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ancient origin, were suppressed in 1791; re-established, more than 200 years afterwards, and until the arrival 1797; and reorganized in 1816, 1842, and 1852. In 1859, of Cecrops), is stated to have occurred 1761 B.C.; see the octrois of Paris produced above 54,000,000 francs. Deluge. The Belgian government became very popular in July, Ohio, a western state of the United States, settled by 1860, by abolishing the octrois.

the French in 1673, was ceded to the British with CanaOdes are very ancient; among the Greeks they da in 1763; extensively settled in 1788; and admitted were extempore compositions sung in honor of the gods. into the Union, 1802. Population, 1880, 3,198,239. Anacreon's odes were composed about 532; Pindar's, 498 Capital, Columbus. or 446; and Horace's from 24 to 13, all B.C. Anciently Ohm's Law, for determining the quantity of the odes were divided into strophe, antistrophe, and epode; electro-motive force of the voltaic battery, was publishsee Poets-laureate and Lyric Poetry.

ed in 1827. It is in conformity with the discovery that Odessa, a port on the Black Sea, built by the em- the earth may be employed as a conductor, thus saving press Catharine of Russia, 1784–92, after the peace of the return wire in electric-telegraphy. Jassy. In 1817 it was made a free port, since when its Oil was used for burning in lamps as early as the prosperity has rapidly increased. It was partially bom- epoch of Abraham, about 1921 B.C. It was the custom barded by the British, 21 April, 1851, in consequence of of the Jews to anoint with oil persons appointed to high the Russian batteries having fired on a flag of truce, 6 offices, as the priests and kings (Psa. cxxxiii. 2; 1 Sam. April

. On 12 May, the English frigate Tiger stranded x. 1; xvi. 13). The fact that oil, if passed through redhere, and was destroyed by Russian artillery. The cap- hot iron pipes, will be resolved into a combustible gas, tain, Giffard, and many of his crew were killed, and the was long known to chemists; and after the process of rest made prisoners.

lighting by coal-gas was made apparent, Messrs. Taylor Odometer (from the Greek óôús, way, and potpov, and Martineau contrived apparatus for producing oil-gas measure); see Pedometer.

on a large scale, 1815. Odontology (from the Greek ódóvtec, teeth), the Oil-frescos, see under Puinting. science of the teeth, may be said to have really begun Oil-springs, see Petroleum. with the researches of prof. Richard Owen, who in 1839 Olbers, the asteroid, now terined Pullas, discovered made the first definite announcement of the organic con- by M. Olbers in 1802. nection between the vascular and vital soft parts of the Old Bailey Sessions Court is held for the trial frame and the hard substance of a tooth. His compre- of criminals, and its jurisdiction comprehends the counhensive work “Odontography” (illustrated with beauti- ty of Middlesex as well as the city of London. It is held ful plates ) was published 1810-5. The Odontological eight times in the year by the royal commission of oyer Society was establisheil 1836.

and terminer. The judges are the lord mayor, those alOdrysæ, a people of Thrace. Their king, Teres, re- dermen who have passed the chair, the recorder, and the tained his independence of the Persians, 508 B.C. Sital- common sergeant, who are attended by both the sheriffs ces, his son, enlarged his dominions, and in 429 aided and one or more of the national judges. The court-house Amyntas against Perdiccas II. of Macedon with an army was built in 1773, and enlarged in 1808; see Centrul of 150,000 men. Sitalces, killed in battle with the Tri-Criminal Court. balli, 424, was succeeded by Seuthes, who reigned pros- During some trials in the old court, the lord mayor, ono perously. Cotys, another king (382-353), disputed the alderman, two judges, the greater part of the jury, and possession of the Thracian Chersonesus with Athens.

numbers of spectators caught the jail distemper, and

May, 1750 After nine or ten years' warfare, Philip II. of Macedon This disease was fatal to several.. reduced the Odrysæ to tributaries, and founded Philip- Twenty-eight persons killed at the execution of Mr. popolis and other colonies, 313. The Romans, after their

Steele's murderers at the Old Bailey.... conquest of Macedon, favored the Odrysä, and in 42 Old Believers, a Russian sect said to number their king. Sadales, bequeathed his territories to the about 12,000,000, founded by Nicon, a minister of the Romans. The Odrysæ, turbulent subjects, and often czar Alexis (1615-76). They profess to adhere to the chastised, were finally incorporated into the empire by old reading of the Slavonian sacred books, wbich have Vespasian, about A.D. 70.

