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Pratt; 10001. damages awarded to Wilkes for seizure the monument in Waterloo place is inscribed: “To of his papers...

.......6 Dec. 1763 Franklin and his brave companions, who sacrificed 40001. dainages obtained by Wilkes in an action against their lives in completing the discovery of the northwest lord Halifax...

..10 Nov. 1769 passage, A. D. 1847-8." Lady Franklin received a medal Wilkes elected lord mayor, 8 Oct.; elected fifth time from the Royal Geographical Society.) M. P. for Middlesex..

Oct. 1774 Commanders Collinson and M.Clure, in the Enterprise Allowed to take his seat.

..Jan. 1775 and Investigator, sailed eastward in search of sir John Elected chamberlain of London, 1779; died.....26 Nov. 1797 Franklin I..

..20 Jan. 1850

A northwest passage discovered by capt. M'Clure. 26 Oct. North Carolina, North German, see Carolina, A German Arctic expedition (the Germania and the German.

Hansa) sailed 15 June; arrived at Pendulum bay,

Greenland, 18 July, 1869; the vessels parted; the GerNortheast and Northwest Passages. The

mania arrived at Bremen, 11 Sept. 1870; the Hansa attempt to discover a northwest passage was made by was frozen and sank, Oct. 1869; the crew escaped with a Portuguese named Corte Real, about 1500. In 1585, a Norwegian Arctic expedition sailed in the spring..., 1872

provisions, and reached Copenbagen..... 1 Sept. 1870 a company was formed in London called the “Fellow- A Swedish expedition under prof. Nordenskjöld sailed ship for the Discovery of the Northwest Passage.” From from Trömso, 21 July, 1872; unsuccessful; returned 1743 to 1818 parliament offered 20,0001, for this discovery.

in summer of .

1873 In 1818 the reward was modified by proposing that 50001. Capt. Hall sailed from New York in the U.S. ship Polaris,

29 June, 1871; frozen in, Sept.; died, 8 Nov. After should be paid when either 110°, 120°, or 130° W. long. much suffering, the crew reached Newfoundland, about should be passed; one of which payments was made to

half of them having floated for six months on an icesir E. Parry. For their labors in the voyages enumerated Mr. B. Leigh Smith sailed to lat. 81° 24', and discovered


....9 May, in the list below, Parry, Franklin, Ross, Back, and Rich

land to the N. E. of Spitzbergen, 1871; in other voyages ardson were knighted.

he discovered undercurrents of warm water flowing into

the Polar basin; he relieved the Swedish expedition. 1872-3 Sebastian Cabot's voyages to the Arctic regions....1498, 1517

An Austro-Hungarian expedition in the Admiral Te. Sir Hugh Willoughby and Richard Chancellor's expedi- gethoff, and the Isbörjnen, under Weyprecht and Pay. tion to find a northeast passage to China, in the Ell

er, sailed from Trömso, in Norway, 14 July, 1872; the ward Bonaventura, Bona Esperanza, and Bona Confi- ships parted company, and the Tegethoff sailed northdentia, sailed from the Thames.....

. 20 May, 1553 ward and discovered Franz-Joseph Land, 31 Aug. 1873; Richard Chancellor, in the Edward, reached Archangel frozen in, abandoned ship, May, 1874; reached Vardoe, and Moscow; the rest perished off the coast of Lap

Norway, by sledges, 3 Sept.; arrived at Vienna. 25 Sept. 1874 land, about..

1554 Mr. Disraeli consents to a new British Arctic expedition, Sir Martin Frobisher's attempt to find a northwest pas- 17 Nov. 1874; 38,6201. voted for the expedition 5 March, 1875 sage to China...

1576 Capt. G. S. Nares, of the Challenger, appointed to comCapt. Davis's expeditions to find a northwest passage. 1585-6-7 mand the Alert, and capt. H. F. Stephenson to comBarentz's Dutch expeditions (by N. E.).

1594-5 mand the Discovery. Waymouth and Knight's expedition..

1602 Telegram from the qucen to capt. Nares before starting: Hudson's voyages (see Hudson's Bay).

1607-10 "I earnestly wish you and your gallant companions Sir Thomas Button's....

1612 every success, and I trust that you may safely accomBaftin's (see Baffin's Bay).

1616 plish the important dity you have so bravely under Foxe's expedition..


taken." [A number of enterprises, undertaken by various In the reply, “Her majesty may depend on all doing countries, followed.]

their duty." Behring's voyages..

.1728, 1729, 1741 The ships sailed from Portsmouth 29 May, 1875; deMiddleton's expedition

1742 spatches received from Disco (all well).......15 July, Moore's and Smith's.

1746 Alert (on return) arrived at Valentia, 27 Oct.; the Dis. Hearne's land expedition.

1769 covery at Queenstown, 29 Oct.; at Portsmouth.. 2 Nov. 1876 Capt. Phipps, afterwards lord Mulgrave, his expedition., 1773 Results. Sledges reached 83° 20'26', 12 May, 1876; Capt. Cook, in the Resolution and Discovery.......July, 1776 passage to the Pole declared to be impracticable; no Mackenzie's expedition...


signs of open Polar sea; ships wintered 82° 87' lat. ; Capt. Duncan's voyage.

