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counties. The bishopric of Orkney, founded by St. Ser- | water-mole, a singular compound of the mammal and the vanus early in the fifth century--some affirm by St. bird, a native of Australia, was tirst described by Dr. Colm-ended with the abolition of episcopacy in Scot- Shaw in 1819. land, about 1689; see Bishops in Scotland.

Oroquieta, Navarre (N. Spain). Here don Carlos Orleans (a city in central France), formerly Aure- --calling himself king Carlos VII.-grandson of don lianum; gave title to a kingdom, 491, and afterwards to Carlos, brother of Ferdinand VII., commanding about a duchy, usually held by one of the royal family. At- 4000 men, was suddenly attacked by gen. Moriones with tila the Hun, besieging it, was defeated by Aetius and about 2000, and defeated after a short conflict, 4 May, his allies, 451. It was besieged by the English under 1872. He fled, leaving 757 prisoners and 38 dead. earls of Salisbury and Suffolk, 12 Oct. 1428; bravely de- Orphan-houses. The emperor Trajan first formed fended by Gaucour (as its fall would have ruined the establishments for this purpose. Pliny relates in his cause of Charles VI., king of France); and relieved by Panegyric that he had caused 5000 free-born children to the heroism of Joan of Arc, afterwards surnamed the be sought out and educated, about A.D. 105. OrphanMaid of Orleans, 29 April, 1429, and the siege was raised houses properly so called are mentioned for the first time 18 May; see Joan of Arc. (The 439th anniversary was in the laws of the emperor Justinian. At the court of celebrated 10 May, 1868; the emperor and empress being Byzantium the office of inspector of orphans, orphanopresent.) During the siege of Orleans, Feb. 1563, the trophos, was so honorable that it was held by the brothduke of Guise was assassinated.

er of the emperor Michael IV. in the eleventh century; After nine hours' severe fighting, Orleans captured by see Foundling Hospitals.

the Germans, under gen. Von der Tann. More than 4000 prisoners were taken. The loss on both sides

The Orphantropheon at Halle, established by August was heavy. About 35,000 on each side were enguged.


1698-9 The city was made to pay a war contribution of 60,0001.

The Orphan Working Asylum for 20 boys was established

at Hoxton in 1758. It is now situated at Haverstock

11 Oct. 1870 Von der Tann and the Bavarians defeated by gens. D'Au

hill, and contains 350 boys and girls. relle de Paladines and Pallieres, and Orleans retaken.

Asylum for Female Orphans, Lambeth; removed to Bed. The Germans acknowledged the loss of about 700 men

dington, near Croydon; instituted.


London Orphan Asylum founded 1813; removed to Clapand 1000 prisoners, chiefly wounded. The French as. serted the numbers of both to be higher, and were

ton, 1823; new building at Watford, founded by the much cheered with their victory. The French loss

prince of Wales, 13 July, 1869 ; opened........20 July, 1871 was heavy. The chief conflict took place between

British Orphan Asylum, Clapham rise, established 1827; Coulmiers and Bacon or Baccon... ..9, 10 Nov

removed to Slough, Bucks; reopened... .25 June, 1863 Severe conflicts at Bazoche and Chevilly, near Orleans,

The fyfant Orphan Asylum at Wanstead (1827); and the between a part of the army of the Loire and prince

Asylum for Fatherless Children (in 1844; settled at Frederick Charles and the grand-duke of Mecklenburg,

Reedham, Surrey), established mainly through the ex2-4 Dec.

ertions of a Congregational minister, the rev. Andrew A battle, during which the suburbs were stormed, and

Reed, D.D. about 10,000 unwounded prisoners, 77 guns, and four

Orphan-houses, Ashley down, Bristol, founded by George gunboats taken. The French retired; Orleans retaken

Müller, a Prussian, supported entirely by voluntary by the Germans.....

contributions. (He began in a house in Bristol, 11 April, ..5 Dec.

1836.) 2050 orphans were maintained, 1873; reported prosperous..

1876 Louis contended for the regency with John the Fearless, duke Erdington Orphanage and Alms houses, near Birming. of Burgundy, by whose instigation he was assassinated in

ham, erected and endowed (with 250,0001.) by Josiah 1407.

Mason, a manufacturer of Birmingham..

1860-9 Charles taken prisoner at Agincourt, 1415; released, 1440; Royal Albert Orphan Asylum at Bagshot, established died, 1465.

1864; additional buildings founded by the queen, 29 Louis became Louis XII. of France in 1498, when the duchy

June, 1867. merged in the crown.

Alexandra Orphanage for Infants, Holloway, 1864; souvd. Bourbon Branch. -- Philip, youngest son of Louis XIII., born

ation of building laid, 6 July, 1867. 1640; died 1701.

Stockwell Orphanage, Clapham road, founded by Rev. C. Philip II., son, born 1673; REGENT 1715; died 1723.