been superseded by the present Russian church. The Odyl, the name given in 1815 by baron von Reichen- czar Alexander II. granted liberty of worship to the sect bach to a so-called new “imponderable, or influence,” in 1879. said to be developed by magnets, crystals, the human Old Catholics, the name assumed in Germany by body, heat, electricity, chemical action, and the whole the members of the Roman Catholic church opposed to material universe. The odylic force is said to give rise the dogma of papal infallibility, headed by prof. Döllinto luminous phenomena, visible to certain sensitive per- ger of Munich. After three days' conference at Munich, sons only. The baron's “ Researches on Magnetism, etc., Sept. 1871, they decided to set up independent worship, in Relation to the Vital Force," translated by Dr. Greg- first meeting in a church given them by the town counory, were published in 1850. Emanuel Swedenborg cil of Munich. The abbé Michaud began a similar move(ilied 1772) described similar phenomena.

ment in Paris in Feb. 1872. Dr. Döllinger preached in Ecumenical Bishop (from the Greek oíkov- favor of union with the Church of England, March, 1872. unun, the habitable, globe understood), “ universal bish- Père Hyacinthe (Charles Loyson), president of the party op," a title assumed by John, bishop of Constantinople, at Rome, issued a programme respecting the Vatican de587.

crees, recognizing ecclesiastical authorities, demanding nophyta (Bæotia, N. Greece). Here Myronides reform, yet opposing schism, about 5 May, 1872. The and the Athenians severely defeated the Bæotians, 456 bishops of Lincoln (Wordsworth) and Ely (Browne), and

the dean of Westminster (Dr. Stanley), by invitation atOfen, see Buda.

tended the conference at Cologne, and delivered addressOffa's Dyke, the intrenchment from the Wye to first bishop, Dr. Joseph Reinkens, 1 June, 1873, who was

es, 20-22 Sept. 1872. The Old Catholics elected their the Dee, made by Offa, king of Mercia, to defend his

recognized by the emperor and other powers. country from the incursions of the Welsh, 779.

Congress of Old Catholics held at Constance, 18 Sept. Ogdensburg, N. Y., captured by the British, 22 1873; at Freiburg.

..6 Sept. 1874 Feb. 1813.

First synod held in Germany at Bonn, opened...27 May, Ogulnian Law, carried by the tribunes Q. and Cn. Dr. Döllinger received delegates from Eastern and West

ern churches at Bonn, with a view for union with the Ogulnius, increased the number of the pontiffs and au- Old Catholics, and after much discussion certain pre. gurs, and made plebeians eligible to those offices, 300 B.C. liminaries were agreed on; much result was not ex

...14 Sept. Ogyges, DELUGE OF (which laid Attica waste for First Old Catholic church in Berlin opened..... 30 Nov.

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22 Feb. 1807

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In Prussia about 20,000 Old Catholics (about 8,000,000 highly honored. The prize contended for was a crown Romanists)..

1875 Congress at Bonn: bishop of Winchester, canon Liddon,

made of a kind of wild olive, appropriated to this use. and several Oriental clergy present, 12 Aug: ; agree

The festival was abolished by Theodosius, A.D. 394. In ment respecting the Filioque clause.

1858 M. Zappas, a wealthy Peloponnesian, gare funds to Circular put forth by the Old Catholics at Bonn asking

re-establish these games, under the auspices of the queen for a church for their worship (they declare opposition to the Vatican decrees of 18 July, 1870; they do not

of Greece.-OLYMPIC THEATRE, London, opened 1806; secede from the Catholic church, but desire Catholi- see Theatres. cism free from debasing doctrines; repudiate infallibility and supremacy of the pope; sanction reading of

Olympieium (near Peleponnesus), the great temple the Bible and divine worship in the vulgar tongue; of Jupiter erected by Libon of Elis, at the charge of the and marriage of priests).

.Dec.

Eleans, after their conquest of the country, 572-472 B.C. Congress at Bonn: strong opposition to celibacy of clergy; question deferred.

For this temple Phidias made the colossal statue of the

.early in June, 1876 Congress at Mentz opens..

28 Sept. 1877 god, in gold and ivory, 437-433 B.C. Meeting at Berne: bishop Cotterill of Edinburgh and M.

The German explorations by Messrs. Hirschfeld and Bötticher, Hyacinthe Loyson there, 17 Aug. 1879; at Geneva, 23

planned by prof. Ernst Curtius, the historian, began in Oct. May, 1880; at Baden-Baden..

19-21 Sept. 1880

1875. Torsos and other relics were found. Above 904 ob

jects in marble, many coins, bronzes, inscriptions, etc., Old Man of the Mountain, see Assassins.

found, 1875–8. Explorations closed, Nov. 1880. Old Style, see New Style.