1790 sun absent 142 days; no Esquimaux beyond 81° 62'. The Discovery, capt. Vancouver, returned from a voyage Out of 120 persons 4 deaths (1 frost-bitten, 3 scurvy); of survey and discovery on the northwest coast of

greatest cold, 72° minus zero; extremest N. point America...

..Sept. 1795 reached by Markham named Cape Columbia, Lieut. Kotzebue's expedition...

Oct. 1815 Cost of the expedition, 120,000L. Capt. Ross and lieut, Parry in the Isabella and Aleran- Expedition of capt. Allen Young in the Pandora (aided der..


by lady Franklin), sailed 25 June; returned 19 Oct. Capt. Buchan and lieut. Franklin's expedition in the 1875; sailed again, 2 June; returned. .......31 Oct. Dorothea and Trent..

Dutch expedition sailed from Holland

.. April, 1878 Franklin's second expedition..

1819-22 The Voyage” published by capt. Nares Lieuts. Parry and Liddon, in the Hecla and Griper,

Mr. James Gordon Bennett's expedition; lieut. De Long 4 May, 1819 sailed in yacht Jeannette ....

..8 July, 1879 They return to Leith....

.3 Nov. 1820 Dutch exploring espedition in Willem Barentz, sailed for Capis. Parry and Lyon in Fury and Hecla....8 May, 1821-23

Arctic Ocean, 6 May; successful; returned to HammerParry's third expedition with the llecla... .....8 May, 1824

fest, Norway

..24 Sept. Capts. Franklin * and Lyon, after having attempted a Another expedition in Vega, under prof. Nordenskjöld, land expedition, again sail from Liverpool.... 16 Feb. 1825

started 4 July, 1878; at Port Dickson on the Yenisei, Capt. Parry * again in the Hecla, sails from Deptford, 6 Aug ; at the mouth of Lena, 27 Aug. ; at Yakutsk,

and reaches a spot 435 miles from the North Pole, 22 22 Sept. ; imprisoned in ice near Tschuctshe settle June; returns.

.6 Oct. 1827 ment, 28 Sept. 1878-18 July, 1879; passed East Cape, Capt. Ross * arrived at Hull, on his return from his Arc

Behring's strait; entered St. Lawrence bay, in Pacific lic expedition, after an absence of four years, and when

ocean, 20 July; reached Yokohama. ......2 Sept. all hope of his return had been nearly abandoned,

The NORTHEAST PASSAGE from the Atlantic to the Pacific

18 Oct, 1833 Capt. Back and his companions arrived at Liverpool from their perilous Arctic land expedition (1833), after hav.

* Capt. M'Clure sailed in the Investigator in company with ing visited the Great Fish river and examined its course

com. Collinson in the Enterprise in scarch of sir Jobn Frank to the Polar seas..

....8 Sept. 1835 lin, 20 Jan. 1850. On 6 Sept. he discovered high land, which Capt. Back sailed from Chatham in command of his

he named Baring's land; on the 9th, other land, which he majesty's ship Terror, on an exploring adventure to named after prince Albert; on the 30th the ship was frozen Wager river....:

21 June, 1836 in. Entertaining a strong conviction that the waters in which [The Geographical Society awarded the king's annual

the Investigator then lay communicated with Barrow's strait, premium to capt. Back for his Polar discoveries and

he set out on 21 Och, with a few men in his sledge, to test his enterprise, Dec. 1835.)

views On 26 Oct. he reached Point Russell (73° 31' N. lat., Sir John Franklin, and capts. Crozier and Fitzjames, in

114° 14' W. long.), where from an elevation of 600 feet he saw the ships Erebus and Terror, leave England (see Frank- Parry or Melville sound beneath them. The strait connect. lin):

... 24 May, 1845 ing the Atlantic and Pacific oceans he named after the prince [The NORTHWEST PASSAGE was discovered by sir John

of Wales. The Investigator was the first ship which traversed Franklin and his companions, who sa led down Peel

the Polar sea from Behring's strait to Behring island. Inand Victoria strait, since named Franklin strait On telligence of this discovery was brought to England by com.

Inglefield, and the Admiralty chart was published 14 Oct. Sir John Franklin died 11 June, 1847 (see Franklin); sır 1853. Capt. M'Clure returned to England, Sept. 1854. In E. Parry died 8 July, 1855, aged 65; and sir John Ross died 30 1855, 50001. were paid to capt. (afterwards sir Robert) M-Clure, Aug. 1866, aged 80.

and 50001. were distr.buted among the oflicers and crew. On f In 1830 he discovered Boothia Felix; on 1 June, 1831, his 30 Jan. 1855, the Admiralty notified that the Arctic medal nephew, com. James Clark Ross, discovered the magnetic would be given to all persons engaged in the expedit.ons from borth pole, in 70° 5' 17" N. lat., and 96° 46' 45' W. long. 1818 to 1855.


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is thus accomplished; chiefly at the expense of Mr. Magnus becomes king of Denmark, 1036; dies........ 1047
Oscar Dickson, a merchant of Gothenburg.. ...1878-9 Harold Hardrada, king of Norway
Mr. B. Leigh Simith's successful expedition to the North Invades England; defeated and slain by Harold II. at
Pole, in his yacht Eira, from and to Peterhead,

Stanford bridge..

