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1867

1805

1816
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1879
1880

School.

Born Died | added to the Systema Naturæ' by palæontological reCopley

American.

1738 West... English

search."-Huxley. See Man. H. Raeburn.

Ditto

1786 1823 Palæopolis, see Naples. Fuseli.

Ditto

1741

1825 David

French.
1748

Palais Royal, Paris, originally Palais Carlinal,

1825 C. W. Peale

..American.

1741 1827 built for cardinal Richelieu by Lemercier, 1620-36, reGilbert C. Stuart.

Ditto..

1756 1828 ceived its present name when occupied by Louis XIII., Lawrence.

English..

1769

to whom the cardinal gave it shortly before his death Northcote

...Ditto..

1746 1831 Thos. Stothard.

..Ditto..

1755

1834

in 1642. Louis XIV., in 1692, gave it to his nephew A. C. H. Vernet.

French.

1758 1836 Philippe, duke of Orleans, and it became the residence Beechey.

English..

1753 1839 of his successors. It was confiscated by the republic in William Hilton.

.Ditto.

1786 1839

1793, after the execution of Philippe Égalité. Louis Wilkie.

Ditto.

1785 1841 J. Trumbull..

.. American. 1756 1843 Philippe resided in it, 1814-31. It suffered much injury W. Allston..

Ditto..

1779 1843 at the revolution in 1848. Under the second empire it Haydon.

English.

1786

1846

became the residence of prince Jerome and his son NaCollins..

..Ditto. Thos. Cole.

American.

1801 1848 poleon. The buildings were much injured by fire by Etty..

. English.

1787 1849 the communists, 24 May, 1871. Turner.

Ditto

1775 1851 Martin.

Ditto..
1789 1854

Palatinate of the Rhine, one of the seven anC. R. Leslie

Ditto.

1794 1859 cient electorates of Germany. It was long united to Rembrandt Peale.

American.

1778 1860 Bavaria, but was separated in 1294.-Frederick V., the Aug. Egg...

. English.

1816 1863 William Mulready.

elector palatine in 1610, married in 1613 Elizabeth, the Ditto

1786

1863 J. E. H. Vernet...

French.

1789 1863 daughter of James I. of England, and thus was an anF.V. E. De la Croix.

Ditto.

1798 1863 cestor of queen Victoria; see Hanover. In 1619 he was William Hunt..

.English.

1790

1864 elected king of Bohemia, but lost all by his defeat by D. Roberts..

.Ditto.

1864 W. F. Witherington.

.Ditto.

1786

the Austrians at Prague in 1620. The Palatinate was Clarkson Stanfield.

Ditto

1798 1867 horribly ravaged by Tilly in 1622, and by the French in P. Von Cornelius

German.

1787 1867 1688. Several thousands of the ruined peasantry were J. D. A. Ingres.

..French

1781

sent to America by the British government and people. Thomas Creswick

. English.

.. 1811

1869 F. Overbeck

German

1789 1869 The elector palatine Charles Theodore inherited Bavaria D. Maclise..

English..

1811 1870 in 1778; since when the two electorates have been united; Sir George Hayter.

.Ditto.

1792 1871

see Bavaria, Sir E. Landseer

Ditto

1802 1873 W. Kaulbach..

German

1874 Palatine. William the Conqueror made his nephew, W. M. Hunt.

. American.. 1824 1879 Hugh d'Abrincis, count palatine of Chester with the title E. M. Ward.

English. E. W. Cooke Ditto.

of earl, about 1070. Edward III. created the palatine Thomas Webster..

.Ditto.

1800

of Lancaster, 1539; see Lancaster, Duchy of. The bishRichard Redgrave..

Ditto..

1804

oprics of Ely (963) and Durham were also made counBenj. Champney.

. American.. C. W. Cope..

ties palatine. There is also mention made of the county .English. .

1811 W. Page

. American.

1811

palatine of Hexham in 33 Henry VIII. c. 10, which Daniel Huntington.

Ditto.

1816

then belonged to the archbishop of York; but by the W. P. Frith

English.

1819

14th of Elizabeth it was dissolved, and made part of Jobu Faed.

Ditto..

1820 Frederick Goodall

Ditto..

1822

the county of Northumberland. The palatinate jurisS. R. Gifford.

American

1823

diction of Durham was separated from the diocese, and Eastman Johuson..

Ditto..

1824

vested in the crown, 6 Will. IV. c. 19, 21 June, 1836. G. Inness..

Ditto.
F. E. Church..

Ditto.
1826

Pale, the name given to the part of Ireland coloThomas Faed

. English.

1826

nized by the English-viz., parts of the counties of Louth, Jervis McEntee.

American.

1828

Dublin, Meath, and Kildare. Anglo-Irish rulers were A. Bierstadt..

Ditto.

1829 H. S. Marks.

.English.

1829

termed Lords of the Pale. Their arbitrary exactions J. E. Millais.

Ditto.

1829

led to a royal commission of inquiry in 1537. The deF. Leighton..

Ditto.