Olynthus, a city (N. Greece) subdued in war by Oldenburg, a grand-duchy in North Germany, was Sparta, in 382-379 B.C. It resisted Philip of Macedon, annexed to Denmark in 1448; in 1773, Christian VII. 350 B.C., by whom it was destroyed, 347. Demosthenes ceded the country to Russia in exchange for Holstein delivered three orations on its behalf, 349. Gottorp, and soon after the present dignity was established. The duke joined the North German confedera

Omens, see Augury. Amphictyon was the first who tion 18 Aug. 1866, and obtained a slight increase of ter- is recorded as having drawn prognostications from omens,

1497 B.C. Alexander the Great and Mithridates the ritory from Holstein, 27 Sept. following. Population in

Great are said to have studied omens. 1864, 301,812; in 1871, 314,591; in Dec. 1875, 319,314.

At the birth of the latter, 131 B.C., there were seen for seventy days toDUKES.

gether two splendid comets; and this omen, we are told, 1773. Frederick Augustus. 1785. Peter Frederick. The duchy was seized by Napoleon, directed all the actions of Mithridates throughout his

and annexed to his empire in 1811; but restored in life.—Justin.
1814.
GRAND-DUKES.

Ommiades, a dynasty of Mahometan caliphs, be1829. May 21. Augustus.

ginning with Moawiyah, of whom fourteen reigned in 1853. Feb. 27. Peter, son; born 8 July, 1827.

Arabia, 661-750; and eighteen at Cordova, in Spain, Heir : Augustus, son; born 16 Nov. 1852.

755-1031. Olefiant Gas, a combination of hydrogen and car- Omnibus (Latin omnibus, "for all"). The idea bon which burns with much brilliancy. In 1862, Ber- of such conveyances is ascribed to Pascal, about 1662, thelot formed it artiticially by means of alcohol. when similar carriages were started, but soon discontin

Oléron, Laws Of, relating to sea affairs, are said ued. They were revived in Paris about 11 April, 1828; to have been enacted by Richard I. of England when and introduced into London by a coach-proprietor named at the island of Oléron, France, 1194; which is now Shillibeer. The first omnibus started from Paddington doubted.

to the Bank of England on Saturday, 4 July, 1829. RegOlives are named in the earliest accounts of Egypt ulations were made respecting omnibuses by 16 & 17 and Greece; and at Athens their cultivation was taught 'The London Omnibus Company was established in Jan.

Vict. c. 33 (1853); see Cabriolets and Huckney-coaches. by Cecrops, 1556 B.C. They were tirst planted in Italy 1856. The saloon omnibuses ran in 1857–60. in Sept. about 562 B.C. The olive has been cultivated in Eng- 1865, it was stated that there were then running, about land since A.D. 1648; the Cape olive since 1730.

620 omnibuses belonging to the General Omnibus ComOlmütz, the ancient capital of Moravia. Here the pany, and 450 belonging to private proprietors; in 1867, emperor Ferdinand abdicated, on behalf of his nephew, about 1050 omnibuses, with 13,000 drivers and conductFrancis Joseph, 2 Dec. 18-18; and here the latter promul- ors.-Sir R. Maye. In 1873 about 1400 omnibuses. gated a new constitution, 4 March, 1849. A conference Dividend, Aug. 1878, 12; per cent.Omnibus bill, one was held here 29 Nov. 1850, under the czar Nicholas, which deals with many topics. when the difficulties between Austria and Prussia respecting the affairs of Hesse-Cassel were arranged.

Omnimeter, a new surveying apparatus (combining

the theodolite and level, and comprising a telescope and Oltenitza. A. Turkish force having crossed the microscope), invented by Eckhold, a German engineer, Danube, under Omar Pacha, established themselves at

to supersede chain measuring; announced Sept. 1869. Oltenitza, in spite of the vigorous attacks of the Rus

Oneida," collision with the Bombay; see United sians, who were repulsed with loss, 2 and 3 Nov, 1853. On the 4th a desperate attempt to dislodge the Turks States, 1870. by gen. Danneberg with 9000 men, was defeated with One-pound Notes issued by the Bank of Eng

land, 4 March, 1797 ; withdrawn for England, 1823; reOlustee (Florida), BATTLE OF, 20 feb. 1864. Gen. issued for a short time, 16 Dec. 1825. Seymour was defeated by the confederates.

Ontario, formerly Canada West, or Upper Canada;

capital, Toronto. Population, 1861, 1,396,091; 1871, Olympiads, the era of the Greeks, dating from 1

1,620,851. July, 776 B.C., the year in which Chorcebus was successful at the Olympic games. This era was reckoned by pe

O. P. (old prices) Riot began on the opening of the riods of four years, each period being called an Olympiad, new Covent-garden Theatre, London, by J. P. Kemble, and in marking a date the year and Olympiad were both with increased prices of admission, 18 Sept., and lasted mentioned. The computation of Olympiads ceased with till 16 Dec. 1809, when the old charges were restored. the 305th, A.D. 440.