.25 Sept. 1066 22 June-12 Oct. 1880 Olaf III. and Magnus II. (sons), kings, 25 Sept. 1066; Olaf (Charts of the latest discoveries are published in Pe. alone (pacific). .

1069-93 termann's “ Mittheilungen der Geographie."]

Olaf III. founds Bergen..

1070 The ship Corwin sailed from San Francisco on an Arctic Magnus III. (Barefoot), son of Olaf.

1093 voyage in search of the Jeannette and missing wbalers, Invades the Orkneys and Scotland..

1096 4 May, 1881 | Killed in Ireland....

1103 The Corwin returned to Sitka.

..3 June, 1882 Sigurd I., Eystein II., and Olaf IV. (sons).. The ship Rodgers sailed from the same port on a like Sigurd visits the Holy Land as a warrior pilgrim 1107-10 mission... ..June, 1881 Becomes sole king, 1122; dies....

1130 The Rodgers burned at sea..

.....3 Nov. Magnus IV. (his son) and Harold IV... (Crew escaped in boats. )

Magnus dethroned. .

1134 Jeannette crushed by ice 23 June, 1881; two of her three Harold IV. murdered; succeeded by his sons, Sigurd II., boats arrive at mouth of Lena river, Siberia, 19 Sept.

etc.; civil war rages,

1136 1881. First news of them received 21 Dec. 1881. Nicolas Breakspear (afterwards pope Adrian IV.), the Search for the crew of the missing boat (which was papal legate, arrives, reconciles the brothers, and commanded by lieut.-commander De Long, chief of founds the archbishopric of Trondheim..

1152 the expedition) was begun at once, under orders from Numerous competitors for the crown; civil war; Inge I., the United States and Russian governments. Tidings Eystein III., Hako III., Magnus V..

1136-62 received, 2 Feb. 1882, that the missing party had been Magnus V. alone..

1162 traced to a forest in Siberia on the west bank of the Rise of Swerro, an able adventurer, who becomes king; Lena river, and hope was felt that they would be Magnus defeated; drowned

1186 found and rescued. After a prolonged search, how. Swerro rules vigorously; dies.

1202 ever, engineer Melville found the bodies of De Long Hako, his son, king, 1202; Guthrum, 1204; Inge II.. 1205 and bis party, 24 March; news received.......6 May, 1882 Hako IV., bastard son of Swerro

1207 For other Arctic voyages, see Franklin.

Unsuccessfully invades Scotland, where he dies

1263 Northmen, or Norsemen, see Scundinaria and Erie II., the priest-bater, marries Margaret of Scotland;

Magnus VI., his son (the legislator), dies..

1280 Normandy.

their daughter, the Maid of Norway, becomes heiress North-sea Canal, connecting the sea with Am-Hako V., his brother, king

to the crown of Scotland...


.1299-1319 sterdam; opened by the king of Holland, 1 Nov. 1876.

Decline of Norwegian prosperity. Northumberland Avenue, London. The new Magnus VII. (III. of Sweden), king.

1319-43 Hako VI...

1343-0 street opened 18 March, 1876.

Olaf V. of Norway (II. of Denmark)..

10SU-S7 Northumberland House, Strand, London; built Norway united with Denmark and Sweden under Mar. on the site of a hospital, dedicated to the Virgin by At an assembly at Calmar the three states are formally


1389 Henry Howard, earl of Northampton, was finished 1605;


1397 named Suffolk House by his nephew, Thomas, earl of Sweden and Norway separated from Denmark, 1418; reSuffolk; and received its present name from his descend


110 ant, Elizabeth, marrying Algernon, earl of Northumber-Christiania, the modern capital, built by Christian IV

Denmark and Norway separated from Sweden.


1024 land, by whom it was partially rebuilt.

Norway given to Sweden by the treaty of Kiel; PomeraThe house was purchased by the Metropolitan Board of

nia and Rugen annexed to Denmark..

14 Jan. 1814 Works; 497,0001. being paid for it, June. The lion (set The Norwegians declare their independence ....17 May, up 1749) taken down 3 July, to be put up at Sion

The Swedish troops enter Norway...

16 July, House; and the house solil for building inaterials and

Charles Frederic, duke of Holstein, elected king of Nor. pulled down during the autumn.... 1874

10 Oct. way; abdicates

Charles XIII. of Sweden proclaimed k ng by the National Northumbria, a Saxon kingdom, founded by Ida, Diet (Storthing) assembled at Christian a; he accepted 547; see under Britain.

the constitution which declares Norway a free, inde.

pendent, indivisible, and inalienable state, united to Northwestern Provinces of India; lieut.-gov- Sweden.

4 Nov. ernor, hon. sir George E. W. Couper in 1880.

Nobility abolished.

1821 Norway, until the seventh century, was governed The national order of St Olaf instituted by king Oscar I. 1847

Millennial festival of the establishment of the kingilom by petty rulers. About 630, Olaf Trætelia, of the race

kept ....

18 July, 1872 of Odin termed Ynglings, or youths, expelled from Swe- King Oscar II crowned at Drontheim ..17 July, 1873 den, established a colony in Vermeland, the nucleus of a

Statue of Charles John XIV. unveiled at Christiania,

7 Sept. 1875 monarchy, founded by his descendant, Halldan III. the

(See Denmark and Sweden) Black, a great warrior and legislator, whose memory was long revered. Population, 1875, 1,807,555.

