder of the palaces and temples of Nizam, see Hyderabad. Kalakh, the capital of the middle Assyrian empire.

Nobility. The Goths, after they had seized a part The forms, features, costume, religion, modes of warsare, and of Europe, rewarded their heroes with titles of honor to

ceremonial customs of its inhabitants stand before us as distinct as those of a living people; and by help of the sculpt distinguish them from the common people. The right ures and their cunciformn inscriptions, ihe researches of the of peerage seems to have been at first territorial. Patlearned have increased the knowledge of Assyrian history. ents to persons having no estate were first granted by Among the sculptures that enrich the British Museum may Philip the Fair of France, 1095. George Neville, duke be mentioned the winged bull and lion, and numerous hunt. ing and battle pieces; and the bass-relief of the eagle-headed of Bedford (son of John, marquess of Montague), enhuman figure, presumed to be a representation of the As nobled in 1470, was degraded from the peerage by parsyrian god Nisroch (from Nisr, an eagle or hawk ), whom liament, on account of his utter want of property, 19 Sennacherib was in the act of worshipping when he was as.

Edw. IV., 1478. Noblemen's privileges were restrained sassinated by his two sons, about 710 B.C. (2 Kings xix. 37).

in June, 1773; see Lords, and the various orders of the Niobium, a rare metal, discovered by Hatchett in

nobility. columbite, a black earth, and named columbium, 1801.

In 1845 a statistical writer said that there were 500,000 nobles It was pronounced to be identical with tantalum by Wol

in Russia, 239,000 in Austria; in Spain (in 1780), 470,000; laston; but was rediscovered by H. Rose in 1846, and in France (before 1790), 360,000 (of whom 4120 were of the named niobium.

ancienne noblesse); in the United Kingdom, 1631 with trans

missible titles (dukes to baronets). Nirvana, see Buddhism.

Nobility of FRANCE preceded that of England. et, or Nesbit (Northumberland). Here a bat- On 18 June, 1790, the National Assembly decreed that tle was fought between the English and Scotch armies, hereditary nobility could not exist in a free state; that the latter greatly disproportioned in strength to the for- the titles of dukes, counts, marquises, knights, barons,

Several thousands of the Scots were slain upon excellencies, abbots, and others be abolished; that all the field and in the pursuit, 7 May, 1402.

citizens take their family names; liveries and armorial Nisi Prius (" unless before "), words in a writ sum- bearings also to be abolished. The records of the nobilmoning a person to be tried at Westminster, unless the ity, 600 volumes, were burned at the foot of the statue judges should come to hold their assizes in the place of Louis XIV., 25 June, 1792. A new nobility was crewhere he is. Judges sit in Middlesex by virtue of 18 ated by the emperor Napoleon I., 1808. The hereditary Eliz. c. 12 (1576).

peerage was abolished 27 Dec. 1831 ; reinstituted by NaNismes (Nîmes), S. France, was the flourishing Ro- poleon III., 1852. man colony Nemausus. Its noble amphitheatre was Noble, an English gold coin (value 6s. 8d.), first injured by the English in 1417. The inhabitants em- struck in the reign of Edward III., 1343 or 1344, said to braced Protestantism, and suffered much persecution in have derived its name from the excellence of the metal consequence; and Nismes has frequently been the scene of which it was composed. of religious and political contests. The treaty termed the Pacification of Nismes (14 July, 1629) gave religious 1837) to a new and very pleasing musical composition,

Nocturne, a name given by John Field (who died toleration for a time to the Huguenots.

He was followed very successfully by Chopin, who died Nitre, see Salt petre.

1819. The term was adopted by Mr. Whistler, the Nitric Acid, a compound of nitrogen and oxygen, artist, for his night pieces, in which he began with line, formerly called aqua fortis, first obtained in a separate form, and color, 1877-8. state by Raymond Lully, an alchemist, about 1287; but

