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Royal warrant respecting regimental exchanges dated 6

cludes 1 general, 1 lient.-general, 3 major-generals, and 6 Aug. ; issued.

.9 Aug. 1875 Scheme completed for mobilization of the army an.

brigadier-generals. The actual strength is very nearly nounced..

Dec. the maximum allowed by law. By act of Congress, 15 "Controldepartment divided into “commissariat and Aug. 1876, the maximum strength of the army was fixed transport departments,” and “ordnance-store depart.

at 25,000 enlisted men. ments"

.....11 Dec. Mobilization of the army and the reserve; experiment in Arogee, Abyssinia. Here sir Robert (afterwards Surrey reported successful..

...July, 1876 lord) Napier defeated the Abyssinians, who lost about New cavalry regulations issued.

.. Aug. Report of commission on promotion issued; recom

700 killed and wounded, 10 April, 1868. The British mends compulsory retirement in some cases, and other had 20 wounded. changes....


Aromatics. New organization of the artillery proposed about 26 Feb. 1877

Acron of Agrigentum is said to have Manæuvres on a small scale.

.... July, been the first who caused great tires to be made, and Review by the queen at Windsor..

10 July,

aromatics to be thrown into them, to purify the air, by Army promotion and retiring scheme; royal warrant published....

. 28 July,

which means he put a stop to the plague at Athens, 429 New army medical warrant issued..

..1 Sept.

B.C. About 29,000 recruits in 1877; announced. ......Mar. 1878

Arpad Dynasty, see Ilungary. Col. F. A. Stanley, war secretary Reserves (about 35,000) called out, 2 April; commended; Arpinum (now Arpino, S. Italy), the birthplace of disbanded..

..31 July, The report of the commission on the mutiny acts recom

Cicero, 3 Jan. 106 B.C.; many remains still bear bis name. mends consolidation of the mutiny acts and the articles of war, and simplification of martial law, etc., July,

Arquebus, see Fire-arms. Warrant establishing new warrant officers (conduct

Arques (N. France). Near here the league army, ors”) a grade between commissioned and non-commissioned....

24 Jan. 1879 commanded by the duc de Mayenne, was defeated by Army Dscipline and Regulation Acts, introduced 27 Feb.; Henry IV. 21 Sept. 1589. passed..

24 July, [They relate to discipline, enlistment, billeting, court

Arracan, a province of N.E. India. Arracan, the martials, military law, etc.)

capital, captured by the Burmese, 1783, was taken from Army Medical department; changes made by a new war

them by gen. Morrison, 1 April, 1825. The subjugation rant issued 2 Dec. 1879; amended..

..Jan. 1880 Mr. Hugh E. Childers, war secretary,

. 28 April,

of the province followed, 1826. New system of military examination for oflicers; intro- Arraignment consists in reading the indictment by duced.


the officer of the court, and calling upon the prisoner to Alterations in officers' dress, by orders.

...Nov. System of compulsory retirement of officers came into say whether he is guilty or not guilty. Formerly, peroperation.

...1 Jan. 1881 sons who refused to plead in cases of felony were pressed Great army reform measures laid before the Commons

to death by weights placed upon the breast.

.3 March, by Mr. Childers. Alterations made in the uniform and organization of the standing mute was declared convicted by an act passed infantry...

April et seq.

1772; but in 1827 the court was directed to enter a plea New organization comes into effect.. ......1 July,

of “not guilty” in such cases; see Mute. Army of OCCUPATION. By treaty, signed 20 Nov.

Arras (N.E. France), the country of the ancient 1815, the allied powers established the boundaries of France, and stipulated for the occupation of certain for Atrebates, the seat of a bishop since 390. Here a treaty tresses by foreign troops for three years. The departure Burgundy, when the latter abandoned his alliance with

was concluded between the king of France and duke of of the German army of occupation from France began England, 21 Sept. 1435. Another treaty was concluded about 20 Sept. 1871; completed 16 Sept. 1873.

by Maximilian of Austria with Louis XI. of France, Army, UNITED STATEs. The standing army of the whereby Burgundy and Artois were given to the dauUnited States may be said to have begun with the or-phin as a marriage portion, 23 Dec. 1482. Velly. Arras ganization of the War Department, 7 Aug. 1789. The was held by the Austrians from 1493 till 1640, when it army in 1790 was 1200 strong; in 1791, 900 men were

was taken by Louis XIII. added. In 1798, in view of war with France, a provisional 10,000 men was authorized, which allowed num