1830

fection of the lords of the Pale in 1641 was followed by Vicat Cole.

Ditto.. G. D. Leslie ...Ditto..

a general insurrection, and the royal cause was ruined in E. J. Poynter ...Ditto.

1647. In 1652 Ireland was committed to the rule of L. Alma Tadema..

...Dutch..
....... 1836

four commissioners. Palace Court, see Marshalseu and Green Cloth. Palermo (N.W. Sicily), the ancient Panormus. It

Palaces, see Buckingham, St. James's, Parliament, was held by the Carthaginians, 415 B.C. ; taken by Escurial, Tuileries, St. Cloud, Versailles, etc.

the Romans, 254 B.C.; by the Saracens, A.D. 832; and Palæography, ancient writing; see Diplomatics, by the Normans, 1072. Here Roger II. was crowned Writing.

king of Sicily, 1130. Palermo was the scene of the Sicil

ian Vespers (which see), 30 March, 1282. It suffered from Palæologi, a family which reigned as emperors of earthquake in 1726 and 1740. The king Ferdinand rethe East from 1260 to 1453. George Palæologus raised sided at Palermo from 1806 to 1815, while Naples was Alexius Comnenus to the throne in 1081, and thereby ruled by Joseph Bonaparte and Joachim Murat. It refounded his own family. Andrew, the last Palæologus, volted against the tyranny of Ferdinand II. 12 Jan. 1848. son of Thomas, ruler of the Morea, after the overthrow It was attacked by gen. Filangieri, 29 March, 1849, and of his father, became a Mahometan at Constantinople surrendered on 14 May. It was taken by Garibaldi, 6 about 1533. A person who called himself John Anthony June, 1860. An insurrection against the abolition of Palæologus Lascaris died at Turin, Sept. 1874. His the monastic establishments broke out in Palermo on 13 claims were doubted. Palæontology (from the Greek zalaiós, ancient, much bloodshed; order was restored by 22 Sept.

Sept. 1866, and was suppressed by the royal troops with and ovra, beings) treats of the evidences of organic be

Palestine, see Jews. After being several times ings in the earth's strata. It is a branch of geology conquered by the Saracens, and retaken from the seventh (which see). Cuvier, Mantell, Agassiz, Owen, Edward to the tenth century, and after being the scene of the Forbes, and Blainville—all of the present century-may wars of the Crusades (which see), and other conflicts, be reckoned as fathers of this science. The Palæonto- Palestine was united to the Ottoman empire by Selim graphical Society, which publishes elaborate monographs I. in 1516; see Bible (note), Holy Places, and Syria. of British organic remains, was founded in 1847. The

journal Palæontographica (German) began 1851. Pro-Palestine visited by the prince of Wales, fessor Owen's “ Palæontology” was published in 1860. The Palestine Exploration Fund” was founded by

March and April, 1862 "Nearly 40,000 species of animals and plants have been many eminent persons as a society "for the investi.

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а

gation of the archæology, topography, geology, and soon after under lord Palmerston; lord Derby and lord manners and customs of the Holy Land;" at the first

John Russell having each in vain endeavored to form an mecting the archbishop of York was in the chair,

22 June, 1865 administration.

On 22 Feb. Mr. Gladstone, sir James By its means capt. Wilson and a party left England for Graham, and Mr. Sidney Herbert resigned on account of Palestine in Nov. 1865; they arrived at Damascus, Dec.

the Sebastopol inquiry. Lord John Russell resigned 13 20; and in the following spring explored Jezreel, Nazareth, and many other parts of the Holy Land.

July. Lord Canning was appointed governor-general of Excavations in Jerusalem carried on by capt. Warren, India, 4 July, 1855. This cabinet resigned 20 Feb. 1858,

1867-1870 in consequence of a vote of censure upon it for introThe Moabite stone discovered..

ducing the Foreign Conspiracy bill, and was succeeded The systematic trigonometrical survey of Palestine car

ried on by capt. Stewart, R.E., lieuts. Conder and by the Derby administ tion (which see). Kitchener, R. E...

..1872–7 First lord of the treasury, Henry viscount Palmerston. A similar fund established at New York.

1871 Lord chancellor, lord Cranworth. The Ordnance survey of Sinai by capts. Wilson and Palm

President of the council, earl Granville. er published.

1872 Lord privy seal, duke of Argyll; next, earl of Harrowby; after. The surveying party attacked by natives, rescued by

wards the marquess of Clanricarde. soldiers, after much suffering..

10 July, 1875 Secretaries-home, sir George Grey; foreign, earl of Claren. Survey of Western Palestine completed; announced Oct. 1877

don; colonial, Sidney Herbert (resigned Feb. 22); afterwards Publication of map (1 inch to the mile) in 26 sheets,

lord J. Russell (resigned July 13); sir William Molesworth May, 1870

(died 22 Oct. 1855); next, Henry Labouchere; war, lord Map and Memoirs of the Survey of Western Palestine

Panmure. published.