“Nolumus Leges Angliæ Mutari," see Baswe are indebted to Cavendish, Priestley, and Lavoisier

tards and Merton, for our present knowledge of its properties. H. Caven

Nominalists (or CONCEPTUALISTS), a scholastic dish demonstrated the nature of this acid in 1785. Nitrous acid was discovered by Scheele about 1774. Ni- sect, opposed to the Realists, maintain that general ideas trous gas was accidentally discovered by Dr. Hales. have no existence outside our minds, and only exist by

the names we give them. The founder of the sect, Jean Nitrous-oxide gas (laughing-gas) was discovered by Dr. Priestley in 1776. The use of this gas as an anæsthetic Roscellin, a canon of Compiègne, was condemned by a began in America in 1864; at Paris, 1866; in London, vived in the twelfth century. Among the Nominalists are

council at Soissons, 1092, but the controversy was re31 March, 1868, ingenious apparatus having been in- reckoned Abelard, St. Thomas Aquinas (partially), Ocvented for its application.

cam, Hobbes, Locke, Berkeley, and Dugald Stewart. Nitrogen, or Azore (from the Greek a, no, and Saw The Realists assert that general ideas are real things or Św, I live), an irrespirable elementary gas, and an im- with positive existence. portant element in food, discovered by Rutherford about

Nonconformists. The Protestants in England 1772. Before 1777, Scheele separated the oxygen of the are divided into conformists and nonconformists, or air from the nitrogen, and almost simultaneously with churchmen and dissenters. The first place of meeting Lavoisier discovered that the atmosphere is a mixture of the latter in England was established at Wandsworth, of these two gases. Nitrogen combined with hydrogen near London, 20 Nov. 1572. The name of nonconformforms the volatile alkali ammonia so freely given off by ists was taken by the Puritans when the Act of Unidecomposing animal and vegetable bodies.

formity came into operation on 24 Aug. 1662 (termet Nitro-glycerine (also called NITROLEUM), an in- “Black Bartholomew's day "), when 2000 ministre tensely explosive amber-like fluid, discovered by Sobrerol the established religion resigned, not chelt

DUKES.

form to the statute passed " for the uniformity of public the seventh duke, acquired England, in 1066. It reprayers and administration of the sacraments; see Puri- mained a province of England till the reign of king tans and Dissenters. The laws against them were re- John, 1204, when it was reunited to France. It was relaxed by the Toleration act, 24 May, 1689.— The Non- conquered by Henry V., 1418, and held by England parconformist newspaper (edited by Mr. Edward Miall, since tially till 1450. The English still possess the islands M.P.) first appeared 14 April, 1841. He died 29 April, on the coast, of which Jersey and Guernsey are the prin. 1881.

cipal. The nonconformists presented to Mr. Miall 10,000 guineas for his exertions on behalf of religious equal

912. Rollo (or Raoul), baptized as Robert. ity

.18 July, 1873

927. William I. Longsword.

943. Richard I. the Fearless. Meeting of bishops and dissenting ministers at Lambeih palace to consider the alleged progress of irreligious

996. Richard II, the Good. thought...

.......24 July, 1876 1027. Richard III.

1028. Robert I. the Devil. Nones, in the Roman calendar, were the fifth day of 1035. William II. (I. of England). each montb, excepting March, May, July, and October, 1087. Robert II., Courthose (his son), after a contest despoiled

by his brother when the nones fell on the seventh day,

1106. Henry I. (king of England). Nonjurors considered James II. to have been un- 1135. Stephen (king of England) justly deposed, and refused to swear allegiance to Will. 1151. Henry II. (king of England in 1154). iam III. in 1689. Among them were Sancrost, archbish- 1189. Richard IV. (1. of England). op of Canterbury; Ken, bishop of Bath and Wells; and 1199-1204. Arthur and John of England. the bishops of Ely, Gloucester, Norwich, and Peterbor

North Administration, formed by lord North, ough, and many of the clergy, who were deprived 1 Feb. Jan. 1770, who resigned March, 1782. (Lord North en1691. Nonjurors were subjected to double taxation, and tered into a league with the Whigs, which led to the obliged to register their estates, May, 1723. They formed short-lived Coalition ministry, 1783. He succeeded to a separate communion, which existed till the beginning the earldom of Guildford in 1790, and died in 1792 ; see of the present century.

Coalition.) Non Nobis, Domine! (“Not unto us, O Lord!" Frederick, lord North, first lord of the treasury and chancellor etc., Psa. cxv. 1), a musical canon, sung as a grace at of the exchequer. public feasts, was composed by W. Lirde in 1618.

Earl Gower, lord president.