Array. On 23 Dec. 1324, Edward II. directed the ber was the next year enlarged to about 40,000 regulars bishop of Durham to make “ arraier" his men of arms, and as many volunteers. Some officers were appointed horse and foot, and cause them to proceed to Portsmouth; and men raised; but the danger passed away, and the thence to proceed to the war in Gascony. - Rymer's standing army was in 1802 fixed at about the old force. Fædera. Hallam says that this was the earliest comDuring the war of 1812 the army was increased ; 25,000 mission of array that he could find, and that the latest regulars were voted; and in Jan, of that year, 50,000

was dated 1557. The attempt of Charles I. to revive volunteers were authorized. At the peace of 1815 the commissions of array in 1642, founded on a statute of army was disbanded. In 1831 a peace establishment Henry IV., was strenuously opposed as illegal. was organized. The Florida war lasted from 1835 to Arrest for DEBT. The persons of peers, members 1842, and required a force increased by regulars and of parliament, etc., are protected from arrest; see Ambasmilitia. At the beginning of the Mexican war (May, sadors, Debt, Ferrars' Arrest. 1846), the regular army was 7244 strong. gen. Taylor Clergymen performing divine service privileged, 50 having with him in Texas 3554. During that war, Edw. III.

1375 29,000 regulars were enlisted and 50,000 volunteers em- Seamen privileged from debts under 201.. by 30 Geo. III. 1756 ployed. After the war the army was reduced to its pre

Barristers are privileged from arrest while going to, at

tending upon, and returning from court, on the busi. vious strength. On 15 April, 1861, the first levy against ness of their clients. the rebellion was made by the call for 75,000 volunteers. By stat. 29 Car. II, no arrest can be made, nor process On 3 May, 42,000 more volunteers were called out for

served, upon a Sunday; this law was extended by

Will. III. three years or the war. On 22 July, Congress author- vexatious arrests prevented by act, May, 1733. Prohib ized the president to call for 500,000 volunteers for any ited for less than 101. on process, 1779; and for less proper term, and on 25 another force of 500,000 was than 201..

..July, 1827 permitted. The actual number of the United States Arrests for less than 101. were prohibited on mesne proc

ess in Ireland, in June..

1829 arrivals in the field, Aug. 1862, was 1,135,416, of which Statute abolishing arrest for debt on mesne process, exthe regular army was 43,014. Up to the nning of cept in cases wherein there is ground to show that the 1863 the whole number of volunteers sent into the field By 7 & 8 Vict. c. 96, the power of imprisonment even

defendant designs to leave the country, 2 Vict. ... Aug. 1838 was 1,276,246. The maximum strength of the army

upon final process that is judgment debts, is abolished was fixed by the act of 28 July, 1866, at 75,382 rank and if the sum does not exceed 201. exclusive of costs. 1844; file; and by successive reductions its strength has been

and by 9 & 10 Vict. c. 95, the judge has no power to brought down to 2153 commissioned officers and 25,000 By the Absconding Debtors' Arrest Act, absconding debt

punish, except in case of fraud or contempt of court. . 1846 enlisted men. As at present organized, the

ors owing 201. and upwards are liable to arrest........ 1851

army in




Arrest for debt practically abolished, with certain excep- boring through the upper soil to 'strata containing wations, by 32 & 33 Vict. C. 62.


ter which has percolated from a higher level, and which See Debt.

rises to that level through the boring tube. The founThe state of New York was the first of the United States tains in Trafalgar Square and government offices near to abolish the law of arrest for debt, 1831. The other have been supplied since 1844 by two of these wells (393 states have followed in the same course at various times. feet deep). At Paris the Grenelle well (1798 feet deep), Arretium, see Arezzo.

was completed in 1841, after eight years of exertion, by

M. Mulot, at an expense of about 12,000l., and the well Arsacidæ, a Parthian dynasty, began with Arsaces at Passy, which it is said will supply sufficient water about 250 B.C., and ended with Artabanus, killed in bat- for nearly 500,000 persons, was begun in 1855, and comtle with Artaxerxes, the founder of the Sassanidæ, A.D. pleted in 1860 by M. Kind. Messrs. Amos & Easton 226.

completed an artesian well for the Horticultural SocieArsenal, a great military or naval repository; see ty's garden in 1662, which yieldled 880,000 gallons of Wooluich. The arsenals of the United States govern- water, at the temperature of 81° Fahr., in twenty-four ment within the rebel states, with the exception of hours. The well at Kissingen was completed in 1830. Fortress Monroe, passed into the hands of the rebels at The most important artesian wells in the United States their secession. Those maintained by the government are those at St. Louis, Mo.; Charleston, S.C., and Louisin 1864 were as follows:

ville, Ky. The St. Louis well was begun in 1849. The

well is 2199 feet in depth, and yields 75 gallons of waArsenal. Kennebec. Maine.... .. Augusta

ter per minute, but the water is unfit for general use. Springfield (arm'y). Massachusetts......Springfield.

The well at Louisville is 2086 feet deep, and yields Watertown.. Massachusetts, Champlain. .. Vermont.


330,000 gallons of clear, mineral water (rese KisWatervliet. ... New York.

West Troy.

singen water) daily. The well was begun April, 1857, New York.. New York.

New York.

and finished Aug. 1858. The Charleston well gave greatAlleghany. .Pennsylvania. . Pittsburgb. Frankford .Pennsylvania. Bridesburg

er difficulty in construction than any other in the Pikesville . Maryland.