.1880-1 Chancellor of the exchequer, W.E. Gladstone (resigned 22 Feb.); Survey of Eastern Palestine begun by lieuts. Conder and

next, sir G. Cornewall Lewis. Kitchener...

1881 First lord of the admiralty, sir James Graham (resigned 22 Palestro (N. Italy). Here the Sardinians defeated Board of control; sir Charles Wood; next, R. Vernon Smith.

Feb.); next, sir Charles Wood. the Austrians, 30, 31 May, 1859.

Public works, sir William Molesworth; next, sir B. all (apPalimpsest (from the Greek záliv, again; and pointed 22 July, 1855).

Postmaster-general, viscount Canning (appointed governor. páw, I efface), parchments written on after the previ

general of India, 4 July); next, duke of Argyll. ous writing had been partially effaced. Cardinal Mai, President of the board of trade, lord Stanley of Alderley. by removing the second writing in some MSS., recor- Marquess of Lansdowne, without office. ered the original. This was the case with Cicero's “ De Chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster, earl of Harrowby; next,

M. T. Baines (appointed 24 Nov. 1855). Republicâ," published by Mai in 1821. It had been corered by a treatise of Lactantius.

Palmerston-Russell Administration. The Pall, Pallium, in the Roman Church an ensign of June, 1859. "Earl Granville was requested by the queen

second Derby administration (which see ) resigned 11 dignity conferred by the pope upon archbishops. By a to form an administration, and obtained the support of decretal of pope Gregory XI. (about 1370), no archbishop lord Palmerston, but not of lord John Russell; the last could call a council

, bless the chrism, consecrate church- two then agreed to form a cabinet, which came into ofes, ordain a clerk, or consecrate a bishop till he had re- fice 18 June, 1859. On the decease of lord Palmerston, ceived his pall from the see of Rome. The pall was first 18 Oct. 1865, earl Russell became premier; see Russell. worn by an Irish archbishop in 1152, when Gelasius was recognized as primate of all Ireland.

First lord of the treasury, Henry viscount Palmerston.

Lord high chancellor, John lord Campbell (died 23 June, 1861); Palladium, the statue of Pallas, said to have fallen succeeded by sir Richard Bethell, made lord Westbury, who from heaven near the tent of Ilus, as he was building Lord president of the council, carl Granville.

resigned 4 July, 1865; succeeded by lord Cranworth. Ilium, which the oracle of Apollo declared should never Lord privy seal, duke of Argyll

. be taken so long as the Palladium was found within its Secretaries : foreign affairs, lord John (afterwards earl) Rus. walls. The Greeks are said to have obtained it by craft

sell; colonies, duke of Newcastle; succeeded by Edward

Cardwell, 8 April, 1864; home, sir G. Cornewall Lewis; sucduring the Trojan war, 1184 B.C; but some writers as

ceeded by sir George Grey; war, Sidney (afterwards lord) sert another statue was taken, and that the real Palla- Herbert; succeeded by sir G. C. Lewis (died 13 April, 1863), dium was conveyed from Troy to Italy by Æneas, 1183

and by earl de Grey (1 May); India, sir Charles Wood. B.C., and preserved by the Romans with the greatest First lord of the admiralty, duke of Somerset.

Chancellor of the exchequer, William Ewart Gludstone. secrecy in the temple of Vesta.--Palladium is a rare President of the board of trade, Thomas Milner Gibson. metal, discovered in platinum ore by Dr.Wollaston in 1803. [This office was offered to Mr. R. Cobden, and declined by

him. ] Pallas, the planet, was discovered by Olbers, at Secretary of state for Ireland, Edward Cardwell; succeeded Bremen, 28 March, 1802.

by sir R. Peel (not in the cabinet).

Chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster, sir George Grey, bart. ; Palliser's Chilled Shot, see Cannon.

succeeded by Edward Cardwell; and by earl Clarendon, 8 Pall Mall, a street near St. James palace, London, Postmaster-general, earl of Elgin (proceeded to China in April,

April, 1864. is named from a French game at ball (paille-maille, be- 1860); succeeded by lord Stanley of Alderley, appointed ing a wooden mallet), resembling the modern croquet, Sept. 1860. having been played there about 1621. Among eminent Poor-law board, T. Milner Gibson; succeeded by Charles P. inhabitants were Nell Gwynne and Dr. Thomas Syden- PALMERSTON's Act for abatement of smoke nuisance (16 & 17

Villiers (9 July, 1860). ham.— The Pall Mall GAZETTE, a daily independent

Vict. c. 128), 20 Aug. 1853. political and literary journal, first appeared 7 Feb. 1865, and was edited by Mr. Frederick Greenwood till 1 May,

Palm-Sunday. When Christ made his entry into 1880, when it became a liberal paper, edited by Mr. John Jerusalem, multitudes of the people who were come to Morley.

the feast of the Passover took branches of the palmPalmerston Administration.* The resigna

tree, and went forth to meet him, 33. It is usual, in tion of the Aberdeen administration was announced 1

some countries, to carry palms on the Sunday before

Easter; hence called Palm-Sunday. Feb. 1855, but nearly all its members returned to office