Of the play, “Macbeth,” not one word was heard, and Olympic Games, so famous among the Greeks, great injury was done to the theatre. said to have been instituted in honor of Jupiter by the

Open-air Mission, founded 1853. Races, fairs, Idæi Dactyli, 1453 B.C., or by Pelops, 1307 B.C., revived etc., are visited by preachers. by Iphitus, 884 B.C., were held at the beginning of every Open-spaces Act (METROPOLITAN), 40 & 41 Vict. fifth year, on the banks of the Alpheus, near Olympia, c. 35 (1877), authorizes the Metropolitan Board of Works in the Peloponnesus (now the Morea), to exercise the and the corporation of London to acquire open spaces for youth in five kinds of combats, the conquerors being the benefit of the public.

great loss.

Opéra Comique, a new theatre, 299 Strand; open- | Lincoln's Inn theatre. It ran for sixty-three successive ed 29 Oct, 1870, by Mlle. Déjazet and a French com- nights, but so offended the persons in power that the pany. The French opéra comique began 1716.

lord chamberlain refused a license for the performance Opera-house, The Italian, or Queen's, or (since of a second part of it entitled “ Polly.” By Gay's friends' 1837) HER MAJESTY's Theatre. The original build- subscription, his profits on its publication amounted to ing is generally supposed to have been constructed by 12001.

, whereas the Beggar's Opera gained him only sir Jobn Vanbrugh, though Mr. Pennant attributes it to

4001.; see Theatres. sir Christopher Wren. It was built as "the Queen's Ophicleide, the keyed bassoon, said to have been (afterwards changed to King's) theatre;" opened 9 April, invented by Frichot, a Frenchman, in London, between 1705; and burned down 17 June, 1789. The foundation 1791 and 1800. of the new theatre was laid 3 April, 1790; and the house Ophthalmic Hospitals, see llospitals. was opened 22 Sept. 1791, on an improved plan; a new exterior was erected in 1820, from designs by Mr. Nash. interior of the eye, invented by professor H. Helmholtz,

Ophthalmoscope, an apparatus for inspecting the This theatre was totally destroyed by tire (cause unknown) on the night of 6-7 Dec. 1867. The loss of the and described by him in 1851. lessee, Mr. Mapleson, was about 12,0001., and that of Opium, the juice of the white poppy, was known to Mlle. Titiens (valuable jewels and dresses) was valued the ancients, its cultivation being mentioned by Homer, at 2000l. ; rebuilt, but internal arrangements not com- and its medicinal use by Hippocrates. It is largely culpleted. Moody and Saukey's revival meetings were tivated in British India, and was introduced into China held here, 12 April-31 May, 1875. The new house was by our merchants, which led eventually to the war of opened for Italian opera by Mr. Mapleson, 28 April, 1877; 1839, the importation being forbidden by the Chinese see Theatres.—The English OPERA (or Lyceum) was government. The revenue derived from opium by the opened 15 June, 1816. It was entirely destroyed by Indian government in 1862 was about 7,850,0001.; in fire 16 Feb. 1830. The new English Opera-house, or 1874,8,000,0001. Laudanum, a preparation of opium, was Lyceum, was erected from designs by Mr. S. Beazley, employed early in the seventeenth century. A number and opened in July, 1834; see Theatres and National of alkaloids have been discovered in opium: narcotine Opera-house.

by Derosne, and morphia by Sertürner, in 1803. A svOperas. Adam de la Hale, a Trouvère, surnamed ciety for suppressing the opium trade held a meeting in

London, 17 Jan. 1881. " le Bossu d'Arras," born in 1240, is, as far as has yet been ascertained, the composer of the first comic opera, Oporto (W. Portugal), the ancient Calle, one of the Li Gieus (Le Jeu) de Robin et de Marion. The Italian most impregnable cities in Europe, and the mart of opera began with the Il Satiro of Cavaliere, and the Portuguese wine known as “ Port.” A chartered comDafne of Rinuccini, with music by Peri, about 1590. pany for the regulation of the port-wine trade was esTheir Eurydice was represented at Florence, 1600, on the tablished in 1756. The French, under marshal Soult, marriage of Marie de Médicis with Henry IV. of France. were surprised here by lord Wellington, and defeated in L'Orfeo, Favola in Musica, composed by Monteverde, an action fought 12 May, 1809. The Miguelites bewas performed in 1607, and is supposed to have been the sieged Oporto, and were repulsed by the Pedroites, with first opera that was ever published. About 1669 the considerable loss, 19 Sept. 1832. The Oporto Wine Comabbot Perrin obtained a grant from Louis XIV, to set pany was abolished in 1834, but re-established by a royal up an opera in Paris, where, in 1672, was acted Pomona. decree, 7 April, 1838. An international exhibition was Scarlatti produced 108 operas, 1680 et seq. ; followed by

opened here by the king, 18 Sept. 1865; see Portugal. Stradella, Lulli, and other counposers.