United States. Five attempts to bore it were made, Washington... Dist. Columbia.. Washington.

the first in 1824. The existing well was begun in 1848. Fortress Monroe. ... Virginia.. ..Old Point Comfort

Depth of the well, 1102 feet; discharge, 1200 gallons per St. Louis. Missouri

St. Louis. Leavenworth Kansas..

.. Leavenworth. hour. There are many other artesian water wells in the Detroit , Michigan..

Dearbornville. United States, some of which are notable. Nearly all Benicia.... California, ..Benicia.

the salt and oil wells also are artesian. In 1855 the The 37th Congress, at its second session, passed an government sent out an expedition to bore artesian act to establish three additional national arsenals at wells in New Mexico. Artesian wells are now common. Columbus, O.; Indianapolis, Ind.; and Rock Island, Ill.

Arthur, king of Britain, said, mythically, to have Arsenians, partisans of Arsenius, patriarch of Con- lived A.D. 500-532. stantinople, who excommunicated the emperor Michael The events of his life and the conflicts of the knights of Palæologus for blinding his colleague the young John his round table, as sung by the Welsh poets Taliesin, Lascaris, 1261, and was deposed 1264.

Llywarch Hon, and Aneurin, were incorporated into

his Latin history by Geoffrey of Monmouth, about 1115, Arsenic, a steel-gray colored brittle mineral, ex- who died 115t; put into French verse by Geoffrey Gaistremely poisonous, known in early times. Brandt, in

nar, and by Wace soon after; and set forth in an Eng

lish poem called Brut by Layamon.. .....about 1205 1733, made the first accurate experiments on its chemi- Walter Map, by incorporating in his version the legend cal nature. The heinous crimes committed by its means of the Holy Graal, introduced the religious element induced the legislature to enact regulations for its sale, Sir Thomas Malory'g “ Morte d'Arthur,” printed.

about 1171

1485 1851. In 1858 Dr. A. S. Taylor asserted that green Lord Lytton's " King Arthur," published.. paper-hangings and dresses prepared from arsenic are Tennyson’s “ Idyls of the King”.

1859-69 injurious to health.

Artichokes are said to have been introduced from Arson, punished with death by the Saxons, still re- the East into Western Europe in the fifteenth century, mained a capital crime on the consolidation of the laws and to have reached England in the sixteenth. in 1827 and 1837. By the act of 1861 it is punishable

Articles of RELIGION. On 8 June, 1536, after by penal servitude for life and minor degrees of impris- much disputing, the English clergy in convocation pubonment. William Anthony was convicted of arson, hav- lished * Articles decreed by the king's highness" Henry ing set many houses on fire, for the sake of obtaining VII., who published in 1539 the “Statute of Six Artithe reward for giving alarm, 13 Dec. 1871. In some states of the Union the law remains the tion, communion in one kind, vows of chastity, private

cles,” decreeing the acknowledgment of transubstantiasame as in England; others make the setting fire to an inhabited house punishable by imprisonment for life. Offenders were punishable as heretics. In 1551 forty

masses, celibacy of the clergy, and auricular confession. There are various degrees of arson, and minor punish- two were prepared, and published in 1553. These were ments for minor degrees of the offence.

modified by the convocation, and reduced to ThirtyArsouf (Syria). At a battle here Richard I. of NINE in Jan. 1563; and they received the royal authorEngland, commanding the Christian forces, reduced to ity and the authority of parliament in 1571. The Lam30,000, defeated Saladin's army of 300,000 Saracens and beth Articles, of a more Calvinistic character, proposed other infidels, on 6 Sept. 1191. Ascalon surrendered, and by archbishop Whitgift, were withdrawn in consequence Richard marched towards Jerusalem, 1192.

of the displeasure of queen Elizabeth, 1595. One hunArt Act, facilitating the public exhibition of works dred and four articles were drawn up for Ireland by archof art (lent to the president of the privy council), passed bishop Usher in 1614; but in 1635 the Irish church April, 1866; see Arts, Exhibitions, and National Portrait adopted the English articles; see Perth Articles. The Gallery.

39 Articles were ordered to be removed from the studies

at Oxford in Nov, 1871. Artemis, a Greek goddess; called by the Romans Diana, which see.

Articles OF WAR were decreed in the time of

Richard I. and John. Those made by Richard II, in Artemisium, a promontory in Eubæa, near which 1385 appear in “Grose's Military Antiquities.” The indecisive conflicts took place between the Greek and articles of war now in force are based upon an act, passed Persian fleets for three days, 480 B.C. The former re- by William III. in 1689, to regulate the army about to tired on hearing of the battle of Thermopylæ.

engage in his continental warfare. In the United States, Artesian Wells (from Artesia, now Artois, in Congress only can make articles of war. These have France, where they frequently oceur) are formed by been based on the English articles and Mutiny Act.