Palmyra (Syria ) was supposed to have been the * Henry John Temple was born 20 Oct. 1784; was educated Tadmor in the wilderness built by Solomon, but was at Harrow, Edinburgh, and Cambridge; succeeded his father, manifestly Grecian. The brilliant part of the history viscount Palmerston, 1802; became M. P. and a junior lord of of Palmyra was under Oilenatus and his queen, Zenobia. the admiralty, 1807; was secretary-atwar, 1809–28; and a secretary for foreign affairs, Nov. 1830-34; April, 1835, to Sept. At the death of Odenatus, Zenobia assumed the title of 1841; and July, 1816, to Dec. 1851; and home secretary, Dec. queen of the East, in 267. Aurelian defeated her at 1852, to March, 1855, when he became first lord of the treas.

Emesa in and made her captive, 273, and killed ury

He was created lord warden of the Cinque Ports, 31 March, 1861; and master of the corporation of the Trinity Longinus, the philosopher, her friend. Palmyra is now House, 16 June, 1862. He sat for Tiverton, 1835–65. He died inhabited by a few Arab families. The ruins were ris18 Oct., and was buried in Westminster Abbey, 27 Oct. 1865, ited in 1751 by Mr. Wood, who published an account of His statue at Romsey, by M. Noble, was uncovered by earl

them in 1753, Russell, 21 July, 1868. Lady Palmerston died 11 Sept. 1869,

Mr. Dawkins and Mr. Bruce also visited aged 82.

Palmyra.

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1879 Palo Alto, BATTLE OF. Gen. Taylor, in command | Scheme suspended for want of funds. of the army of occupation in Texas, marched from Point Capal through Nicaragua proposed by Americans; favor

ed by gen. Grant..

.Sept. Isabel on the evening of 7 May, 1846, to the relief of Lesseps's scheme opposed by the United States governFort Brown, opposite Matamoras; see Fort Brown. At

ment....

. March, 1880 noon the next day he discovered a Mexican army, un- Lesseps, at Liverpool, describes his plan; canal to be 46

miles long..

.31 May, der gen. Arista, full 6000 strong, drawn up in battle or Engineers leave Paris to proceed to the work, 3 Jan.; at der upon a beautiful prairie called Palo Alto. Taylor, work...

24 Feb. 1881 with little more than 2000 men, attacked him. The

Pan-Anglican Synod, the popular name of a contest lasted five hours. At twilight the Mexicans conference of 75 bishops, British, colonial, and American, gave way and fled. The Americans lost, in killed and who met at Lambeth Palace, 24-27 Sept. 1867. They wounded, 53; the Mexican loss was about 600; see issued an address, published their resolutions, of a very Mexican War.

general character, and formally closed their conference Pampeluna (N.E. Spain, taken by the French on on 10 Dec. their invasion of Spain ) was invested by the British, Another synod of about 85 bishops met.. .2 July, 1878 between whom and the French obstinate conflicts took Grand closing service at St. Paul's..

.27 July, place, 27 and 29 July, 1813. It surrendered to the Brit- An encyclical letter issued proposing an episcopal board

of reference for ecclesiastical questions, etc. ....... ish, 31 Oct. in that year. Pamphlets. Their first appearance among us is

Pandean - pipes (said to be the Greek syrinx, generally thought to have been in opposition to the and the ugab or organ of the Bible, Gen. iv. 21 and Psa. Church of Rome. Those who were first convinced of the cl.), usually seven tubes, popular in Britain early in the reasonableness of the "new learning,” as it was then

nineteenth century. A“ Preceptor" for Davies's “new called, propagated their opinions in small pieces, cheap- invented syrynx” was published in 1807. ly printed, and (what was then of great importance) Pandects, a digest of the civil law, made by order easily concealed. Political pamphlets began in Edward of Justinian, 533. It is stated that a copy of these VI.'s time, and were very numerous in the seventeenth Pandects was discorered in the ruins of Amalli, 1137; and eighteenth centuries (by Defoe, Swift, Steele, and removed from Pisa in 1415, and preserved in the library others).

of the Medici at Florence as the Pandectæ Florentinæ. Paul Louis Courier wrote "Simple Discours” and other Pandosia (Bruttium, S. Italy). Here Alexander,

pamphlets against the priests and nobles after the restora. king of Epirus, was defeated and slain by the Bruttians, tion of the Bourbons, 1815. His“ Pamphlet des Pamphlets,” 326 B.C. Lævinus, the Roman consul, was defeated at defending the pamphleteer (published 1824), probably led to Pandosia, in Lucania, by Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, 280 B.C.

his murder, 10 April, 1825. Large collections are in the libraries of the British Museum

Paneas, or PANIUS (Syria). Here Antiochus the and the Royal and London Institutious.

Great defeated Scopas, the Egyptian general, and his Certain enactments respecting pamphlets removed by an act passed July, 1869.