Norwich (Norfolk), mentioned in history in the

Saxon Chronicle at the period when Sweyn, king of Olaf Trætelia, 630; slain by his subjects...

640 Halfdan I., 610; Eystein I., 700; Halfdan II., 730; Gud.

Denmark, destroyed it by tire, 1004. rod, 784; Olaf Geirstade and Halfdan III.

824 Artisans from the Low Countries establish here the man. Halfdan recovers his inheritance from his brother, whom

ufacture of baizes, etc....

.. about 1132 he subdues, together with the neighboring chiefs, 840; Cathedral first erected in 1088, by bishop Herbert Losin. accidentally drowned...

803 ga; completed by bishop Middleton.. ..... about 1280 The chiefs regain their power during the youth of his A great plague..

1318 son. Harold Harfager, or fair haired, who vows nei. Church of the Blackfriars, now St. Andrew's hall, erected 1415 ther to cut nor comb his hair till he recovers his do- Norwich nearly consumed by tire

1505 minion 865 Public library instituted

1784 He defeats his enemies at Hafstiord, 872; dies...

934 Norwich new canal and harbor were opened.....3 June, 1831 Eric I. (the bloody axo), his sou, a tyrant, expelled, and Church congress met..

3-7 Oct. 1865 succeeded by

The musical festival was attended by the prince of Wales, Hako (the Good), 940; he endeavors in vain to establish

31 Oct. 1866 Christianity; dies ...,

963 Norwich and Norfolk Industrial Exhibition opened in Harold II., Graafeld, son of Eric, succeeds.

St. Andrew's hall...

Aug. 1867 Killed in battle with Harold of Denmark.

977 British Association met here..

20-26 Aug. 1868 Hako Jarl, made governor of several provinces; becomes Norfolk and Norwich Naturalists' Society founded ..... 1869

king, 977; his licentiousness leads to his ruin; deposed Mutilated remains of a human body discovered near by Olaf I., Trygvason; and slain by his slave..

995 Norwich, 21-25 June, 1851; William Sherward, a pub. Olaf I., 995; establishes Christianity by force and cru

lican of the place, confessed that they were the reelty...


mains of his wife murdered by him, 1 Jan. 1869; he Defeated and slain, during an expedition against Pome. recanted, but was tried and condemned, and executed rania, by the kings of Denmark and Sweden, who di

20 April, vide Norway between them..

1000 Norwich crown bank stopped; much distress occasioned; Olaf II., the Saint (his son), lands in Norway

1012 sir Robert H. J. Harvey, the chief partner, commits Defeats his enemies and becomes king,

1015 suicide; died

.......19 July, 1870 Fiercely zealous in the diffusion of Christianity 1018-21 Election commission; much corruption disclosed, Successful invasion of Canuto, who becomes king.....1028-9

Aug. -Sept. 1875 Olaf expelled; returns and is killed in battle..

1030 Writ for election of M.P. suspended till dissolution of Sweyn, at the death of Canute, succeeds as king of Nor- parliament, by act passed...

. 15 Aug. 1879 way, but is expelled in favor of Magnus I., bastard son National lisheries exhibition (opened by the prince of of Olaf 11...

1035 Wales)..

..18-30 April, 1881

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Norwich, BishoPRIC of, originally East Anglia ; | A gentleman gives 10,0001. to educate the working

classes... the first bishop was Felix, a Burgundian, sent to convert University College buildings founded.

.Jan. 1875

...27 Sept. 1877 the East Anglians about 630. The see was divided into Midland Counties Art Museum opened by the prince of two distinct bishoprics-Elmham, in Norfolk, and Dun- Wales...

.3 July, 1878 wich, in Suffolk, about 673. Both sees suffered extreme

Free public library opened by prince Leopold, duke of

.30 June, 1881 ly from the Danish invasions, insomuch that after the death of St. Humbert they lay vacant for a hundred Novara (N.W. Italy). Near this town the Austrian years. At last the see of Elmham was revived, and marshal Radetzky totally defeated the king Charles AlDunwich was united to it; but Arfastus removed the bert and the Sardinian army, 23 March, 1849. The conseat to Thetford, where it continued till Herbert Losinga test began at 10 A.M., and lasted till late in the evening; removed it to Norwich 1094. This see has given to the the Austrians lost 396 killed, and had about 1850 woundchurch of Rome two saints; and to the nation five lord ed; the Sardinians lost between 3000 and 4000 men, 27 chancellors. It was valued in the king's books at 8991. cannons, and 3000 prisoners. The king soon after abdi188. 71d. per annum. Present income, 4500l.; see Bish- cated in favor of his son Victor Emmanuel. oprics.

Nova Scotia (North America) was discovered by RECENT BISHOPS OF NORWICH.

Cabot, 1497 ; visited by Verrazzani, 1524, and named Aca1790. George Horne; died 17 Jan. 1792. 1792. Charles Manners Sutton; translated to Canterbury, 1 dia ; settled in 1622, by the Scotch under sir William Feb. 1805.