They were first adopted by the Continental Congress, his daughter Juilith, on her marriage with Baldwin BrasJuly 30, 1775, and extended March 20, 1776; enacted de-fer in 863. Louis XV. created his grandson, Charles again, with little alteration, April 10, 1806.

Philippe, count of Artois, who became king as Charles X. Artificers AND MANUFACTURERS. Their affairs 16 Sept. 1824. were severely regulated by the statutes of laborers, 1349, Reunited to the crown by Philip Augustus..

1180 1350, 1360, 1549, and especially of 1562. They were pro- Formed into a county for his brother Robert, by Louis

IX.. hibited from leaving England, and those abroad were Acquired, with Flanders, through marriago, by the duke

1237 outlawed, if they did not return within six months after

of Burgundy

1384 the notice given them. A fine of 1001., and imprison- Passed, by marriage of Mary of Burgundy to Maximilian,

to the house of Austria...

1477 ment for three months, were the penalties for seducing

Restored to France.

1482 them from these realms, by 9 Geo. II., 1736, and other Reverted to Austria.

1493 statutes. The law was modified in 1824; see Artisans, Conquered for France

1640 Workmen, etc.

Finally confirmed to it by the treaty of Nimegueu, 10 Aug. 1678 Artillery, a term including properly all heavy mis- Arts. In the eighth century, the circle of sciences siles, now restricted to cannon. A small piece was con- was composed of seven liberal arts—the tririum (gramtrived by Schwartz, a German cordelier, soon after the mar, rhetoric, logic), the quadrivium (arithmetic, music, invention of gunpowder, in 1330. Artillery was used, it geometry, and astronomy). Harris. The Royal Sois said, by the Moors of Algesiras, in Spain, in 1343 ; ciety of England (which see) obtained its charter 2 and according to some historians, at the battle of Crecy, April, 1663. in 1346, when Edward III. had four pieces of cannon. The Society of Arts, to promote the polite arts, com We had artillery at the siege of Calais, 1347. The Ve- merce, manufactures, and mechanics, originated in netians employed artillery against the Genoese at sea,

the patriotic zeal of Mr. Wm. Shipley, and its first 1377.-Voltaire. Said to have been cast, with mortars

president, lord Folkestone....

. March, 1754 for bomb-shells, by Flemish artists, in Sussex, 1543.Rymer's Fædera. Made of brass, 1635; improvements First public exhibition by the artists of the British me. by Browne, 1728; see Cannon, Bombs, Carronudes (under

tropolis took place at the rooms of the Society of Arts, 1760 Carron), Morturs, Ilowitzers, Petard, Rockets, Fire-arms. Repeated there for several years, till the Royal Academy

1768 The Royal Artillery Regiment was established in the Society of British Artists was instituted ......21 May, 1823 reign of Anne.

Their first exhibition opened..

,19 April, 1824

Pre-Raphaelites (which see) became prominent about.... 1850 HONORABLE ARTILLERY COMPANY of London, instituted Society for the Encouragement of the Fine Arts founded in 1585, having ceased, was revived in 1610. It met


.Dec. 1858 for military exercise at the Artillery ground, Fivsbury, Art Unions began in France and Germany early in the where the London archers had met since 1498 (see

present century. Archery). In the civil war, 1612–8, the company took The first in Britain was established at Edinburgh. the side of the parliament, and greatly contributed tow- The Art Union of London, 444 West Strand, was founded ards its success. The company numbered 1200 in 1803,

14 Feb. 1837; and chartered 1 Dec. 1846. The Art and 800 in 1861. Since 1812 the officers have been ap

Union indemnity act was passed 3 Aug. 1844. Sub. pointed by the queen. On the decease of the duke of

scription for 1876, 20,9321. ; 1877, 15,5861. (depression Sussex in 1843, the prince consort became colonel and

of trade). captain-general. He died 14 Dec. 1861, and the prince American Art Union, the first in the United States, was

of Wales was appointed his successor.. .24 Aug. 1863 established in New York, 1839; ceased to exist 1851 NATIOXAL VOLUNTEER ARTILLERY ASSOCIATION held its

under prohibition of the lottery law. first annual meeting for shooting for prizes given by Burlington Fine Arts Club, for exhibition of works of art, the queen and others, at Shoeburyness, July, 1865.

etc., founded

1868 Meetings were held and prizes distributed in July, A memorial of a convention for promoting universally 1866; July, 1867; Aug. 1868–78–79-80.

reproductions of works of art for the benefit of muse. ROYAL ARTILLERY INSTITUTION, established at Woolwich, ums of all countries, signed by the prince of Wales, proposed by licuts. F. Eardley-Wilmot and J. H. Le

and the crown princes of Prussia, Russia, Denmark, froy, Feb. 1838; approved June, 1838; building com

Sweden, Italy, Sasony, and others, was sent to the pleted Sept. 1840. Proceedings, Vol. I., published 1858

duke of Marlborough.