Opportunists, a name given to French politicians Purcell produced Dido and Æneas, 1677; and many oth

(especially the ultra-liberals), who suspend agitation for Handel's Rinaldo was performed at the Haymarket;

their peculiar opinions till a suitable opportunity comes; he successfully broke through previous restrictions, among them Gambetta is prominent, 1876-8.

24 Feb. 1711 Pepusch's Beggar's Opera....

Optic Nerves are said to have been discovered by C. W. Gluck introduced a new style with reforms in his N. Varole, a surgeon and physician of Bologna, about Orfeo ed Euridice..

1762 1538.-Nouv. Dict. Arne's Artaxerxes.. J. H. Hasse produced many operas, chiefly at Dresden. 1731–63 Optics, a science studied by the Greeks; and by the N. Logroscino developed the opera buffa; died.. 1703 Arabians about the twelfth century; see Light. Mozart's Le Nozze di Figaro, 1786; Die Zauberflöte, 1786; Don Giovanni, 1787; La Clemenza di Tito.. 1791 Burning lenses known at Athens.

424 Cimarosa's Il Matrimonio Segreto, etc...

1792 A treatise on optics doubtfully attributed to Euclid, Storace's Waterman, etc. .1788-96

about 300 Cherubini's Lodoiska, 1791; Anacreon.

1803 The magnifying power of convex glasses and concave Beethoven's Fidelio...

mirrors, and the prismatic colors produced by angular Shield's Rosina, etc...

1782-1807 glass, mentioned by Seneca. Bishop's Guy Mannering, etc.

1816 Treatise on optics by Ptolemy.

.. about 120 Spohr's romantic opera Faust, 1818; Jessonda.

1823 Two of the leading principles known to the Platonists,. 300 Weber's Der Freischülz, 1821; Oberon.. 1826 Greatly improved by Alhazen, who died...

1038 Auber's Muette di Portici..

1828 Hints for spectacles and telescopes given by Roger BaRossini's Il Tancredi, 1813; Barbiere di Siviglia and

about 1280 Olello, 1816; La Gazia Ladra, 1817; Semiramide, 18:23; Spectacles said to have been invented by Salvinus ArGuillaume Tell... 1829 matus of Pisa..

before 1300 Bellini's La Sonnambula and Norma, 1831; I Puritani,

Camera obscura said to have been invented by Baptista 1834; Lucia di Lammermoor...

Porta .... Donizetti's Lucrezia Borgia.. 1840 Telescopes invented by Leonard Digges.

.about 1571 Meyerbeer's Robert le Diable, 1831; Les Huguenots, 1836; Kepler publishes his "Dioptrice”. Le Prophète..

1849 Telescope made by Jansen (said also to have invented Verdi's Ernani, 1844; Il Trovatore and La Traviata, the microscope) about 1609, and independently by Gal1803; Aida..

... about 1630 Richard Wagner, reformer of the opera, and author of Microscopes, according to Huyghens, invented by Dreb. Tannhäuser, 1845; Lohengrin, 1848; and the Ring des

.. about 1621 Nibelungen.

1876 Law of refraction discovered by Snellius.. .about 1624 Gounod's Faust, 1859; Polyeucte..

1878 Inflection of light discovered, and the undulatory theory suggested by Grimaldi.

...about 1663 Operas in ENGLAND. Sir William Davenant in- Reflecting telescope, James Gregory, 1663; Newton..... 1666 troduced a species of opera in London in 1684. The Motion and relocity of light discovered by Roemer, and first regularly performed opera was at York buildings, in

after him by Cassini...

[Its velocity demonstrated to be 190 millions of miles 1692. The first at Drury-lane was in 1705. Handel's in 16 minutes. ] opera Radamistus was performed in 1720; and others Double refraction explained by Bartholinus..

1669 by him were frequently performed a few years after. Newton's discoveries in colors, etc..

Cassegrainian reflector. Gay's Beggar's Opera first performed in 1727, at the Telescopes with a single lens by Tschirnbausen...about 1690

ers.

1728

....B.C.

1805

about A.D.

50

con...

1836

1500

1611

1871

ileo..

bel..

1667

1672 1674

Polarization of light and undulatory theory discovered they would become an easy prey to the Roman Cathoby Huyghens....

about 1692 Structure of the eye explained by Petit.

lics, from their small numbers, unless they assuciated for

.. about 1700 Aberration of light discovered by Bradley..

1727 their defence, and the first Orange lodge was formed in Achromatic telescope constructed by Mr. Hall (but not Armagh; but the name of Orangemen already existed. made public) in..

1733 Constructed by Dollond, most likely without any knowl.

An Orange lodge was formed in Dublin; the members edge of Hall's telescope..

1757 published a declaration of their principles (the mainteHerschel's great reflecting telescope erected at Slough.. 1789 nance of church and state) in Jan. 1798. After 1813 Dr. T. Young's discoveries (undulatory theory, etc.).... 1800-3 Orangeism declined, but revived again in 1827, when the Camera-lucida (Dr. Wollaston):..