Alexander, in the reign of James I. of England, from 1805. Henry Bathurst; died 5 April, 1837. He was a strenu. whom it received the name of Nova Scotia. Since its

ous supporter of Catholic emancipation, and for a long first settlement it has more than once changed proprie

time the only liberal bishop in the house of peers. 1837. Edward Stanley; died 6 Sept. 1849.

tors, and was not confirmed to England till the peace of 1849. Samuel Hinds; resigned 1857.

Utrecht, in 1713. It was taken in 1745 and 1758; but 1857. Hon. John T. Pelham, May.

was again confirmed to England in 1763. Nova Scotia Notables, French assemblies of nobles, bishops, was divided into two provinces in 1784, and was erected knights, and lawyers. An assembly of the notables was into a bishopric in Aug. 1787. King's College, Windsor, convened by the duke of Guise, 20 Aug. 1560, and by was founded in 1788; see Baronets. Gold was found in other statesmen. Calonne, the minister of Louis XVI., Nova Scotia in 1861. By an act passed 29 March, 1867, summoned one which met on 22 Feb. 1787, on account Nova Scotia and New Brunswick were united with Canof the deranged state of the king's finances, and again in ada for legislative purposes. On the agitation for se1788, when he opened his plan; but as any reform mili- cession Mr. John Bright presented a petition in the comtated too much against private interest to be adopted, mons 15 May; his motion for a royal commission of Calonne was dismissed, and soon after retired to Eng- inquiry negatived 16 June, 1868. The agitation soon subland. Louis having lost his confidential minister, De sided. Lieut.-governor, sir Charles H. Doyle, 1867. JoVergennes, by death, called De Brienne, an ecclesiastic, seph Howe died soon after his appointment, 1 June, 1873. to his councils. The notables were reassembled on 6 Adams George Archibald, 1873. Nov. 1788. In the end, the states-general were convoked Novatians, a sect which denied restoration to the 5 Dec.; and from this assembly sprang the national as- church to those who had relapsed during persecution, sembly (which see). The notables were dismissed by the began with Novatian, a Roman presbyter, in 250; see king, 12 Dec. 1788.– The Spanish notables assembled and Cathari. met Napoleon (conformably with a decree issued by him Novels (Norellæ), a part of Justinian's Code, pubcommanding their attendance), at Bayonne, 25 May, lished 535; see Romances. 1808.

November (novem, nine), anciently the ninth Notaries Public, said to have been appointed by month of the year. When Numa added January and the primitive fathers of the Christian church, to collect February, in 713 B.C., it became the eleventh as now. the acts or memoirs of the lives of the martyrs of the The Roman senators wished to name this month in first century.-- Du Fresnoy. This office was afterwards which Tiberius was born, by his name, in imitation of changed to a legal employment, to attest deeds and Julius Cæsar and Augustus; but the emperor refused, writings, so as to establish their authenticity in any saying, “What will you do, conscript fathers, if you have other country. A statute to regulate public notaries thirteen Cæsars ?” was passed in 1801, and statutes on the subject have

November Meteors, see Meteors. been enacted since.

Novgorod (central Russia), made the seat of his “Notes and Queries,” a medium of intercom- government by Ruric, a Varangian chief, in 862, is held munication for literary men and general readers, founded to be the foundation of the Russian empire. In memory and edited by W.J. Thoms; first published on 3 Nov. of the event the czar inaugurated a national monument 1819; bought by sir C. W. Dilke about Aug. 1872.

at Novgorod, on 20 Sept. 1862. Novgorod became a Notre-Dame, the cathedral at Paris, was founded republic about 1150. Visited by the duke of Edinburgh, in 1163. It narrowly escaped destruction by the com- 20-27 Aug. 1875. munists, May, 1871. has been beautifully and judi- Novi (N. Italy). Here the French, commanded by ciously restored, at a cost of about 250,0001., under the Joubert, were defeated by the Russians under Suwarrow, superintendence of Viollet-le-Duc, 1866 et seq.

with immense loss, 15 Aug. 1799. Among the French Nottingham (Saxon, Snatingaham). The castle slain was their leader, Joubert, and other distinguished here was defended by the Danes against king Alfred,

officers. and his brother Ethelred, who retook it, 868. It was Novi Bazar, see llerzegovina. rebuilt by William I. 1068; and ultimately became a Novum Organon, the great work of lord Bacon, strong fortress.

containing his system of philosophy, was published 1620. Burned in the civil wars..

1140, 1153, 1173

Noxious Vapors, see Alkalies and Chemical Parliaments held..

.1194, 1337, 1386, 1394, 1397 Works. Here Charles I. raised his standard..

.6 May, 1642 Noyades, see Drowning. The riots at Nottingham, in which the rioters broke frames, etc....

...14 Nov. 1811 to Jan. 1812 Nubia, the ancient Æthiopia supra Ægyptum, said Much similar mischief.

.. April, 1814 to have been the seat of the kingdom of the Meroë, reThe Watch and Ward act was enforced.

:2 Dec. 1816 ceired its name from a tribe named Nubes or Nubates. Nottingham castle was burned by rioters during the Reform excitement.

10 Oct. 1831 The Christian kingdom, with Dongola, the capital, lasted Fierce election riots with "lambs" and others took till the fourteenth century, when it was broken up into plaro in...