Greek allies, 198 B.C. Panama, the isthmus which joins the two Ameri- Panics, COMMERCIAL, generally the result of overcas; see Darien, Across this a ship-canal was proposed speculation; see Bubbles, South Sea, Law's. by the Bulwer-Clayton treaty, 19 April, 1850. A treaty Through French war; government issued 5,000,0001. for the construction of a ship-canal through the isthmus

exchequer bills.
Through Irish rebellion, etc. (3-per-cents. at 443).

1797 by the United States was signed by representatives of Through bubble companies, 770 banks stopped. winter, 1825-6 that government and that of Colombia, 26 Jan. 1870. Through railway mania... In 1855 a new state, New Granada, was divided into Through American failures..

Nov 1957 eight federal states, one of which is named PANAMA. Through fear of European war.

April, 1859 A revolution took place in Panama on 9 March, 1865; Through over-speculation in limited liability companies,

May, 1866 the government was deposed, and don Jil Colunje be- Through Franco-Prussian war..

..10 July, 1870 came president; succeeded by Vincent Olarte, i Oct. The most notable commercial panics in the United

States have been those of 1857 and 1873.

The gold 1866. Panama is now subject to Colombia (which see).

panic (see Black Friday) occurred............24 Sept. 1869 The government overthrown by Colombian troops with

Pannonia, part of Illyria, now Hungary. Was out bloodshed, about 12 Oct. 1875.

finally subdued by Tiberius, A.D. 8. First exploration for canal route, between Chagres and Panama, by H. de la Serna..

.1527-8 Panopticon of Science and Art, in Leicester Canal proposed by Lopez de Gomarfa.

1551 square, erected in 1852–3 for a chartered company by Canal or road from Caledonia bay proposed by William Mr. T. H. Lewis, the architect; was opened in 1854 for Patterson..

1698

lectures, musical performances, etc. It had a very large Gogonche, a Biscayan pilot, laid his scheme for a canal before the Spanish government.

1799 electrical machine, battery, etc. The speculation did not Humboldt proposed a canal..

1803 succeed; the building was sold in 1857; and in Feb. First formal exploration made by Lloyd and Falmark. .1827-29 1858 was opened for concerts and horsemanship, and Garella's survey ..... Canal scheme of Michel Chevalier proposed.

1844 called the Alhambra. Macadamized road from Panama to Portobello, proposed Jeremy Bentham's book “Panopticon, or the Inspection by W. B. Liot, RN....

House,” an establishment in which persons may be kept Survey for Panama railroad by col G. W Hughes, U.S. A.. 1849

under inspection, published 1791; see Milbonk. Panama railroad begun.

.Jan. 1850 Exploration of capt. Fitzroy, R. N.

Panoramas, invented by Robert Barker, are biril's* Dr. Cullen

eye views painted around the wall of a circular building. " J. C. Trautwine

1852 In 1788 he exhibited at Edinburgh a view of that city, "capt. Prevost, R. N.. “ Lionel Gisborne.

the first picture of the kind. He then commenced simi. " lieut. Strain, U.S. N

lar exhibitions in London in 1789, having adopted the " capt. Kennish.

name “ Panorama,” and was ultimately enabled to build First train from ocean to ocean.

.28 Jan.

commodious premises in Leicester square for that purExploration of lieut. Michler, U S.A.

1858 “ Fred'k N. Kelley..

1864 pose. (He died in April, 1806.) J.P. Loutherbourg, a " M. de la Charne..

1865 painter, termed the panoramist, invented the “EidophuDe Paydt announces discovery of a favorable route....

sikon," natural phenomena represented by moving pictExploration of Gonzorga.. * commander T. 0. Selfridge, U.S. N.

1870 ures, exbibited at Lisle street, Leicester square, 3 April, " commander Tull, U.S. N.

1875 1781. “This was certainly not a panorama."Dr. RimGen. Türr and a committee propose a canal

.Oct. 1876 bault. Licut. L. A. B. Wyse's survey (1875) published..autumn, 1877 Explorations of Reclus and Sosa,

Panormus, see Palermo. International canal congress convened in Paris. . 15 May, 1879

Pantagraph (from the Greek závra, all things, Seven schemes proposed; canal from Gulf of Limon to Bay of Panama recommended (by 74-8).

29 May,

and ypapeiv, to write, and incorrectly termed PentaDe Lesseps arrives at the isthmus.

..31 Dec. graph), an instrument for copying, reducing, or enlarg

1793

Oct. 1847

1843

1845

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ing plans, etc., invented by Christopher Scheiner, about Durham, in which he severely censured, not only the

papal aggression, but also the proceedings of the trac1603; improved by prof. Wallace, and called “Eido

tarian clergy of the Church of England....... 4 Nov. 1850 graph," about 1821.

Immediately from every quarter of England addresses Pantaleon, a musical instrument (a drum with

poured in to her majesty the queen, calling upon her

and the government to resist the usurpation; 6700 adtuned strings) invented by Pantaleon Hebenstreit about

dresses, it is said, had been voted from nearly as many 1735.

influential meetings up to...