1$07 Malus (polarization of light by reflection).

duke of Cumberland became grand-master; and it is

.about 1808 resnel's researches on double reflection, etc..

1817 stated that in 1836 there were 145,000 Orangemen in Optical discoveries of Wheatstone..

.1838 et seq. England and 125,000 in Ireland. After a parliamentary Large telescope constructed by lord Rosse..

.. 1845 Arago (colors of polarized light, etc.).

inquiry, Orange clubs were broken up in conformity with

1811-53 Sir D. Brewster, optical researches (see Kaleidoscope,

resolutions of the house of commons, but were revived Photography)........

1814–57 in 1845. In Oct. 1857, the lord chancellor of Ireland orDr. Tyndall's Lectures on Light first illustrated by Du

boscq's electric lamp at the Royal Institution, London, 1856 dered that justices of the peace should not belong to OrThe spectroscope constructed and used by Kirchhoff and

ange clubs. The Orangemen in Canada were greatly Bunsen..

1861 excited during the visit of the prince of Wales in Sepi. Researches of Mr. Wm. Spottiswoode on polarized light.1871-8 1860. Mr. William Johnston, a grand-master, convicted race Telescope, Microscope, Stereoscope, Pseudoscope, Spectrum of violating the Party Processions act, was elected M.P.

Photography, etc.) Optimism (from optimus, the best), the doctrine parade in New York, 12 July, 1871, led to a riot, in which

for Belfast, Nov. 1869; see Belfast. The Orangemen's that everything which liappens is for the best, in oppo- 60 lives were lost. sition to Pessimism (from pessimus, the worst). The germ of optimism is to be found in Plato, and in St. Au

Oranges. The sweet, or China, orange was first gustin and other fathers; and has been especially pro- brought into Europe from China by the Portuguese in pounded by Malebranche and Leibnitz, and adopted by 1547; and it is asserted that the identical tree whence l'ope, Bolingbroke, Rousseau, and others. Optimisın, all the European orange-trees of this sort were produced as expressed in the term “the best of all possible is still preserved at Lisbon, in the gardens of one of its worlds," is ridiculed by Voltaire (1694-1778) in his nobility, Orange-trees were first brought to England " Candide.” The term meliorism (from melior, better) and planted, with little success, in 1595; they are said has been lately introduced; see Pessimism.

to have been planted at Beddington park, near Croydon, "Option," a term given at the time to the permis- in 1860. The culture of oranges in Florida has rapidly

Surrey. The duty on imported oranges was repealed sion given to the inhabitants of Alsace and Lorraine by the German government to choose, before 30 Sept. 1872, grown into a great industry since 1865. whether they would quit their country or become Ger

Orator Henley. An eccentric English gentleman man subjects. Great numbers emigrated into the French of some talents, in 1726, opened his “oratory," a kind of territories. The "option" of archbishops respecting chapel, in Newport market, where he gave lectures on their claim on a benefice becoming void on the creation theological topics on Sundays, and on other subjects on or translation of a bishop was abolished in 1845. Wednesdays, every week. Novelty procured him many

Oracles, a term applied to revelations made by God hearers, but he was too imprudent to gain any permato man. They were given to the Jews at the Mercy- nent advantage. He removed his oratory to Clare marseat in the tabernacle ; see Exod. xxv. 18-22. The Holy ket, and sank into obscurity previously to his deatli, in

1756. Scriptures are the Christian “oracles," Rom. iji. 2; 1 Pet. iv, 11. King Ahaziah sent to consult the oracle of

Oratorians (from the Latin orare, to pray), a regBaal-zebub at Ekron about 896 B.C. The Greeks con- ular order of priests established by St. Philip Neri about sulted especially the oracles of Jupiter and Apollo (see 1564, and so called from the oratory of si. Jerome at Dodoma and Delphi); and the Italians those of Faunus, Rome, where they prayed. They bad a foundation in Fortune, and Mars.

France, commenced by Guillaume Gibieuf and Pierre de Oran, Algeria (N. Africa), a Moorish city several Berulle (afterwards cardinal), 1612; approved by pope times captured by the Spaniards; definitively occupied Paul V. 1613.-The rev. Frederick Faber and others, as by the French in 1831, who have since added docks, etc. Fathers of the Oratory," established themselves first in

King William street, Strand, in 1848, and afterwards at Orange, a principality in S.E. France, formerly a

Brompton. lordship in the ninth or tenth century. It has been ruled by four houses successively: that of Giraud Adhe

Oratorio, a kind of musical sacred drama, the submar (to 1174); of Baux (1182-1393); of Châlons (to ject of it being generally taken from the Scriptures. The 1530); and of Nassau (1530–1713); see Nassau. Phili- origin of our oratorios (so named from having been first bert the Great, prince of Orange, the last of the house of performed in an oratory) is ascribed to St. Philip Neri, Châlons, having been wronged by Francis I. of France, about 1550. The first true oratorio-Emilio del Cavaliere's entered the service of the emperor Charles V., to whom “Rappresentazione".