..July, 1865 Mahometan principalities. It is now subject to the The British Association met..

.22 Aug. 1866 Suffragan bishop--Henry Mackenzie, D.D.

viceroy of Egypt, baving been conquered by Ibrahim The church congress met..

Oct. 1871 Pacha in 1822.



Nucleus Theory in CHEMISTRY, see Compound published works on medals. Pellerin's“ Recueil des MéRadicles.

dailles," 9 vols. 4to (1762). Ruding's “ Annals” is the Nuisances Removal Act; passed 1848; amend- great work on British coinage (new edition, 1840). The ed 1819; see Sanitary Legislation.

Numismatic Society in London was founded by Dr. John Nuits, a small fortified town, near Dijon, in Bur-Mr. Yonge Akerman's “Numismatic Manual” (1810) is a

Lee in 1836. It publishes the Numismatic Chronicle. gundy, N.E. France, chartered in 1212; frequently capt- useful introduction to the science. Foreign works are ured and ravaged, specially in 1569, 1576, and 1636. It was taken by the Badenese under Von Werder, 18 Dec. 1870, after five hours' conflict, in which above 1000

Nuncio, an envoy from the pope of Rome to CathFrench are said to have been killed and wounded, and

olic states.

The pope deputed a nuncio to the Irish 700 prisoners taken. The German loss was also heavy. rebels in 1645. The arrival in London of a nuncio, and A depot of arms and ammunition was gained by the vic- his admission to an audience by James II., July, 1687, is tors.

stated to have hastened the Revolution. Numantine War. The war between the Ro- Nuneham College, see Girton. mans and the Celtiberians (Celts who possessed the Nunnery. The first founded is said to have been country near the Iber, now the Ebro) began, 143 B.C., that to which the sister of St. Anthony retired at the on account of the latter having given refuge to their close of the third century. The first founded in France, allies the Sigidians, who had been defeated by the Ro- near Poictiers, by St. Marcellina, sister to St. Martin, 360. mans. Numantia, an unprotected city, withstood a long ---Du Fresnoy. The first in England was at Folkestone, siege, in which the army of Scipio Africanus, 60,000 men, in Kent, by Eadbald, or Edbald, king of Kent, 630.-was opposed by no more than 4000 men able to bear Dugdale. See Abbeys and Monachism. The nuns were

The Numantines fed upon horse-flesh, and their expelled from their convents in Germany, in July, 1785; own dead, and then drew lots to kill one another. At in France, in Jan. 1790. In Feb. 1861, monastic establength they set fire to their houses, and destroyed them- lishments were abolished in Naples, compensation being selves, so that not one remained to adorn the triumph of made to the inmates. For memorable instances of the the conqueror, 133 B.C.

fortitude of nuns, see Acre and Coldingham. Numidia (N. Africa), the seat of the war of the

Nuremberg, a free imperial German city in 1219. Romans with Jugurtha, which began 111 B.C., and ended In 1522, the diet here demanded ecclesiastical reforms with his subjugation and captivity, 106. The last king and a general council, and in 1532 secured religious libJuba, joined Cato and was killed at the battle of Thap- erty to the Protestants. It was annexed to Bavaria in sus, 46 B.C., when Numidia became a Roman province; 1805. Albert Dürer was born here in 1471. see Mauritania.

Nynee Tal, see Landslips, 18 Sept. 1880. Numismatics, the science of coins and medals, an Nystadt (S. W. Finland). By treaty, signed here important adjunct to the study of history. In this coun- 30 Aug. 1721, Sweden ceded Livonia, Esthonia, and other try Evelyn (1697), Addison (1726), and Pinkerton (1789), | territories to Russia.


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Oak, styled the monarch of the woods, and an en- / whipped from Newgate to Tyburn, and sentenced to blem of strength, virtue, constancy, and long life. That imprisonment for life, May, 1685. On the accession produced in England is considered to be the best calcu- of William and Mary he was pardoned, and a pension lated for ship-building, except the live-oak of the United of 31. a week granted to him, 1689. States. In June, 403, the " Synod of the Oak” was held at Chalcedon. The constellation Robur Caroli, the oak

Oaths were taken by Abraham, B.c. 1892 (Gen. xxi. of Charles, was named by Dr. Halley in 1676, in memory 24), and authorized (1491 B.c.) Exod. xxii. 11. The adof the oak in which Charles II. saved himself from his ministration of an oath judicial proceedings was inpursuers, after the battle of Worcester, 3 Sept. 1651; see troduced by the Saxons into England, 600.Rapin. That Boscobel and Races.

administered to a judge was settled 1344. The evergreen oak, Quercus Ilex, brought from the south Icelandic Oath. "* Name I to witness that I take oath by of Europe before.

1581 the ring, law-oath, so help me Frey and Niördh, and The scarlet oak, Quercus Coccinea, brought from North almighty Thor, as I shall this suit follow or defend, or America before..


witness bear, or verdict or doom, as I wit rightest and The chestnut-leaved oak, Quercus Prunus, from North 800the stand most lawfully," etc.

...about 925 America before...

1730 OF SUPREMACY, first administered to British subjects, and The Turkey Oak, Quercus Berris, from the south of Eu- ratified by parliament, 26 Hen. VIII. (Stow's Chron.).. 1535 rope...