31 Dec.

Dr. Briggs, created Roman Catholic bishop of Beverley, Pantechnicon, a range of buildings, Motcombe

was enthroned in St. George's chapel at York. .13 Feb. 1851 street, Knightsbridge, London, W., erected by Seth Dr. Browne created bishop of Clifton, and Dr. Burgess Smith, as a receptacle for paintings, jewelry, furniture,

bishop of Shrewsbury; both consecrated in St. George's carriages, etc., 1830; was destroyed by fire, 13, 14 Feb. The Ecclesiastical Titles act, 14 & 15 Vict. c. 60, prohib

cathedral, Southwark..

27 July, 1874, when much property was lost; rebuilt 1874.

ited the constitution of bishops of pretended provinces Panthays, Mahometans in the Chinese province it was not acted upon, and was repealed........ 24 July, 1871

under a penalty of 1001.

.Aug. Yunan, became independent under a sultan during the Tae-ping revolt, 1851-64. After its suppression, the Papal Infallibility. This dogma, maintained by Panthays, after a severe struggle, were also subdued. one party in the Roman church, tolerated by another, Their capital, Talifoo, was captured, and its inhabitants and utterly rejected by a third, was adopted and procruelly massacred in Feb. 1873. The Panthays sent an mulgated at the general council at Rome, 18 July, 1870, embassy to England in 1872, without effect. Sultan a great many bishops having withdrawn. The doctrine Suleiman committed suicide.

was inculcated by the false decretals of Isidore and othPantheism, the formula of which is “everything ers, but not adopted by the council of Trent; see Counis God, and God is one,” was especially taught by cils, XXI. Professor Döllinger, the historian, was exXenophanes, who died 500 B.C. The doctrine is at

communicated at Munich for rejecting this dogma, 18 tributed to Spinoza, Kant, Fichte, and other modern April, 1871: he was made a D.C.L. at Oxford about 16 philosophers. Amalric of Chartres, censured for holding June following; see Old Catholics. The doctrine was the doctrine, recanted, thirteenth century. He is said strenuously attacked by Mr. W. E. Gladstone in his to have asserted that “all is God, and God is all.”

pamphlet " The Vatican Decrees," Nov. 1874. Pantheon, at Rome, a circular temple built by

Papal States, see Rome and Popes. Agrippa, the son-in-law of Augustus, 27 B.C. It had Paper, see Papyrus. Paper was probably made in niches in the wall, where the image or representation Egypt, and centuries before the Christian era.

It was of a particular god was set up; the gates brass, the made of cotton about A.D. 600, and of rags about 1300.* beams covered with gilt brass, and the roof covered White coarse paper was made by sir John Speilman, a with silver. Pope Boniface III. dedicated it to the Vir- German, at Dartford, in England, 33 Eliz. 1580; and gin Mary and all the saints by the name of S. Maria here paper-mills were erected.Stow. Paper for writdella Rotunda, or “ad Martyres," A.D. 608.*_The Pan- ing and printing manufactured in England, and an act THEON IN LONDON was erected by subscription, and passed to encourage it, 2 Will. III. 1690; before this opened 27 Jan. 1772; formed into an opera - house; time we paid for these articles to France and Holland burned down 14 Jan. 1792 ; rebuilt for masquerades in 100,0001. annually. The French refugees taught our 1795; opened as theatre, 1812, made a bazaar in 1834. people; we had made coarse brown paper almost excluThe bazaar was closed in 1867, and the premises taken sively until they came among us; we made white paper by Gilbey & Co., wine-merchants, who lent the south first in 1690.— Anderson. Paper-making by a machine part for a temporary church.

was suggested by Louis Robert, who sold his model to Pantogen, see Atomic Theory.

Didot, the great printer, who brought it to England, Pantomimes were representations by gestures and and, conjointly with Fourdrinier

, perfected the machine attitudes among the Greeks, and were introduced on the machinery in 1801, and for manufacturing paper of an

ery. The latter obtained a patent for paper-making Roman stage by Pylades and Bathyllus, 22 B.C. Comic indefinite length in 1807. The machinery was improved masques were introduced here from Italy about 1700. by Bryan Donkin. A sheet of paper 13,800 feet long The first regular English pantomime is said to have and 4 feet wide was made at Whitehall mills, Derbybeen Harlequin Executed, produced by John Rich at the shire, in 1830; and one 21,000 feet long and 6 feet 3 Lincoln's-inn-fields theatre, 26 Dec. 1717. Joseph Gri- inches wide was made at Colyton, in Devon, in 1860. maldi (1779–1837) was the most eminent clown.

Esparto, a Spanish grass, tirst imported in 1857, has been Paoli, MASSACRE AT. On the night of 20 Sept. largely employed in the paper-manufacture since 1864. 1777, a corps of 1500 Americans, under gen. Wayne, In 1866 wood was largely manufactured into paper at were attacked in their camp, near the Paoli tavern, in Philadelphia; and at the Paris exhibition, 1867, fine Pennsylvania, by a party of British and Hessians under specimens of wood-paper were shown; see Parchment gen. Greig, and about 300 of them were killed or mor- (note). The paper-duty, imposed in 1694 (producing, tally wounded in the gloom. Fifty-three of them were latterly, about 1,400,0001. annually), after having been found upon the ground the next morning, and were the subject of agitation for several years, was repealed in buried in one grave. A marble monument stands over 1861. Hop-stalks said to be used for paper-making in the sepulchre.