Earl of Halifax, priry seal. Non-resistance Oath (containing a declaration Earl of Rochford, lord Weymouth (succeeded by lord Sandthat it is unlawful to take arms against the king upon Sir Edward Hawke, admiralty.

wich) and earl of Hillsborough, secretaries of state. any pretence whatever), enforced by the Corporation act, Marquess of Granby, ordnance. 1661, was repealed in 1719.

Sir Gilbert Elliot, lord Hertford, duke of Ancaster, lord CarteNootka Sound (Vancouver's Island), discovered

ret, etc. by capt. Cook in 1778, and settled by the British in 1786, Northallerton (Yorkshire). Near here was fought when a few British merchants in the East Indies formed the “ battle of the Standard," where the English totally a settlement to supply the Chinese market with furs; defeated the Scotch armies, 22 Aug. 1138. The archbut the Spaniards, in 1789, captured two English vessels bishop of York brought forth a consecrated standard on and took possession of the settlement. The British min- a carriage at the moment when they were hotly pressed istry demanded reparation, and the affair was amicably by the invaders, headed by king David. terminated by a convention, and a free commerce was

North America, see America, United States, Inconfirmed to England in 1790.

dians, Canada, etc. "No-popery Riots," see Gordon. The cry was North American Review began at Boston, revived against the Catholic Emancipation bill, 1829. U.S., in 1815, as a rival of the Edinburgh and Quarterly

Nordlingen (Bavaria). Here the Swedes under Reviews. It was published at first every second month; count Horn were defeated by the Austrians, 27 Aug. in 1818, quarterly; in 1879, monthly, at New York. 1631; and the Austrians and allies by Turenne in 1645.

Northampton was burned by the Danes in 1010. Nore Mutiny, see Mutinies.

Here Henry III. proposed to found a university in 1260, Norfolk Island (Pacific ocean), discovered in and held a parliament in 1269. On 10 July, 1460, a 1774, by capt. Cook, who found it uninhabited, except conflict took place between the duke of York and Henry by birds. The settlement was made by a detachment VI. of England, in which the king was defeated, and from Port Jackson under governor Phillip, in 1788, in made prisoner (the second time) after a sanguinary tight Sydney bay, on the south side of the island. This which took place in the meadows below the town. Northwas at one time the severest penal colony of Great Brit- ampton was ravaged by the plague in 1637. It was seized ain. The island was abandoned in 1809, but reoccupied and fortified by the parliamentary forces in 1642. A fire as a penal settlement in 1825. The descendants of the nearly destroyed the town, 3 Sept. 1675. Riots here bemutineers of the Bounty were removed to it in June, cause Mr. C. Bradlaugh was not elected M.P., 6 Oct. 1874, 1856, from Pitcair's Island (which see).

were suppressed by the military. Noricum, see Austria.

North Briton, a newspaper, first published 29 May, Normal Schools (from norma, a rule). One for 1762, supported by John Wilkes, M.P. for Aylesbury, and the instruction of teachers established at Paris by a law, a London alderman, and very bitter against the earl of 30 Oct. 1794, opened 20 Jan. 1795, under the direction of Bute's administration, accusing him of unduly favoring La Place, La Harpe, Haüy, and other eminent men, was

the Scotch. soon closed. Another, established by Napoleon in 1808, In No. 45 (termed "Wilkes's number"), the king was was closed in 1822. The plan was revived in 1826, and

charged with uttering falsehood in his speech; pub. lished......

. 23 April, 1763 has been developed in England and other countries. "General warrant” issued by lord Halifax against the

Normandy (N. France), part of Neustria, a king- authors, printers, and publishers.... 26 April, dom founded by Clovis in 511 for his son Clotaire, Wilkes and others arrestod and committed to the Tower,

.30 April, which, after various changes, was united to France by Brought by writ of babeas corpus before chief justice Charles the Bald in 837. From the beginning of the Pratt, and discharged, his arrest being regarded as il. ninth century it was continually devastated by the Scan- 3001. damages granted to a printer for false imprison

.6 May, dinavians, termed Northmen or Normans, to purchase

.6 July, repose from whose irruptions Charles the Simple of No. 45 declared to be " a scandalous and seditious libelas France ceded the duchy to their leader Rollo, 905. Rollo,

by parliament, and ordered to be burned by the hangthe first duke, held it as a fief of the crown of France, Riot at the burning in Cheapside..

.......15 Nov. and several of his successors after him, until William, 1 "General warrants" declared illegal by chief.justice

ment

man...

3 Dec.

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