Spurgeon, aided by legacy of Miss Hillyard

1867 Louis, son, born 1703; died 1752.

Orphans Homes: Maida bill, 1873; West square, South Louis Philippe, son, born 1725; died 1785.

wark; and Gravesend.. Louis Philippe Joseph, son, born 1747; opposed the court in the French revolution; took the name Egalité, 11 Sept.

Orpheonists, see Crystal Palace, 1860.
1792; voted for the death of Louis XVI. ; was guillotined 6 Orpheus, STEAMER, see Wrecks, 7 Feb. 1863.

Nov. 1793.
Louis Philippe, son, born 6 Nov. 1773; chosen king of the

Orrery, a planetary machine to illustrate and exFrench 9 Aug. 1830; abdicated 24 Feb. 1848; died 26 Aug. plain the motions of the heavenly bodies, appears to 1850. His queen, Marie Amélie, died 24 March, 1866 ; see bave been coeval with the clepsydra. Ptolemy devised

France. Ferdinand Philippe, son, duke of Orleans, born 3 Sept. 1810; the circles and epicycles that distinguish his system died, through a fall, 13 July, 1812.

about 130. The planetary clock of Finée was begun Louis Philippe, son, count of Paris, born 24 Aug. 1838; mar. ried Maria Isabella, daughter of the duke of Montpensier, 30 1650. The planetarium, now termed the Orrery, it is

1553. The planetarium of De Rheita was formed about May, 1864. A daughter, Maria Amelia, born 28 Sept. 1865. The demand of the Orleans princes to return to France,

said, was constructed by Rowley, after a pattern devised 19 June, refused by the legislative assembly after dis.

by the clock-maker George Graham, at the expense of cussion...

2 July, 1870 Charles Boyle, earl of Orrery, about 1715. A large“ planTheir request to serve in the army after the fall of the

etarium" was constructed by the rev. William Pearson, empire declined.

.Sept. [The duc de Chartres served incognito.)

for the Royal Institution, London, about 1803. An exAfter discussion, the duc d'Aumale and the prince de cellent planetarium, constructed in London by signor N.

Joinville permitted to take their seats as members of Perini, was exhibited in Dec. 1879. the national assembly..

..19 Dec. After much discussion, the comte de Paris at a personal

Orsini's Plot against the emperor Napoleon III. ; interview recognized the comte de Chambord as the see France, Jan. 1858. legitimate head of the Bourbon family and king of

Orthès, or (RTHEZ (S. France), once capital of the France.

.5 Aug. 1873 For consequent proceedings, see France.. ......1873 et seq. principality of Bearn. Near it the British and Spanish The bodies of king Louis l'hilippe and others of his fam- armies, commanded by Wellington, defeated the French,

ily removed from England and buried in the mauso- under Soult, 27 Feb. 1814. The battle of Toulouse soon leum at Dreux.

.9 June, 1876

followed. Orleans, New, see New Orleans.

Orthopædic Hospitals, for the cure of club-foot, Ormulum, a metrical version of the Gospels and spinal curvatures, etc. : National, Great Portland street, Acts, in early English, made by Orm, an ecclesiastic, in founded 1836; Royal, Hanover square, 1838; City, 1851. the twelfth century, printed at Oxford in 1852, from a Osborne House (Isle of Wight) was purchased by MS. in the Bodleian.

the queen in 1815, and rebuilt by Mr. Cubitt. Ornithology, see Birds.

Osmium, one of the heaviest known metals, discove Ornithorhynchus, the duck-billed platypus, or cred in platinum ore by Tennant in 1803.

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Osnaburg (N. Germany) made the seat of a bish- boring islands were taken possession of by admiral Duopric by Charlemagne, near the end of the eighth cen- petit-Thouars in the name of the French king, Nov. 1843. tury. After the treaty of Westphalia in 1648, the bishop The French imprisoned Mr. Prichard, the English conwas a Roman Catholic and Protestant alternately, the sul, 5 March, 1844, but the act was censured in France. latter being chosen from the house of Brunswick. Fred- Queen Pomare IV., born 23 Feb. 1813; succeeded her brother, erick, duke of York, the last bishop, resigned in 1803, Pomare III., in Jan. 1827; died 17 Sept. 1877, having reignwhen the lands were annexed to Hanover. He died 5

ed 50 years. By consent of her successor, the island was

formally annexed to France, 29 June, 1880. Jan, 1827. Ossory (S.E. Ireland), BISHOPRIC OF, was first plant-vented by Mr. w. Crookes for studying molecular mo

Otheoscope (from újéw, I propel), apparatus ined at Saiger about 402; translated to Aghadoe, in Upper tion, the effects of radiation ; described by him, April, Ossory, in 1052; and to Kilkenny about the end of the

1877. reign of Henry II. It was united to Ferns and Leighlin in 1835.