..12 March, 1868 The alleged great deficiency of artillery in the British See British Institution, National Gallery, Royal Acad

army much discussed, Sept. 1870; artillery brought to emy, Albert Hall, Academy.

the camp at Aldershot, reported to be very fine. Sept. 1870
New organization of the artillery proposed, about 26 Feb. 1877 Arundel Castle (Sussex), built by the Saxons
THE ANCIENT AND HONORABLE ARTILLERY COMPANY, of about 800. The duke of Norfolk enjoys the earldom of
Boston, Mass., the oldest military organization in the

Arundel, as a feudal honor, by inheritance and possession United States, organized..

1638 Its printed series of annual sermons begins with the dis. of the castle, without any other creation, Philip Howcourse of Urian Vakes..

1672 ard, son of the attainted duke of Norfolk, was made earl Artisans and Laborers' Dwellings Act,

of Arundel, by summons, as possessor of this castle, 1580. " to provide better dwellings," passed 31 July, 1868; It was thoroughly repaired by a late duke at a rast exanother act was passed 29 June, 1875, “ to facilitate the pense. improvement of the dwellings of the working classes in Arundel Society, for the promotion of the knowl. large towns;" one for Scotland, 2 Aug. 1875; other acts edge of art, was established in 1818. It publishes facpassed in 1879.

similes and photographs. ARTISANS', LABORERS', AND GENERAL DWELLINGS COM- Arundelian Marbles, called also Oxford MarPANY, registered 31 Dec. 1866; purchased estates in

bles; one containing the chronology of ancient history various parts of the country. The Shaftesbury estate (which see) was formally opened....

18 July, 1874 from 1582 to 355 B.C., and said to have been sculptured The director (Dr. John Baxter Langley), secretary (Mr. 264 B.C. They consist of 37 statues, 128 busts, and 250 Wm. Swindlehurst), were sentenced to be imprisoned

inscriptions, and were found in the isle of Paros, in the 18 months; and Mr. Edw. Saflery, estate agent, 12 months, for conspiring to defraud the company of

reign of James I., about 1610. They were collected by about 24.3121. ; trial.

.23-6 Oct. 1877 Mr. W. Petty, purchased by lord Arundel, and given by ARTISANS' INSTITUTE, for promoting general and techni

his grandson, Henry Howard, afterwards duke of Norcal knowledge, near St. Martin's Lane; established by aid of the duke of Bedford, lord Lyttelton, Mr. S. Mor

folk, to the university of Oxford in 1667; and are thereley, and others; opened..

....14 Oct. 1874 fore called also OXFORD MARBLES. The characters of Artists' Fund was established in 1810 to provide inscriptions, by Maittaire, appeared in 1732, and a fine

the inscriptions are Greek. A variorum edition of the allowances for sick, and annuities for incapacitated, members. Artists' General Benevolent Institution, established one by Chandler in 1763; and translations by Selden, 1814. Artist's Orphun Fund, 1871.

1628; by Prideaux, 1676; see kidd's Tracts; and Para

son's Treatise, 1789. Artois (N. France), a province once held by the Atrebates, conquered by the Franks in the fifth century,

Aruspices, see flaruspices. given by Charles the Bold, with Flanders, as a dowry to Aryan, see Ariun, and Language.








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As, a Roman weight and coin: as a weight, it was a | They were totally defeated by col. Purdon... ...7 Aug. 1825 pound; as a coin, it had different weights, but the same Treaty of peace and commerce concluded by Mr. Mac

lean; the independence of the Fantees recognized value. In the reign of Servius, the as weighed a pound

29 April, 1831 of brass; in the first Punic war, it weighed two ounces, The governor of Cape Coast Castle began war with Ashan. 264 B.C.; in the second Punic war, one ounce, 218 B.C.;

tees early in 1863; suspended through sickness of our

troops. and afterwards balf an ounce; its value about three far- onended at the British occupation of Elinina, the Ashan

..May, 1864 things sterling.

tees attacked the Fantees, our allies, with varying sucAsaph, St. (N. Wales), a bishopric said to have been they were severely repulsed, 13 June; Elmina partially

. April, 1873 founded by Kentigern, bishop of Glasgow. On returning bombarded by the British for favoring them.. 14 June, into Scotland, about 560, he left St. Asaph his successor, Commodore Commerell and his party, sailing up the from whom the see is named. It is valued in the king's

Prah, attacked and wounded; 4 men killed by people of Chamah, which is boinbarded..

..14 Aug books at 1871. 118.6d. The present cathedral was erected Sir Garnet Wolseley (sec Hudson Bay) appointed goverby bishop Redman, 1472-95. By an order in council, nor of the colonies on West Coast of Africa, sails with 1838, the sees of St. Asaph and Bangor were to have He arrives at Cape Coast Castle, 2 Oct.; addresses an as


...12 Sept. been united on the next vacancy in either, and the sembly of friendly chiefs, urging them to faithful acbishopric of Manchester created. This order was an- tion and promising rewards (the war to be defensive, nulled in 1846. Present income 42001.; see Manchester.

if possible).

..4 Oct.