France, 1873. “Papal Aggression." In a consistory held in Paper-mills in Great Britain, 1877, about 385 (England, 300; Rome, 30 Sept. 1850, the pope (Pius IX.) named four- Scotland, 65; Ireland. 20); annual produce about 360,000 teen new cardinals, of whom four only were Italians. Paper' Exhibition at Berlin, Aug. 1878: contained not only

tons; value, 16,090,0001. Among them was Dr. Nicholas Wiseman, vicar-apostolic great varieties of paper, but paper house, tables, chairs, of the London district, who was at the same time nomi- carpets, barrels, boats, etc. nated lord archbishop of Westminster.

The first paper.mill in America was built by William Ritting

huysen and William Bradford, near Philadelphia, in 1690. Dr. Ullathorne enthroned as Roman Catholic bishop of

A second was built in Germantown in 1710. In 1870 there Birmingham in St Chad's cathedral... .27 Oct. 1850 A pastoral letter from Dr. Wiseman read in all the Ro

* Mr. Joseph Hunter (in the Archæologia, xxxvii.) states man Catholic chapels of his sec (all England parcelled

that the earliest paper which he had seen was a MS. account. out into Romish dioceses).

book, dated 1302, probably of Bordeaux manufacture. He The answer of the bishop of ondon (Dr. Blomfield) to a

gives engravings of manufacturers' marks, French and Engmemorial from the Protestant clergy of Westminster,

lish, the dates of which range from 1330 to 1431. against a Romish hierarchy in this country, was fol. gives an extract from a work by Bartholus, a writer of the lowed by the “Durham” letter from lord John Rus- middle of the fourteenth century, in which mention is made sell, then chief minister of the crown, to the bishop of of a paper manufactory in the Marches of Ancona.

end of Wynkin de Worde's edition of Bartholomæus “De Pro* Victor Emmanuel, first king of united Italy, was buried prietatibus Rerum,'' 1494, its thin paper, made by John Tale here, 17 Jan. 1878.

in England, is commended.

.27 Oct.

He also

At the

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were in the United States 669 paper-factor es, exclusive of state by the Argentine Confederation, 14 July, 1852, and those engaged in making paper-bangings, with an aggregate by Great Britain in 1853. Population in 1857, 1,337,431 ; capital of $34,365,014. The annual products were valued at $18,676,935.

in 1873, 221,079; in 1876, 293,844.

Hostilities between Paraguay and Brazil began when a Paper Money, see Banks.

Brazilian steamer was captured as an intruder on the Paper-hangings, etc. Stamped paper for this Paraguay

11 Nov. 1864

..Dec. purpose was first made in Spain and Holland about 1555. Brazil invaded. Made of velvet and floss, for hanging apartments, about Lopez invaded the territories of the Argentine republic,

which immediately made alliance with Brazil. 14 April, 1865 1620. The manufacture of this kind of paper rapidly the army of Lopez defeated...

..Sept. improved in this country during the present century.

The allies captured Uruguyana and an army of Para. PAPER Bricks have been made in America; and paper

guayans.

.18 Sept.

(For details of the war, see Brazil, 1865-9.) tubing for water and gas, made by M. Jaloureau, of A provisional government installed; Lopez totally deParis, was shown in 1860.

feated; proclaimed an outlaw..

.....17 Aug. 1869 Papier-maché. This manufacture (of paper-pulp Peace signed with Brazil and the Argentine republic

Lopez killed near the Aquidaban.. .....1 March, 1870 combined with gum and sometimes with china clay) has

20 June, existed for above a century. Martin, a German snuff- President Salvador Jovellanos elected for three years,

12 Dec. 1871 box-maker, is said to have learned the art from one Le

President Juan Bautista Gill...

.25 Nov. 1874 fevre about 1740. In 1745 it was taken up by Basker- The president and his brother assassinated; announced, ville, the printer at Birmingham, and soon spread over April; Higinio Uriarte president..

12 April, 1877

..25 Nov. 1878 that district. Papier-maché is now largely employed in President, Candido Bareiro (for 4 years).. ornamenting the interior of buildings, etc.

Parallel Motion, see Motion. Papin's Digester (see Steam) invented about Parasols were used by the ancient Egyptians. A 1681. Denis Papin, a French philosopher, assisted Boyle new form (said to have been devised by the duchess of in his experiments about 1678.

Rutland) came into general use about 1820. Papists, see Roman Catholics.