Ottawa (formerly Bytown), on the river Ottawa, Ostend (Belgium) sustained a siege by the Span- in Aug. 1858. The executive council met here 22 Nov.

was appointed to be the capital of Canada by the queen iards from July, 1601, to Sept. 1604, when it honorably 1865, and the Canadian parliament was, for the first capitulated. On the death of Charles II. of Spain, the French seized Ostend ; but in 1706, after the battle of time, opened here by the governor-general

, lord Monck,

on 8 June, 1866. Mr. Darcy McGee, M.P. for Montreal Ramillies, it was retaken by the allies. It was again (once an Irish agitator, but afterwards exceedingly taken by the French in 1745, but restored in 1748. In

loyal), was assassinated on his return from parliament, 1756, the French garrisoned this town for the empress- 7 April

, 1868. Fenians were suspected, and the town queen Maria Theresa. In 1792, the French once more

was put in a state of siege. Whelan, convicted of the took Ostend, which they evacuated in 1793, but regained murder, 15 Sept. 1868, was executed Feb. 1869. A Doin 1794. The English destroyed the works of the Bruges minion exhibition was opened here 24 Sept. 1879. Popcanal; but, the wind shifting before they could re-em- ulation in 1861, 14,669; in 1871, 21,545. bark, they surrendered to the French, 19 May, 1798. The Ostend East India Company, established 1723, was dis

Otterburn (Northumberland). In 1388, the Scotch solved 1731; see Cuba, note.

besieged Newcastle and were driven off by Henry Percy

(Hotspur), son of the earl of Northumberland. Percy Ostracism (from the Greek ootpakov, a potsherd or pursued them to Otterburn, where a battle was fought shell), a mode of proscription at Athens, is said to have on 10 Aug., in which the earl of Douglas was killed and been first introduced by the tyrant Hippias; others as

Percy taken prisoner. On this battle the ballad of cribe it to Cleisthenes, about 510 B.C. The people wrote

Chevy Chase” is founded. the names of those whom thựy most suspected upon small shells; these they put in an urn or box and presented to

Ottoman Empire, see Turkey. the senate. Upon a scrutiny, he whose name was often- Oude, or Oudh (North India), formerly a vice-royalest written was sentenced by the council to be banished ty held by the vizier of the great mogul. About 1760 from his altar and hearth. 6000 votes were required. it was seized by the vizier Sujah-ud-Dowlah, ancestor Aristides, noted for his justice, and Miltiades, for his of the late king. victories, were thus ostracized. The custom was abol- Battle of Buxar, whero Sujah and his ally, Meer Cossim, ished by ironically proscribing Hyperbolus, a mean per

are totally defeated, and the British become virtually masters of Oude.

23 Oct. 1764 son, about 338 B.C.

Reign of Asoph-ud-Dowlah, who cedes Benares, etc., to Ostrich (the struthios of the ancients), a native of the East India Company, who place troops in Oude Africa (see Job xxxix. 14). Ostriches were hatched

(see Chunar)...

[The annual subsidy to the company in 1787 was and reared at San Donato, near Florence, 1859-60; and at

500,0001. ; in 1794, 760,0001. ; in 1801, 1,352,3471.)
Tresco Abbey, the seat of Augustus Smith, in the Scilly Moro territories ceded to the company
Isles, 1866.

Ghazee-ud-deen becomes king, with the consent of the
British. ......

1819 Ostrogoths, or EASTERN Goths, were distinguish- Dreadful misgovernment of Nusser-ud-deen.. 1827-37 ed from the Visigoths (Western Goths) about 330. Af- [At his death, the British resident, col. Lowe, promptter ravaging eastern Europe, Thrace, etc., their great

ly suppresses an insurrection.] Mahomed Ali governs well...

.1837-42 leader, Theodoric, established a kingdom in Italy, which But his son, Umjeed Ali Shah.

.1842-7 lasted from 493 to 553; see Ituly.

And grandson, Waud Ali Shah, exceed all their pred

.1847-56 Ostrolenka (Poland). Near here the French de

ecessors in profligacy...

In consequence (by virtue of the treaty of 1801), Oude is feated the Prussians, 16 Feb. 1807. In another battle

annexed to the British territories by decree, proclaim. here, between the Poles and Russians, the slaughter

7 Feb. 1856 was immense, but the Poles remained masters of the The queen and prince of Oude, etc., arrive in London to

appeal. .

...20 Aug. field, 26 May, 1831.

Oude joins the Indian mutiny; ex-king of Oude impris. Oswego, Forr. This fort, at Oswego, on Lakc On- oned (on suspicion).

.14 June, 1857 tario, was built by the English. It was captured by

The queen dies at Paris, 24 Jan.; and the prince at Lon

26 Feb. 1858 Montcalm in 1756, and was nearly demolished. There

(For the war, see India, 1857–8.) was a small garrison there in the spring of 1813, when Triumphal entry of the governor-general into Lucknow; on 5 May, 1814, a British fleet, with 3000 men, appear

the Talookdars (land-owners) receive a free grant of their estates....