Ashantees defeated in a conflict in the bush at Ersaman, The cathedral, restored by Sir Gilbert Scott, reopened 2

near Elmina; villages burned, 14 Oct.; again at EscaSept. 1875.

beo, near Dunquah, by col. Festing.... ..27 Oct.

Despatch from sir Garnet Wolseley, declaring native al. 1802. Samuel Horsley, died 4 Oct. 1805.

lies worthless, and more British troops needed.31 Oct. 1803. William Clearer, died 15 May, 1815.

Indecisive conflict at Dunquah; lieut. Eardley Wilnot 1815. Luxmoore, died 21 Jan. 1830.

killed, 3 Nov. ; Ashantees' attack on Abrakampra to 1830. William Carey, died 13 Sept. 1816.

tally defeated; their camp taken; disorderly retreat, 1846. Thomas Vowler Short, resigned Feb. 1870; died 13

5, 6 Nov. April, 1872.

Col. Wood's indecisive attack at Faisorah.. ..27 Nov. 1870. Joshua Hughes.

The Ashantees said to be retreating in disorder..15 Dec.

Sir Garnet Wolseley marches towards the Prah.. 27 Dec. Asbestos, a native fossil stone, which may be split The king, Koffee Kalcalli, pretends to accept the terms into threads and filaments, and which is endued with the offered; releases captives; prepares for battlo....Jan. 1874 property of remaining unconsumed by tire. Cloth was Skirmish at Borborassie; capi. Nicol killed...... 29 Jan. made of it by the Egyptians (IIerodotus), and napkins Ashantees defeated by sir Garnet Wolseley at Amoaful,

31 Jan. in the time of Pliny, 74; and also paper. The spinning Bocquah captured by sir A. Alison..

..1 Feb. of asbestos known at Venice about 1500.-Porta, Ashantee attack at Fommanah repulsed. ..2 Feb.

The king takes command; defeated at Ordahsa...4 Feb. Ascalon (Syria), a city of the Philistines, shared Sir Garnet Wolseley euters Coomassie

.4 Feb. the fate of Phænicia and Judea. The Egyptian army The king not acceding to proposals, his pulace and city was defeated here by the crusaders under Godfrey of


...6 Feb. Bvuillon, 12 Aug. 1099. Ascalon was besieged by the Paring ride through Coomassio by capt. sartorius. 11 Feb.

The British retreat; a treaty of peace (terms: perpetual latter in 1148, taken in 1153; and again in 1191. Its peace; indemnity of 50,000 oz. of gold; supremacy fortitications were destroyed for fear of the crusaders by over Adansi and other tribes renounced; free trado the sultan, 1270.

guaranteed; human sacrifices to be prohibited); signed

13 Feb. Ascension, an island in the Atlantic ocean, 800 The king, fearing attack from capt. Glover, scuds first in. miles N.W. of St. Helena, discovered by the Portuguese

stalment of gold (1000 oz.)...

..13 Feb. on Ascension day, 20 May, 1501; and taken possession Sir Garnet, Wolseley enters Cape Coast Castle, 19 Feb.;

sails; arrives at Portsmouth.

,21 March, of by the English, Oct. 1815.

The courage, skill, and discipline of the troops and sailors Ascension day, also called Holy Thursday, when the troops reviewed by the queen at Windsor; sir Gar

highly commended; expedition cost about 900.0001. the church celebrates the ascension of our Saviour, the

net Wolseley, commodores Commerell and Hewett, fortieth day after his resurrection from the dead, 14 May, col. Festing, capt. Fremantle, sir A. Alison, and com33; first commemorated, it is sail, 68. Ascension day,

mander Glover thanked by parliament......30 March,

The deposed king, Koffee Kalcalli, said to be defeated in 1882, 18 May; 1883, 3 May; 1884, 22 May; 1885, 14

his attack on his brother, king Wemsah. .Sept. 1876 May.

The king demands surrender of a fugitive prince by the Society for the better observance of Ascension day, formed

governor of Cape Coast Castle, 18 Jan.; no result; pro.

fesses desire of peace.... June, 1869.

. April, 1881

The king sends the golden axe to the queen, who re. Aschaffenburg, on the Maine, Bavaria, S.W. Ger- ceives it at Windsor Castle....

.30 June, many. Here, on 14 July, 1866, the Prussians defeated the German Federal army, captured the town, and took Aug. 1842, by Alexander lord Ashburton and Daniel

Ashburton Treaty, concluded at Washington, 9 2000 prisoners.

Webster, then secretary of state, plenipotentiaries; it Ascham Society, formed to promote social inter-defined the boundaries of the respective countries becourse among gentlemen engaged in education, and im- tween Canada and the state of Maine, settled the extraprove educational methods, etc., 1880. First president, dition of criminals, etc. J. A. Froude; honorary members, professors Huxley, Tyndall, Morley, etc., sirs F. Pollock, J. Lubbock, F. Ashdod, or Azoru's, seat of the worship of the Leighton, and other eminent men.