Parc aux Cerfs, a deer-park at Versailles, near

Paris, made by Louis XII., and kept as such till 1694, Papua, see New Guinea.

when Louis took the land for building. The name was Papyrus, the reed from which was made the paper given to a house erected on it by madame Pompadour, of Egypt and India, used for writings until the discovery popularly said to form a seraglio for Louis XV. in 1755. of parchment, about 190 B.C. Ptolemy prohibited the it was closed by madame Du Barry in 1771. exportation of it from Egypt, lest Eumenes of Pergamus

Parchment. Invented for writing books by Eushould make a library equal to that of Alexandria, 263

menes (some say by Attalus) of Pergamus, the founder B.C. Many papyri were discovered at Herculaneum in 1754; and many were collected by the French in Egypt, model of the Alexandrian, about 190 B.C.

of the celebrated library at Pergamnus, formed on the

Parchment 1798. A manuscript of the “ Antiquities” of Josephus on papyrus, among the treasures seized by Bonaparte in books from this time became those most used, and the

most valuable as well as oldest in the world are written Italy, and sent to the National Library at Paris, was re

on the skins of goats. It should be mentioned that the stored in 1815. Fac similes of the largest known papyrus, found in 1855, be Persians and others are said to have written all their

hind Shedinat Habu, on the Nile, and now in the British records on skins long before Eumenes's time. Museum, were published with translations by the trustees Parchment paper (or vegetable parchment) was invented and

patented in 1857 by Mr W E. Gaine, C.E., who discovered Parable, see Fable.

that when paper is exposed to a mixture of two parts of

concentrated sulphuric acid and one part of water for no Parachute, see Balloons, 1785, 1802, 1837, 1874. longer time than is required to draw it through the fluid, it Paraclete (Greek for comforter), a name given by

is immediately converted into a strong, tough, skin-like maIt must be instantly washed with water.

Its great Abelard to the convent which he founded in Champagne strength points out many applications of this material, 4.9., in 1122, of which Héloïse became the first abbess.

maps, school and account books, and drawing-paper.

1859 it appeared that a similar invention had been made in Paradise Lost, the great English epic by John

Paris by Figuier and Poumarède in 1846. Milton, appeared first in ten books in 1667; in twelve

Pardons. General pardons were proclaimed at corbooks in 1674.

ovations, first by Edward III. in 1327. The king's Paradox (Greek, napá, beyond, and @óča, opinion), power of pardoning is said to be derived à lege suæ diysomething contrary to common opinion. Professor De nitatis ; and no other person has power to remit treason Morgan's “ Budget of Paradoxes” (of all kinds) was pub- or felonies, stat. 27 Hen. VIII. 1535.--Blackstone. A lished in 1872. John Paget's “ Paradoxes and Puzzles, pardon cannot follow an impeachment of the house of Historical, Judicial, and Literary,” published 1874.

commons: stat. Will. III. 1700. Paraffine (from parum affinis, from its having little Parga, a city in European Turkey: retained its civic affinity with anything), also called photogen, a solid independence under the protection of Venice till 1797, substance, somewhat like spermaceti, produced by distil- when that state was conquered by the French. It relation of coal, and first obtained by Reichenbach in 1830, sisted various attempts to capture it, and in 1806 was and by Dr. Christison about the same time. It was pro- garrisoned by Russians. It was given up to the French cured from mineral oil by Mr. James Young about 1848 in 1807; taken by the English, 22 March, 1814; surrenat Alfreton, in Derbyshire. Soon after it was largely dered to the Turks, 1817; and abandoned by above 3000 of obtained from Boghead coal. It is also obtained from Irish its inhabitants, who retired to the Ionian Isles, May, 1819. peat. It makes excellent candles. Much litigation en- Parian Marbles, see Arundelian Marbles. sued through interference with Mr. Young's patent-right.

Paris (formerly Lutetia Parisiorum), the capital of Paragraph Bibles, see under Bibles.

France, situated on the river Seine, which cuts it into Paraguay, a republic in South America, discovered two unequal parts, the strongest being towards the north, by Sebastian Cabot in 1526; conquered by Alvarez and in which are three isles : la ville (the city), the ile Nuñez in 1535, and civilized by the Jesuits, who in 1608 St. Louis, and the ile Louviers. In the time of Julius commenced their missions there and held it till their ex- Cæsar, Lutetia comprised the city only. It was greatly pulsion in 1768. Paraguay rose against the Spanish improved by the emperor Julian, who made it his resiyoke in 1811. In 1814 Dr. José G. R. Francia was elect- dence while he governed Gaul, 355-361. It became suced dictator; he ruled vigorously, but tyrannically; he cessively the capital of the kingdoms of Paris, Soissons, was succeeded, on his death in 1840, by Vibal. From and Neustria, and eventually of all the kingdom. Many 1814 to 1844 the country was rigidly closed against for- ecclesiastical councils were held at Paris, 360-1528. The eigners. The president, C. A. Lopez, elected in 1844, representative of the house of Orleans is styled count of was succeeded by his son, Francis S. Lopez, Sept. 1862 Paris. Population of Paris in 1856,1,178,262; in 1872, esti(see below). Paraguay was recognized as an independent mated population,1,831,792; in 1876,1,988,806; see France.

in 1876.

terial.

In

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