22 Oct. 1859 ed before it. Of these 1750 landed and attacked the Grand durbar held at Lucknow by the viceroy, sir John fort. They were repulsed by the garrison, under lieut.- Lawrence.

12 Nov. 1867 col. Mitchell.

Oude is said to be prospering under British rule. Otago, see New Zealand, 1818, 1861, 1866.

Oudenarde (Belgium). Here the English and alOtaheite, or Taurti, an island in the South Pacific lies, under the duke of Marlborough and prince Eugene, ocean, seen by Byron in 1765, and visited in 1767 by thoroughly defeated the French besiegers, 11 July, 1708 capt. Wallis, who called it George III. Island. Capt. Oulart (S.E. Ireland). Here 5000 Irish insurgents Cook came hither in 1768 to observe the transit of Ve- attacked the king's troops, in small numbers, 27 May, nus; sailed around the whole island in a boat, and 1798. The North Cork militia, after great feats of braistayed three months; he visited it twice afterwards; ery, were cut to pieces, five men only escaping.–Jussee Cook. Omai, a native of this island, was brought grare. to England by Cook, and carried back in his last voy- Ounce (from uncia), the sixteenth part of the age. In 1799, king Pomare ceded the district of Mata-pound avoirdupois and twelfth of the pound troy. Its vai to some English missionaries. Queen Pomare was precise weight was fixed by Henry III., who decreed compelled to put herself under the protection of France, that an English ounce should be 640 dry grains of 9 Sept. 1813. She retracted, and Otaheite and the neigh- / wheat; that twelve of these ounces should be a pound;




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and that eight pounds should be a gallon of wine, Visit of the allied sovereigns..


British Association met here. 1233.

1832, 1847, 1860

Oxford Military College, Cowley, opened... 20 Sept. 1876 Ourique (Portugal), where Alfonso, count or duke

Oxford Administration, formed 29 May, 1711. of Portugal, is said to have encountered five Saracen kings and a great army of Moors, 25 July, 1139, and Robert, earl of Oxford (previously right hon. Robert Harley), signally defeated them; and then to have been hailed Sir Simon (afterwards lord) Harcourt, lord keeper.

lord treasurer. the first king. Lisbon, the capital, was taken, and he John, duke of Normandy and Buckingham, lord president. soon after was crowned.

John, bishop of Bristol (afterwards London), privy seal. Outlaw, one deprived of the benefit of the law, and Henry St.John (afterwards viscount Bolingbroke), and Will

iam, lord Dartmouth, secretaries of state. out of the sovereign's protection; a punishment for such Robert Benson (afterwards lord Bingley), chancellor of the exas being called in law do contemptuously refuse to ap, The duke of Shrewsbury succeeded lord Oxford, receiving the

chequer. pear. In the reign of Edward III., all the judges agreed

lord treasurer's staff on 30 July, 1714, three days before the that none but the sheriff only having lawful warrant death of queen Anne. From the reign of George I. the of. therefor should put to death any man outlawed.-Cowel. fice of lord treasurer has been executed by commissioners. Outlawry in civil proceedings was abolished by 42 & 43 Oxford Bishopric, established by Henry VIII., Vict. c. 59, 15 Aug. 1879.

formed out of Lincoln, first placed at Osney in 1542; reOuzel Galley Society. In 1700, the case of the moved to Oxford cathedral (formerly St. Frideswide, Ouzel Galley, a ship in the port of Dublin, excited great now Christ Church), 1545. Present income, 50001. legal perplexity, and was referred to an arbitration of merchants, whose prompt decision was highly approved. 1807. Charles Moss; died 16 Dec. 1811. This led to the present society, founded in 1705. 1812. William Jackson; died 2 Dec. 1815.

1815. Edward Legge; died 27 Jan. 1827. Ovariotomy. This important surgical operation 1827. Charles Lloyd; died 31 May, 1829. was devised and first performed by Dr. E. McDowell, of 1829. Richard Bagot; translated to Bath, Nov. 1845.

1845. Samuel Wilberforce; translated to Winchester, Nov. Kentucky, U.S., 1809.

Ovation, an inferior triumph which the Romans al- 1869. John Fielder Mackarness. lowed those generals of their army whose victories were Oxford Declaration, see Church of England, not considerable. Publius Posthumius Tubertus was 1864. the first who was decreed an ovation, 503 B.C. A sheep

Oxford Marbles, see Arundeliun. (ovis) was offered by the general instead of a bull. Overland Mail, see Waghorn. The overland forms; enacted by “the mad parliament.” June, 1258 ;

Oxford, PROVISIONS OF, for several political remail travelled first through the Cenis tunnel to Brindi- several times annulled and contirmed during the “ barsi, saving 24 hours, 5 Jan. 1872.

ons' war." Overseers of the poor for parishes were appointed

Oxford Union Society, established as a debatin 1601; see Poor-laws.