Phænician gud Dagon, wbich fell down before the ark of Ascot Races, see Races.

the Lord, captured by the Philistines from the Israelites,

about 1141 B.C. (1 Sam. v.). Ashdod was taken by the Asculum, now Ascoli, Apulia, S. Italy: Near it, Egyptians after 29 years' siege, the longest recorded. Pyrrhus of Epirus defeated the Romans, 279 B.C. culum, a city of the Piceni, with all their country, was Ashdown, or ASSENDUNE, now thought to be Asconquered by the consul Sempronius, 268 B.C. Here ton, Berks, where Ethelred and his brother Alfred deAndrea, general of the emperor Henry VI., endeavoring feated the Danes in 871. At Ashdown, near Saffronto wrest Naples from Tancred, was defeated and slain, Walden, Essex, Canute defeated Edmund Ironside with A.D. 1190.

great slaughter, 1016. Ashantees, warlike negroes of West Africa. In Tradition says that the day after the battle in 871 Alfred 1807 they conquered Fantee, in which the British settle caused his army to carve the figure of a white horse, the ment Cape Coast Castle is situated.

standard of Hengist, in the vale. Mr. Thomas Hughes (“ Tom

Brown'), in his book. The Scouring of the White Horse" On the death of their king, who had been friendly to the (1859), describes the work and festival on 17 and 18 Sept. 1857,

English, hostilities began; the Ashantees defeated a ceremony performed at intervals from time immemorial! about 1000 British under sir Charles McCarthy at Ac- Records are found of the “scouring" in 1755, 27 May; 1776, cra, and brought away his skull, with others, as tro- 15 May; 1780, 1785, 1803, 1812 or 1813, 1825, 19, 20 Sept. ; Sept. phies.

.21 Jan. 1824 1843.


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Ashmolean Museum (books, manuscripts, coins, | Danube was destroyed, and Napoleon's retreat endanetc.) was presented to the university of Oxford by Elias gered; but the success of the Austrians was fruitless to Ashmole, the herald and antiquary, and opened 1682. It them. included the collections of the Tradescants, to whom he was executor. He died at Lambeth in 1692. The Ash- rived from decayed vegetable matter.

Asphalt, a solid bituminous substance, probably de

It was used as a molean Society, Oxford (scientific), was established in building material in ancient Babylon. Its application 1828.

for this purpose was revived by Eirinus, a Greek physiAshtaroth, a Phænician goddess, occasionally cian, who discovered beds of it near Ncufchatel in 1712. worshipped by the Israelites (see Judg. ii. 13), about Asphalt stone was found at Seyssel, near Geneva, in 1406 B.C., and even by Solomon, about 981 B.C. (1 Kings 1802; and, after several failures, count Sassenay brought xi. 5).

it into use for pavement about 1832. The artificial asAsh-Wednesday, the first day of Lent, which in phalt obtained from gas-works began to be used as paveearly times began on the Sunday now called the first in ment about 1838. Claridge's patent asphalt was laid Lent. It is said that pope Felix III., in 487, first added down in Trafalgar Square, Jan. 1864. Various kinds of the four days preceding the old Lent Sunday to raise the asphalt pavement have been since laid in London and number of fasting days to forty; that Gregory the Great New York. (pope, 590) introduced the sprinkling of ashes on the Aspromonte (Naples). Here Garibaldi was lefeatfirst of the four additional days, and hence the names of ed, wounded, and taken prisoner 29 Aug. 1862, having Dies Cinerum, or Ash-Wednesday. At the Reformation injudiciously risen against the French occupation of this practice was abolished " as being a mere shadow, or Rome. vain show.” Ash-Wednesday, 1882, 22 Feb.; 1883, 7

Assam (N.E. India), acquired by the British in Feb.; 1884, 27 Feb.; 1885, 18 Feb.

1825, and surrendered by the king of Ava in 1826. The Asia, the largest division of the globe, so called by tea-plant was discovered here by Mr. Bruce in 1823. A the Greeks from the nymph Asia, daughter of Oceanus superintendent of the tea-forests was appointed in 1836, and Tethys, and wise of Japhet. Asia was the first the cultivation of the plant having been recommended quarter of the world peopled: here the law of God was by lord William Bentinck in 1834. The Assam Tea first promulgated; here many of the greatest mon- Company, by whom Chinese laborers and coolies were archies of the earth had their rise; and hence most of introduced, was established in 1839. After several years, the arts and sciences have been derived. Its early his- the plantations suffered severely, it is said, through overtory is derived from the Bible and from Herodotus, who speculation and neglect of the laborers; as a remedy, a relates the wars of Cræsus, Cyrus, and others; see Jews, labor act was passed at Calcutta about July, 1867. China, India, Persia, Turkey, and the other countries.