"-was performed at Rome in 1600. he rendered great services by bis military talents. He He was followed by Giovanni Carissimi, Alessandro Scarwas killed at the siege of Florence, 3 Aug. 1530. He latti, etc. The first oratorio in London was performed was succeeded by his nephew-in-law, René of Nassau; in Lincoln's Inn theatre, in Portugal street, in 1732. see Princes of Orange under Holland. The eldest son Handel's oratorio of Israel in Egypt" was produced in of the king of Holland is styled the Prince of Orange, 1738, and the “ Messiah" in 174); Haydn's Creation" although the principality was ceded to France in 1713 ; in 1798; Beethoven's “ Mount of Olives," 1803 ; Spohr's see Arausio.

"Last Judgment” (properly “ Things "), 1825; MendelsOrange River Territory, a free state of Dutch sohn's “St. Paul” in 1836, and “ Elijah" in 1846 ; CosBoers in South Africa. The British government pro- ta’s “Eli,” 1865;, “ Naaman," 1864; S. Bennett's “Womclaimed its authority over this territory on 3 Feb. 1848, an of Samaria,” 1867; Benedict's “St. Peter,” 1870; but transferred (by sir George Clerk) its powers to a pro- Macfarren's. “John the Baptist,” 1873; “ Resurrection," visional government, 29 March, 1854. A Volksraad (leg- 1876; and “ Joseph,” 1877; Dr. P. Armes's “Hezekiah," islative council) and governor were appointed. Disputes

1878, aruse respecting the ownership of the diamond-fields in Orchomenus, a small Greek state in Baotia, was 1868. Population about 50,000 (half whites), 1877. destroyed by the Thebans, 568 B.C.; restored by Philip

Orangemen. The “ Battle of the Diamond,” 21 II. of Macedon, 354; and given up by him to Thebes, 346. Sept. 1795 (see Diamond), and the treachery experienced Ordeal was known among the Greeks and Jews by the Protestants ou that occasion, convinced them (Numb. v. 2). It was introduced into England by the

nances.

see).

Saxons. A prisoner who pleaded not guilty might choose | Amsterdam has a set of pipes that imitate a chorus of whether he would put himself for trial upon God and his human voices. Of the organs in England, that at St. country, by twelve men, as at this day, or upon God George's Hall, Liverpool, by Mr. Willis, was the largest ; only. The trial by ordeal was abolished in 1218. next in order, that at York minster; and that in the

Order of the Corporate Reunion, virtually a Music-hall, Birmingham. In London, the largest was, new episcopal church, said to arise out of the Christian perhaps, that of Spitalfields church; aná chat in Christ Unity Association (which see). It proposed to form four church was nearly as extensive. The erection of the stations (Canterbury, York, Caerleon, and St. Andrews), famous Temple organ was competed for by Schmidt and with rectors and provincials; announced 11 Sept. 1877. Harris; after long disputes, the question was referred to Orders, see Knighthood.

vote, and Mr. Jefferies, afterwards chief-justice, gave the Orders in Council were issued by the British gov- about 1682. A monster organ was erected in the Crystal

casting-vote in favor of Schmidt (called Father Smith), ernment 7 Jan. and 11 Nov. 1807, prohibiting trade Palace, Sydenham, in June, 1857. The organ by Willis, with the ports occupied by the French, being reprisals at the Royal Albert Hall, is now said to be the largest in for Napoleon's Berlin decree (which see). They greatly the world, 1871. The largest organ in America is in checked the progress of manufactures in this country, the Music Hall, Boston. It was built by Walker, and and caused much distress till their removal in 1814.

has 4 manuals, 89 stops, and 4000 pipes. Other organs Ordinances, see Ordonnances, Self-denying Ordi- in the United States having from 2500 to 4000 pipes

are those in Trinity and St. George's churches, New Ordination of ministers in the Christian church York; Plymouth Church and the Tabernacle, Brooklyn; began with Christ and his apostles; see Mark iii. 14, and Holy Trinity and Temple Emanuel, New York. These Acts vi. and xiv. 23. In England, in 1549, a new form are all the work of American builders. A noble organ of ordination of ministers was ordered to be prepared by (by Bryceson), with many appliances, opened in the hall, a committee of six prelates and six divines.