1735 Oaths were taken on the Gospels so early as 528; and The agaric of the oak was known as a styptic in.

1750 the words "So help me God and all saints,” concluded Herne's oak, Windsor Park, mentioned in Shakespeare's

an oath until...

1550 “Merry Wives of Windsor," finally destroyed by the The ancient oath of allegiance, which contained a prom. wind..

..31 Aug. 1863 ise " to be true and faithful to the king and his heirs, Existing Oaks, 1879. Cowthorpe, Yorkshire; girth at

and truth and faith to bear of life and limb and terthe ground, 55 feet 6 inches. Newland, Gloucester renc honor; and not to know or hear of any ill or dam(mentioned in Domesday Book), 46 feet.

age intended him without defending him therefrom." Oates's Plot. Titus Oates, at one time chaplain

was modified by James I., a declaration against the pope's authority being added....

1603 of a ship of war, was dismissed for immoral conduct, and it was again altered..

1689 became a lecturer in London. In conjunction with Dr. The affirmation of a Quaker was made equivalent to an Tongue, he invented a plot against the Roman Cath-OP ABJURATION, being an obligation to maintain the gov:

oath, by statute, in 1696 et seq. olics, who he asserted had conspired to assassinate ernment of king, lords, and commons, the church of Charles II., and extirpate the Protestant religion. He England, and toleration of Protestant dissenters, and made it known 12 Aug. 1678, and in consequence about

abjuring all Roman Catholic pretenders to the crown, 13 Will. III..

1701 18 Roman Catholics were accused, and, upon false testi- The Test and Corporation oaths modified by stat. 9 Geo. mony, convicted and executed; among them the aged IV. (see Tests)...

1828 viscount Stafford, 29 Dec. 1680. Oates was afterwards Act abolishing oaths in the customs and excise depart.

ments, and in certain other cases, and substituting dec. tried for perjury (in the reign of James II.), and, being

larations in lieu thereof, 1 & 2 Will. IV.

1831 found guilty, was fined, put in the pillory, publicly | Amrmation, instead of oath, was permitted to Quakers


and other dissenters by acts passed in 1933, 1937, 1838, 24 June, 1660. The regicides and certain Irish popish

and 1863 (see Affirmation). In 1858 and 1860, Jews elected M.P. were relieved from

priests were excepted. A similar act was passed 20 part of the oath of allegiance (see Jews).

May, 1690; see Amnesty. By 24 & 25 Vict. c. 66, a solemn declaration may be substituted for an oath by persons conscientiously object

Observance, FATHERS OF THE (or OBSERVANTS), ing to be sworn in criminal prosecutions..


a nanie given to certain members of the Franciscan orOaths of allegiance, as a condition of pardon, required der, about 1363, who voluntarily undertook the observof persons who had participated in the American re

ance of their rule in its pristine rigor. This reformabellion..

1865 [The oath required of persons appointed to office

tion was after a time enforced by the pope. from the southern United States, declaring that they

Observatories. The first is said to have been had in no way aided or abetted the rebellion, was called the “iron-clad oath." Its terms were modified as

erected on the top of the temple of Belus, at Babylon. soon as all apprehension of further difficulty at the On the tomb of Osymandyas, in Egypt, was another, South had passed away)

and it contained a golden circle 200 feet in diameter; A bill for modifying the oath taken by Roman Catholics (passed by the commons), was rejected by the lords,

that at Benares was at least as ancient as these. The

26 June, first in authentic history was at Alexandria, about 300 The oath to be taken by members of parliament was B.C., erected by Ptolemy Soter.- Obserratory, a month

modified and made uniform by an act passed. 30 April, 1866 ly review of astronomy, first appeared in 1877. New oath of allegiance provided by 31 and 32 Vict.

c. 72 (1868), to be taken by the members of the First modern meridional instrument by Copernicus... 1540 new parliament: “I do swear that I will be faithful

First observatory at Cassel.....

1561 and bear true allegiance to her majesty queen Victoria, Tycho Brahe's, at Uranienburg.

1576 her heirs and successors, according to law, so help me Astronomical tower at Copenhagen..

1657 God."

Royal (French)..

1667 (Bradlaugh Case, see Parliament, 1880.) Royal observatory at Greenwich (which see).

1675 New Parliamentary Oaths bill brought in; discharged, Observatory at Nuremberg .....

1678 5 July, 1881 At Utrecht..

1690 Obelisk. (Greek óßɛdós, a spit, povo.7305, a single At Bologna...

Berlin, erected under Leibnitz's direction.


1714 stone.) The Egyptian symbol of the supreme God. The At St. Petersburg.

1725 first mentioned in history was that of Rameses, king of

At Pekin..

.about 1750

1772 Egypt, about 1485 B.C. The Arabians called them Pha- Oxford, Dr. Radcliffe.

Calton Hill, Edinburgh.

1776 raoh's needles, and the Egyptian priests the fingers of the Dublin, Dr. Andrews.

1783 Several were erected at Rome; one was erected Armagh, Primate Robinson..


182+ by the emperor Augustus in the Campus Martius, on the Cambridge, England..

Williams College observatory, first in the U.S.

1836 pavement of which was a horizontal dial that marked Pulkowa, Russia..