ing club in 1823; among its early members are, or were, Owens College, Manchester, founded by means Gladstone, bishop Wilberforce, lord Stanhope, archbishof a bequest of 100,0001. by John Owens, merchant, who op Manning, Sidney Herbert, archbishop Tait, etc. It died in 1846. A new constitution was obtained in 1870; held a jubilee festival 22 Oct. 1873, the lord chancellor and the duke of Devonshire, president, laid the first Selborne in the chair. stone of the new building, 23 Sept. 1870, and opened it

Oxford University. An academy here is de8 Oct. 1873. Mr. E. R. Langworthy bequeathed 10,0001. scribed as ancient by pope Martin II. in a deed, 802. to develop the chair of experimental physics, 1874. The Alfred founded “the schools” about 879. college proposed as a university, July, 1876-8; see Vic

Charter granted by Henry III. ...

1248 toria University.

Charter of Edward III., 1355; of Henry VIII.. Owhyhee, or Hawaii, an island in the N. Pacific The university incorporated by Elizabeth...

Receives the elective franchise (to send two members to ocean, discovered Dec. 1778 by capt. Cook. On 14 Feb.


1604 1779 he here fell a victim to a sudden resentment of the Bodleian Library opened, 8 Nov. 1602; building com. natives. A boat having been stolen by one of the isl- pleted.

1613 anders, the captain went on shore to seize the king, and The botanic garden, etc., established by the earl of

1622 keep him as a hostage till the boat was restored. The Radcliile Library opened, 13 April, 1749; the Radcliffe people would not submit to this insult, and their observatory completed.

1786 resistance brought on hostilities, and capt. Cook and

A commission appointed (31 Aug. 1850) to inquire into

its “state, studies, discipline, and revenues;" reportsome of his companions were killed. Great progress

27 April, 1852 has been recently made in civilization here, and an or- Acts making alterations passed..

1854, 1856 der of nobility and a representative assembly were iu- University Museum opened.

..July, 1860

Examination statutes passed. stituted in 1860. The population then was about 120,- Extension of the university proposed at a meeting held

..1801, 1807, 1850, 1862 000, about 60,000 in 1878; a railway opened in 1878;

16 Nov. 1865 see Sandwich Isles.

University tests abolished by act passed........16 June, 1871

Royal commission to inquire respecti university propOwners of Land, see Domesday.

erty, etc., appointed...

..6 Jan. 1872 Oxalic Acid, which exists in several plants, espe

Income in 1871 reported to be - university, 47,5891.

Os. 3d. ; colleges and halls, 366,2531. 168. 3d. ; total, 413,cially in sorrel, is now abundantly obtained for use in

8421. 16s. 60...

..Oct. 1874 the arts from sawdust acted upon by caustic potash or Hebdomadal board reported that about 100,0001. was

needed for education in science.. soda, according to Dr. Dale's process, patented in 1862.

June, 1875

Lord llchester's bequest to promote the study of SlavoOxford, an ancient city, restored by king Alfred, nian literature, especially Polish; first lectures given, who resided here and established a mint, etc., about 879.


New commission appointed (lords Selborne and RedesCanute held a national council here......


dale, Montague Bernard, sir M. W. Ridley, dean BurStormed by William I....


gon, and Mr. Justice Grove); announced.. .27 March, 1876 Charter by Henry II., the city granted to the burgesses Oxford University bill withdrawn, July, 1876; the Uniby John. 1199 versities act passed

10 Aug 1877 Henry III. holds the “mad” parliament here.

1258 The commission publish a new scheme for professors, Bishops Ridley and Latimer burned here, 16 Oct. 1555;

etc., very restrictive..

.2 Nov. 1880 and archbishop Cranmer..

...21 March, 1556 Fatal (or Black) Oxford Assizes, when the high-sheriff

and 300 other persons died suddenly of an infection University, said to have been founded by king Alfred, from the prisoners..

1557 872; founded by William, archdeacon of Durham, Charles I. took Oxford, 1642, and held a parliament here, 1644

about 1232 Taken by the parliament..

24 June, 1646 Balliol, founded by John Balliol, knight (father to BalCharles II. held parliaments here.

. 1665 and 1681 liol, king of the Scots), and Deborah, his wife......... 1263






ter ...


Merton College, by Walter de Merton, bishop of Roches- of perfect combustion in lamps, stoves, furnaces, etc.

1264 Hertford College, 1312; dissolved in 1805, and a Hertford

Oxygen was liquefied by Raoul Pictet at Geneva (pressscholarship appointed; revived, and Magdalen Hall ure, 320 atmospheres, temp. 140 below zero cent.), 22 incorporated with it...