Assassination Plot, said to have been formed by Asia Minor, now ANATOLIA, comprised the Ionian the earl of Aylesbury and others to assassinate William colonies on the coast, the early seats of Greek civiliza- III., near Richmond, Surrey, and restore James II., 14 tion, and the countries Mysia, Phrygia, Lycia, Bithynia, Feb. 1695-6. It was discovered by Prendergast. Caria, Lydia, Cappadocia, Galatia, etc., with the cities

Assassins, or AssasSINIANS, fanatical Mahometans, Troy, Ephesus, Smyrna (all which see). From the time collected by Hassan-ben-Sabah, and settled in Persia of the rise of the Assyrian monarchy, about 2000 B.C., to about 1090. In Syria they possessed a large tract of that of the Turks under Osman, Asia Minor was the bat- land among the mountains of Lebanon. They murdertle-field of the conquerors of the world.

ed the marquess of Montferrat in 1192, Lewis of Bavaria First settlement of the Ionian Greeks.. about B.c. 1043 in 1213, and the khan of Tartary in 1254. They were Asia Minor subdued by the Medes.

.. about 711 extirpated in Persia about 1258 and in Syria about 1272. Conquered by Cyrus..

.about 546 Contest between the Greeks and Persians. .begins 544

The chief of the corps was named “ Ancient of the MounAsia Minor conquered by Alexander..

332 tain,and “ Old Man of the Mountain." They trained Contended for by his successors; separate kingdoms es. up young people to assassinate such persons as their tablished....

chief had devoted to destruction.-Hénault. From them Gradually acquired by the Romans......B.C. 188 to A.D. Possessed by the Persians.

came the word ussassin. Partially recovered by the emperor Basil.

Invaded by Timour.
Taken from the Greek emperor, and established as an

See Rome, Emperors, for many assassinations, empire by the Turks under Mahomet I... 1413 Abdul Aziz, sultan (see Turkey, 1881).

.4 June, 1876 (See Turkey.)

Affre, Denis, abp. of Paris. . 25 June, died 27 June, 1813

Albert I., emperor of Germany, by his nephew John, Asiatic Societies. The “ Asiatic Society of Ben

1 May, 1308 gal,” at Calcutta, was established by sir William Jones Alexander II. of Russia; attempts : by Karakozow at St. in 1784, " the bounds of its investigation to be the geo

Petersburg, 16 April, 1866; by Berezowski at Paris, 6

June, 1867; by Alexander Soloviefr, 14 April, 1879; by graphical limits of Asia.” The “Royal Asiatic Society," undermining a railway train, 1 Dec. 1879; by explosion which has several branches in India, was founded in of Winter palace, St. Petersburg, 17 Feb. 1850; killed 1823. It established the “ Oriental Translation Fund” by explosion of a bomb thrown by a man who is him. in 1828, which had published 83 volumes of Eastern lit- ufovso XI. or Spain; attempts : by J. O. Moncasi, 25 Oct.

self killed, St. Petersburg...

.2 p.m. 13 March, 1881 erature in 1865; the “Literary Society of Madras," 1845. 1878; by Francisco Otero Gonzalez.

30 Dec. 1879

Amadeus, duke of Aosta, when king of Spain; attempt. Askesian Society (from the Greek äoxnoic, eser

19 July, 1872 cise), instituted in March, 1796, by some young men for Artaxerxes III. of Persin; by Bagoas. discussing philosophical subjects. Its founders were

Aumale, duc d'; attempt...

13 Sept. 1841 William Allen, William Phillips, Alexander Tilloch, Luke Becket, Thomas à abp. of Canterbury..

Beaton, David, cardinal; by reformers.. ..... 29 May, 1546

29 Dec. 1170 Howard, W. H. Pepys, and others. In 1806 it merged Berri, Charles duc de (rather of the comte de Chambordl). into the Geographical Society.

13 Feb. 1820

Bismarck, prince; attempt, by Blind, 7 May, 1866; by Asmonæans, the proper name of the family termed Kullinann.

13 July, 1874 Maccabees (which see).

Bratiano, premier of Roumania; attempt, by J. Pietraro,

14 Dec, 1880 Asperne, Great, a town, and Essling, a village Buckingham, George Villiers, duke of; by John Felton, near the Danube and Vienna, where a series of desperate

23 Aug 1628 conflicts took place between the Austrian army under Burgundy, John the Fearless, duke of; by Orleanists

, the archduke Charles and the French under Napoleon, Cæsar, Julius; by Brutus and others.

10 Sept. 1419

15 March, B.O. Massena, etc., on 21-22 May, 1809, ending in the retreat Capo d'Istria, count; Greek statesman. of Napoleon. The Austrian loss exceeded 20,000 men, Darboy, Georges, abp. of l'aris; by communists. 24. May 1971

Daniel, prince of Montenegro...

13 Aug 1860 and the French 30,000. Marshal Lannes, mortally Darus 111. of Persia; by Besstis.

July, B.C. wounded 22 May, died 31 May. The bridge of the l Edmund the Elder, of Engl..dd..


15 609 874 1402

abont B.C.


44 .9 Oct. 1831

23 March, 94;


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