1839 the hour, about 14 B.C. Of the obelisks brought to Rome Cambridge, Mass., U. S.

1840 by the emperors, several have been restored and set up Washington, D.C., U. S..

1842 by various popes. One was excavated and set up in the Ann Arbor, Mich., U. S..

Liverpool, England..


1854 piazza of St. John Lateran, Rome, by Sixtus V. 1588. Dudley observatory, Albany, V. S.


James Lick, of California, gave $700,000 for the estabIn London are three English obelisks: first in Fleet street, at

lishment of an observatory...

1874 the top of Bridge street, erected to John Wilkes, lord mayor of London in 1775 (see North Briton); and immediately op- Observer, Sunday paper (Liberal), established 1791. posite to it, at the south end of Farringdon street, stands another of granite to the memory of Robert Waithman, lord

Oc (for hoc, yes); oil, now oui, "yes;" see French mayor in 1824, erected 25 June 1833; the third at the south Language. end of the Blackfriars road marks the distance of one mile

Ocaña (central Spain ), near which the Spaniards and a fraction from Flect street. Egyptian Obelisks. 42 are known, some broken: 12 at were defeated by the French, commanded by Mortier

Rome; 1, from Luxor, set up in the Place de la Concorde, and Soult. 19 Nov. 1809.
Paris, Oct. 1836; 5 in England (2 British Museum; 1 Aln.

Occult Sciences (from occultus, concealed); sce wiek; 1 Soughton ball; 1 on Thames embankment). The obelisks improperly named Cleopatra's Needles were erect. Astrology, Alchemy, Magic, etc. ed by Thothmes III. at On (Heliopolis), about 1500 B C. One

“Ocean Monarch," an American emigrant ship, was removed to Alexandria by Augustus, about 23 B.C. After being long imbedded in the shore, it was acquired for left Liverpool, bound for Boston, 24 Aug. 1848, having Great Britain by sir Ralph Abercromby, in 1801; but not nearly 400 persons on board. When within six miles removed. It was offered to the British government by Me- of Great Orme's Head, Carnarvonshire, N. Wales, she took

heinet Ali, and again by the Khedive, 15 March, 1877. Mr. Erasmus Wilson having offered to pay all expenses, Mr. fire, and in a few hours was burned to the water's edge,

John Dixon, the engineer, undertook to convey it to Eng- and 178 persons perished. land. The vessel, Cleopatra, containing it sailed with the The Brazilian stcam-frigate Alfonso happened to be out on a Olga 21 Sept. During a violent gale, the vessels were sepa

trial-trip at the time, with the prince and princess de Joinrated, 14, 15 Oct.; six lives were lost in a fruitless attempt

ville and the duke and duchess d’Aumale on board, who to recover it. The Cleopatra, which was abandoned, was

witnessed the catastrophe, and aided in rescuing and comfound by the Fitzmaurice (capt. Carter), and towed to Fer.

forting the sufferers. The crews and passengers of the Al. rol, whence it was towed by the Anglia, and arrived in Lon- fonso and the yacht Queen of the Ocean saved 156 persons, don 20 Jan. 1878.

and 62 others escaped by various means. The salvage awarded was 20001., 6 April, 1878. After much discussion, the Thames embankment (between Oceana, an imaginary republic, described in a book Charing Cross and Waterloo bridges) was selected for its written by James Harrington, dedicated to Oliver Cromsite, where, by much engineering skill, it was placed, 12 Sept. 1878.

well, and published in 1656. The obelisk weighs 186 tons, 7 cwt., 2 stones, 11 lbs. Height, Octarch, the chief of the kings of the heptarchy,

from base to point, 68 feet 54 inches. It was placed under the care of the metropolitan board of octarch, 455, and Egbert the last, 800; see Britain.

was called Rex gentis Anglorum. Hengist was the first works by act passed 22 July, 1878. The fellow of the obelisk of London (reared at Heliopolis about Some authors insist that the English heptarchy should

1500 B. c. by Thothmes 1II., and removed to Alexandria about have been called the octarchy.

23 B.C.) was offered to the United States in 1877. The offer was contirmed, May, 1879. The work of lowering October, the eighth month in the year of Romuthe shaft began by Gorringe, 6 Dec. 1879.

lus, as its name imports, and the tenth in the year of Steamer bearing the obelisk sailed from Alexandria, 12 June; arrived in New York, 20 July, 1880.

Numa, 713 B.C. October still retained its first name, Obelisk landed on Staten Island, 6 Sept. 1880.

although the senate ordered it to be called Faustinus, Towed to the city, 16 Sept. 1880.

in honor of Faustina, wife of Antoninus the emperor; Corner-stone of foundation laid in Central Park, 9 Oct. 1880.

and Commodus called it Invictus and Domitianus. OcObelisk raised into position, 22 June, 1831.

tober was sacred to Mars. Ober-Ammergau Passion-play, see Drama. Octrois (from the low Latin auctorium, authority),

Oblivion. In 1660 was passed an act of " free a term applied to concessions from sovereigns, and to general pardon, indemnity, and oblivion for all treasons the taxes levied at the gates of towns in France on artiand state offences" committed between 1 Jan. 1637 and I cles of food before entering the city. These octrois, of

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