1874 Dec. 1877; see Ozone. Exeter, by Walter Stapleton, bishop of Exeter.

1314 Oriel College, by king Edward II.; Adam de Brome,

A statue of Priestley, by F. J. Williamson, at Birmingham, was archde. con of Stowe..


unveiled by professor T. H. Huxley, 1 Aug. 1874, the cente. Queen's College, by Robert de Eglesfield, clerk, confessor

nary of the discovery of oxygen. This was also celebrated

1340 to queen Philippa, consort of Edward III..

at Northumberland, Pa., where he was buried, Feb. 1804. New College, by William of Wykeham, bishop of Win

The following telegram was sent 31 July: “The brethren at chester; first called St. Mary of Winchester, founded

the grave to the brethren at the home of Priestley send 1379; occupied 1386 (500th anniversary celebrated 14

greeting on this centennial anniversary of the birth of Oct. 1879).

chemistry.” All-Souls College, by Henry Chichely, archbishop of Can- Oyer and Terminer, a commission directed to the terbury...


judges of the courts, by virtue whereof they have power Magdalen, by William of Waynflete, bishop of Winches

1456 to hear and determine treasons, felonies, etc., 1285. Lincoln College, by Richard Fleming, 1427; finished by

O yes! A corruption of the French oyez, hear ye! Rotherham, bishop of Lincoln.

1479 Brazenose, by William Smyth, bishop of Lincoln, and sir

The ancient term still used by a public crier and by the Richard Sutton..

1509 usher of courts of justice to enjoin silence and attention. Corpus Christi, by Richard Fox, bishop of Winchester. 1516 Christ Church, by cardinal Woisey, 1525; and afterwards

Oyster (the Latin Ostrea edulis). British oysters by Henry VIII..

1532 are celebrated by the Roman satirist Juvenal (Sat. iv. Trinity, by sir Thomas Pope, on the basis of a previous 110), about 100. The robbery of oyster-beds is prohibited institution called Durham College

1554 St. John's, by sir Thomas Whyte, lord mayor of London: 1555 by 7 & 8 Geo. IV.c. 29 (1827). About 15,000 bushels of Jesus College, by Dr. Hugh Price and queen Elizabeth... 1571 oysters were said to be produced from the Essex beils Wadham, by Nicholas Wadham, and Dorothy, his wife.. 1613 alone. In 1858 M. Coste commenced rearing oysters in Pembroke, by Thomas Teesdale and Richard Wightwick, clerk

great numbers on the coast of Brittany, and his plan has

1624 Worcester, by sir Thomas Coke, of Bentley, in Worcester- been found successful. shire; it was originally called Gloucester College... 1714

An act for promoting the cultivation of oysters in the Keble College (see Keble College); first stone laid by arch

United Kingdom passed..

...... Aug. 1866 bishop of Canterbury, 25 April, 1868; consecrated,

One for the preservation of oyster-fisheries ......3 May, 1867

23 June, 1870 Certain restrictions of the Oyster-lisheries act, 1862, reIndian Institute, founded 1878 or 1879.

moved by the Fisheries act..

1868 HALLS* (not incorporated).

The Fisheries (oyster, crab, and lobster) act forbids the St. Edmund's


sale of deep-sea oysters between 15 June and 4 Aug; St. Mary's


and the sale of others between 14 May and 4 Aug; New Inn Hall


...10 Aug. 1877 St. Mary Magdalen (incorporated with Hertford College, Oysters, about 1830 the commonest of food, are now becoming 1874)..


scarcer and scarcer, although their reproduction is about St. Alban's..


half-a-million-fold. A committee recommend a close time (Oxford University Calendar.)

for dredging-viz., 1 May to 1 Sept.; deep sea fishing to be

restricted, as at present, from 15 June to 15 Aug ; no oyster First Professorships. --Divinity (Margaret) 1502; Divin.

to be sold under 2inches in diameter. The Whitstable ity, Law, Medicine, Hebrew, Greek, 1540, etc.

beds, in 1875, are said to have produced about 79,564,000 RECENT CHANCELLORS.

oysters; value about 55, 1401.

American and Portuguese oysters are now largely imported 1809. William, baron Granville. 1834. Arthur, duke of Wellington.


A special investigation of the oyster-trade of the United States 1852. Edward, earl of Derby; died 23 Nov. 1869.

was made in connection with the census of 1880. The in. 1869. Robert, marquess of Salisbury, elected 12 Nov.

dustry is very large, the wholesale trade of New York alone Oxford's Act, BISHOP OF, see District Churches.

amounting to more than $25,000,000 annually. The expor.

tation of American oysters began about 1878, when the Oxford's Assault on THE QUEEN. Edward Ox- value of the exports was $393,053. In 1879 it was $153,305. ford, a youth who had been a servant in a public-house, Ozokerit, a mineral hydro-carbon found in Moldadischarged two pistols at queen Victoria and prince Al- via and Wallachia. From it is distilled a substance bert, as they were proceeding up Constitution hill in an suitable for making candles; introduced in the autumn open phaeton from Buckingham palace, 10 June, 1840. of 1871. He stood within a few yards of the carriage, but neither her majesty nor the prince was injured. Oxford was

Ozone (from the Greek óskiv, to yield an odor) was tried at the Ol Bailey (10 July), and was adjudged to discovered by Schönbein of Basel in 1840, when experbe insane, and sent tirst to Betlilehem hospital, next to imenting with the then newly invented battery of sit Broadmoor; and set at liberty in 1868, on condition of William Grove, and was recognized by him successively going abroad.

as a minute constituent of the oxygen gas resulting Oxus (the Persian and Turkish Djihoun; local high tension; of air or oxygen through which electric

from the electrolysis of water effected by a current of name, Amou Darya), a river of Central Asia ; supposed discharges have taken place; and of air in which moist to have changed its course before a.v. 1000, and to have phosphorus has been undergoing slow oxidation. resumed its ancient bed in 1878.