Primrose Hill road, London, N., Jan. 1876. Ordnance Office. Before the invention of guns, Barrel organs are said to have been first made early in the this office was supplied by officers under the following eighteenth century. The finest was the Apollonicon (which names: the bowyer, the crossbowyer, the galeater, or purveyor of helmets, the armorer, and the keeper of the Organic Synthesis, see Chemistry. tents. Henry VIII. placed it under the management of Oriel College (Oxford), founded in 1326, by Adam a master-general, a lieutenant, surveyor, etc. The mas- de Brome, archdeacon of Stow, and almoner to king Edter-general was chosen from among the first generals in ward II. This college derives its name from a tenement the service of the sovereign. The appointment was for- called l'Oriole, on the site of which the building stands. merly for life; but since the Restoration was held durante bene plucito, and not unfrequently by a cabinet minister. these scholars was held at Paris, 1 Sept. 1873; M. Léon

Orientalists. The first International Congress of -Beatson. The letters-patent for this office were revoked 25 May, 1855, and its duties vested in the minis

de Rosny, the founder, president. The second congress ter of war, lord Panmure. The last master-general was 1874; Dr. S. Birch, president. The third congress met

met at the Royal Institution, in London, 14-19 Sept. lord Fitzroy-Somerset, afterwards lord Raglan.

at St. Petersburg, 1 Sept. 1876; the fourth at Florence, Ordnance Survey. The trigonometrical survey Sept. 1878. The tisth to meet at Berlin, 12-17 Sept. 1881; of England was commenced by gen. Roy in 1783, con- see Asiatic Societies. tinued by col. Colby, and completed by col. (afterwards sir Henry) James in 1856. The publication of the maps

Oriflamme, see Auriflamma. commenced in 1819, under the direction of col. Mudge, the writings of Origen, who lived 185-253. "They main

Origenists pretended to draw their opinions from and was completed in 1862; a large part of these maps tained that Christ was the son of God no other way have been colored geologically. The survey of Ireland has been completed and published ; that of Scotland is than by adoption and grace; that souls were created bestill going on. By the Survey act, passed 12 May, 1870, fore the bodies; that the sun, moon, stars, and the waters the Ordnance survey was transferred to the Board of that are under the firmament have souls; that the torWorks. Directors: lieut.-gen. John Cameron, succeeded ments of the damned shall have an end; and that the sir Henry James in 1875, died 30 June, 1878, col. A. c. fallen angels shall, after a time, be restored to their first Cooke.

condition. They were condemned by councils, and the Ordonnances, the laws enacted by the Capetan doctrines were condemned by the council of Constanti

reading of Origen's work was forbidden.-Burke. These kings of France previous to 1789. They began with “ In

nople in 553. the name of the king," and ended with “Such is our good pleasure.” The tirst in French is dated 1287 (Philip

“Origin of Species, BY MEANS OF Natural SEIV.). The publication of these * ordonnances," ordered LECTION,” by Charles Darwin, F.R.S., first published 24 by Louis XIV., 1706, is still in progress. The ordon- Nov. 1859; see Species. nances” of Charles X., promulgated 26 July, 1830, led to

Orion, STEAMSHIP. On 18 June, 1850, this splendid the revolution.

vessel, bound from Liverpool to Glasgow, struck on a Oregon, one of the United States. A dispute re

sunken rock, northward of Portpatrick, within a stone'sspecting boundaries arose in 1815 between the British throw of land, and instantly filled. Of two hundred pasgovernment and that of the United States, which was sengers more than fifty were drowned. settled by treaty, 12 June, 1816. Oregon was admitted Orissa, a province of N.W. Bengal, India with an area as a state Feb, 1859.

of 74,413 square miles, and a population of 20,000,000. Organ, a development of the pandean-pipes; the It was conquered by Clive in 1755, and nearly all ac"organ” in Gen. iv. 21 should be translated pipe. The quired by the company in 1765. It suffered much by invention is attributed to Archimedes, about 220 B.C.; famine in 1770 and 1792-3, and more especially from the and to Ctesibius, a barber of Alexandria, about 250 B.C.

end of 1865 to Nov. 1866, when it is said about 750,000 The organ was brought to Europe from the Greek em- persons perished. The government and officials were pire, and was applied to religious devotions in churches censured for neglect and want of forethought. It is also about A.D. 657.Bellarmin. Organs were used in the said that during a hurricane in Oct. 1836, 22,500 persons Western churches by pope Vitalianus in 658.-- Ammonius. were drowned. It is affirmed that the organ was known in France in the Orkney and Shetland Isles (north of Scotland) time of Louis I., 815, when one was constructed by an were conquered by Magnus III. of Norway, 1099, and Italian priest. The organ at Haarlem is one of the largest were ceded to James III. as the dowry of his wife Marin Europe; it has 60 stops and 8000 pipes. At Seville garet, in 1469. The Orkneys were the ancient Orcades ; is one with 110 stops and 5300 pipes. The organ at united with Shetland, they now form one of the Scotch

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