Marignac determined the action of ozone on various Oxygen, a gas (named from the Greek ošúc, sharp, substances to be due to their oxidation .....

1815 as being generally found in acids), is the most abundant M. Schönbein announced his discovery of another modi

Ozonometers constructed..

1858 of all substances, constituting about one third of the fication of oxygen, which he termed antozone, hitherto solid earth, and forming about nine tenths of water and found only in the compound state (in peroxides of soone fifth of the atmosphere. It was first separated from

dium, potassium, etc.). .....

1859 red oxide of mercury by Priestley, 1 Aug. 1774, and by The French Academy of Sciences appointed a committee

of eminent philosophers to inquire into the nature and Scheele, who was ignorant of Priestley's discovery, in relations of ozone..

4 Dec. 1865 1775. It is a supporter of animal lise (in respiration), Andrews and Tait demonstrated ozone to be a condensed and of combustion. An oxygen gas company was an- This further established by Soret and Brodie, by quanti

form of oxygen.

.. 1860, nounced in Dec. 1864, its object being the cheap manu

tative reactions. (Odling suggested and Brodie proved facture of oxygen for its application to the production ozone to be 3 parts of oxygen compressed into the

space of 2)...


Ozove, generated by a current produced by Wilde's mag * The commissioners' statutes propose annexation of St. neto-electric machine, employed to bleach sugar, ly Alban's to Merton College, New Inn to Balliol, St. Mary's to Edward Beane's patent..

Aug. 1868 Oriel; St. Edmund's will probably be anucxed to Queen's. Liquefied by Hautefeuille and Chappuis..

Oct. 1880


...... 1875

Pacific Ocean, see Magellan ; Steam, 1851; Wrecks, | It revived about the end of the thirteenth century, and

to Giovanni Cimabue of Florence is awarded the honor 1856; Kidnapping A cts; Panama.

of its restoration; died. ...

1300 Pacific Railways. The project for extending John Van Eyck of Bruges and his brother, Hubert, are

regarded as the founders of the Flemish school of the railway system of the United States across the con

painting in oil....

1415 tinent to the Pacific states was first brought to public Uccello first studied perspective; died.

1432 attention by Asa Whitney, who earnestly advocated the Henry VIII. patronized Holbein, and invited Titian to his


... about 1623 scheme from 1846 to 1850.

In Aug. 1860, the sale of lord Northwick's pictures occuBenton's bill for a Pacific railroad introduced into con

pied eighteen days. It produced 95,7251. A Carlo gress....

....7 Feb. 1849

Dolci fetched 20101., and a Murillo 14001. Act providing for surveys passed

. March, 1853 The Bicknell collection, sold in April, 1863, produced Subsidy acts passed

.July, 1862, and July, 1864

25,6001. Work begun at both ends of line.

1863 Mr. William Noy Wilkins invented a process of using oil 40 miles, from Omaha to Fremont, finished


with mineral colors for frescos in 1853; published his Line opened across the continent

.12 May, 1869 “Durability in Art". Northern Pacific Railroad chartered and subsidized..... 1864 Gainsborough's picture of Georgiana, duchess of DevonConstruction begun, 1870; arrested by financial panic... 1873

shire, bought by Messrs. Agnew for 10,1001., stolen New Orleans connected with the Pacific by Southern rail

from their house in Bond street, London...24, 25 May, 1876 way route..

....Jan. 1882 Baron Albert Grant's collection said to have sold for Pacification, Edicts or, the name usually given Mr. Munro's Novar collection sold for 64,975l. ; close of


28 April, 1877 to the edicts of toleration granted by the French kings sale..

.3 June, 1878 to the Protestants; see Ghent.

EMINENT PAINTERS. First edict, by Charles IX., permitting the exercise of the

School. Born Died Reformed religion near all the cities and towns in the Cimabue.


1240 1300 realm. .....Jan. 1562 Giotto...



1336 The Reformed worship permitted in the houses of lords J. Van Eyck.


1366 1441 justiciaries, and certain other persons......... March, 1563 Giorgione.


1477 1511 These edicts revoked, and all Protestant ministers or- Leonardo da Vinci.

Florentine. 1452 1520 dered to quit France in fifteen days..

1568 Raphael d'Urbino.


1483 1520 Edict allowing lords and others to have service in their Paolo Perugino.


1446 1524 houses, and granting public service in certain towns.. 1570 Albert Dürer.


1470 1528 (In Aug. 1572, the same monarch authorized the mas- Quentin Matsys...


1460 1529 sacre of St. Bartholomew (see Bartholomew).)


.. Lombardian


1534 Edict of Pacification by Henry III., April; revoked, Dec. Parmegiano


1503 1540 1576; renewed for six years. ..... Oct. 1577 Hans Holbein...



1543 (Several edicts were published against the Protestants Giulio Romano.


1492 1546 after the six years expired.)

Sebastian del Piomno.


1485 1547 Edict of Henry IV., renewing that of Oct. 1577... 1591 Michael Angelo Buonarotti... Florentine.. 1474 1564 Edict of Nantes (which see), by Henry IV.......13 April, 1698 Titian ..



1576 Pacification of Nismes (which see)... .14 July, 1629 Paul Veronese..


1532 1588 Tintoretto...


1512 1594 Padlocks are said to have been invented by Beecher Annibal Caracci.

Lombardian. 1568 1609 at Nuremberg, 1540, but are mentioned much earlier. Breughel...


1565 1625 P. P. Rubens.


1577 1640 Padua, the Roman Patavium, in Venetia, N. Italy, Domenichino

.Bolognese 1581 1641 said to have been founded by Antenor soon after the fall Vandyck..


1599 1641 Lombardian.... 1575

1642 of Troy, 1183 B.C. It flourished under the Romans. Pa- Guido..

William Dobson.

. English.

1610 1646 tavian Latin was considered very corrupt, and is traced



1600 1650 in Livy, a native of Padua After being an independent P. Potter.


1625 1654 republic, and a member of the Lombard league, Padua Le Seur.


1617 1655 Spagnoletto.


1589 was ruled by the Carrara family from 1318, with a short

1656 Snyders.


1579 1657 interruption, till 1405, when it was seized by the Vene



1599 1660 tians. The university was founded about 1220. It was N. Poussin.


1594 1665

Guercino closed through disturbances, 1848–50.

Bolognese 1590 1666 Hobbima.


1611 1670 Pagans, the heathen, worshippers of idols, not agree- A. Cuyp..


1606 1672 ing in any set form or points of belief. Constantine or

A. Vander Velde.


1638 1672 Salvator Rosa.

Neapolitan.. 1616

1673 dered the pagan temples to be destroyed throughout the Rembrandt



1674 Roman empire, 331; his nephew, Julian, attempted their Gerard Douw.


1630 1680 restoration, 361 ; but paganism was renounced by the Sir Peter Lely...



1680 Mieris..


1635 1681 Roman senate in 388, and tinally overthrown in the reign



1636 1681 of Theodosius the younger, about 391.

Claude Lorraine.


1600 1682 Ostade.


1610 1685 Pai Marire, a name given to the dogmas of the


.. Spanish.

1618 1685 Hau-hau sect; see New Zealand, 1865.



1624 1685

Carlo Dolci. Pains and Penalties, see Queen Caroline.

Florentine. 1616 1686 Wouvermans


1620 1688 Painting. Osymandyas (in Egypt) caused his ex- Le Brun.


1619 1690

Flemish. ploits to be represented in painting, 2100 B.C.-Usher.

Teniers, jun...

1610 . 1694 W. Vander Velde..


1633 1707 Polygnotus, said to be the first portrait and historic Watteau


1684 1721 painter, lived about...

450 Sir Godfrey Kneller


1648 1723 Zeuxis of Heraclea and Parrhasius of Ephesus.... about 400 Sir J. Thornbill



1732 Apelles...

...about 332 | Huysum...


1682 1749 Pausias of Sicyon was the inventor of the encaustic, a Hogarth..


1697 1764 method of burning the colors into wood or ivory, Canaletti


1697 1768 about 360-330 J, Mortimer..


1739 1779 Antiphilus, an Egyptian, is said to have been the inventor R. Wilson...


1714 1782 of the grotesque (Pliny).

332 Gainsborough..


1727 1788 The art was introduced at Rome from Etruria by Quin. C. J. Vernet..

. French

1714 1789 tus Fabius, styled Pictor (Livy)..

291 Sir J. Reynolds..


1723 1792 Excellent pictures brought from Corinth by Mummius.. 146 Romney.


1734 1802 After the death of Augustus, not a single painter of emi. George Morland,


1763 1804 nence appeared for sereral ages; Ludius, who was very Barry


1741 1806 celebrated, is supposed to have been the last, about A. D. 14 Malbone.

American.. 1777 1807 Painting on canvas seems to have been known at Rome Opie.


1761 1807 in 66. Bede, the Saxon historian, knew something of Paul Sandby.


1725 1809 the art; died...

735 | Bourgeois.


1756 1811


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