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Clovis makes Paris his residence.

.. about 508 Berczowski condemned to transportation for life, 15 July, 1867 St. Denis founded...

613 Visit of the emperor of Austria..........23 Oct.2 Nov. Hôtel-Dieu Hospital founded by bishop Landry.... about 656 Grand banquet to commissioners of International ExhiPuris ravaged by the Normans (or Danes), 845, 855, 861;


26 Oct. suffered from famine....

..845-940 Exhibition finally closed (instead of on 31 Oct.) Sunday, Gallantly defended against the Danes by the count Eudes 3 Nov.; gross receipts, 9,830,369 francs. and the bishop Goslin.

885 Abbé Migné's great printing office burned; loss about University founded.... ..about 1200 360,0001..

.12 Feb. 1868 Rebuilt.

1231 M. Haussmann, the prefect of the Seine, reported the Church of Notre Dame built.

.1160–1270 budget of the city to exceed 9,200,0001. He resigned The parliament established. . 1302

Jan. 1870 Suffers by the factions of the Armagnacs and the Bur. (For the sieges and other recent events, see France and gundians.


Franco-German War, 1870–1.) Ti ken by the English.

1420 Grand Opera-house burned...

28, 29 Oct. 1873 Retaken by the French.

1436 Great explosion with loss of life at Poirier's chemical Pont Notre Dame built..

1499 works, near Paris..

19 Nov. 1874 The Louvre commenced (see Louvre)

1522 Grand new opera-house decreed, 1860; designed by GarHôtel de Ville founded...

1533 nier; opened in state.

..5 Jan. 1875 The boulevards commenced.

1536 Municipal officers visit London, to inspect railways, etc., Fountain of the Innocents erected.


30 April, 1877 The Tuileries begun (see Tuileries). 1564 New Hôtel-Dieu finished..

Aug. Massacre of St. Bartholomew's

.24 Aug. 1572 The Pont Neuf begun...


INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION: site, two unequal parts diVainly besieged by Henry IV.


vided by the Seine. The main building in the Champ Entered by him..

March, 1594 de Mars covers 263,593 square yards (765 by 360 yards); Hospital des Invalides.


the Trocadéro (which see) palace is a stone structure, Place Royale begun..


with a rotunda supported by columns, crowned by a The Hôtel-Dieu founded.


dome, flanked by two lofty towers, the exterior gallery Jardin des Plantes formed.


ornamented with statues. The Luxembourg, by Mary de' Medici.


The exhibition was opened by the president, marshal The Palais Royal built.


MacMahon (" in the name of the republic”), in presThe Val-de-Grâce...


ence of the prince of Wales, the duc d'Aosta, and other Conflicts of the Fronde

distinguished persons.

.1 May, 1878 Royal palace at Versailles built; the court removed

111,955 persons visited exhibition (a fête day).... 15 Aug. there.


Grand distribution of medals by marshal MacMahon, The Academy of Sciences founded

with speech..

......21 Oct.' The Observatory established

Closed Sunday.

......10 Nov. Champs Élysées planted .


Total admissions, 16,032, 725; daily average, 82,000; gross Arch of St. Denis erected..


receipts, 12,653,746 francs. Palais d'Elysée Bourbon built.


International exhibition of applied science opened, The Palace of the Deputies..


24 July, 1879 The Military School.


The senate and assembly meet again at Paris....27 Nov. The Pantheon, St. Geneviève, founded


IMPORTANT TREATIES OF PARIS. The French revolution breaks out; the Bastile taken,

14 July, 1789 Between England, France, Spain, and Portugal; cession Pont de Louis XIV. finished.....


of Canada to Great Britain by France, and Florida by

1804 Cemetery of Père La Chaise consecrated.


.10 Feb. 1763 Pont des Invalides, etc., erected


Between France and Sardinia; the latter ceding Savoy, Paris surrenders to the allies...

etc. ..... .30 March, 1814

15 May, 1796 Paris lit with gas..


Between France and Sweden, whereby Swedish PomeRevolution (see France).

.July, 1830

rania and the island of Rügen were given up to the Column of July founded.

.28 July, 1831

Swedes, who agreed to adopt the French prohibitory Fortifications of Paris (for which 140,000,000 of francs

system against Great Britain..

...6 Jan. 1810 were voted, 1833) commenced 15 Dec. 1810; completed

Capitulation of Paris: Napoleon renounces the soverMarch, 1846 eignty of France.

.11 April, 1814 Revolution (see France)..

.22 Feb. 1848 Convention of Paris, between France and the allied pow. Paris much improved by Louis Napoleon (probable cost

ers; the boundaries of France to be the same as on 12,800,0001.).

1 Jan. 1792.. .....1853-62

. 23 April,

Peace of Paris ratified by France and all the allies, Industrial Exhibition opened by the emperor and em.

14 May, press, 15 May; visited by queen Victoria and prince Convention of St. Cloud, between marshal Davoust and Albert (the first visit of an English sovereign to Paris Wellington, and Blucher, for the surrender of Paris, since 1422), 24 Aug. ; exhibition closes........15 Nov. 1855

3 July, 1815 Conference at Paris respecting the Danubian Principali.

[The allies entered it on the 6th.) ties (which see); closes..

. Aug. 1858 Treaty of Paris, between Great Britain, Austria, Russia, Bois de Boulogne opened as a garden of acclinatation, and Prussia, styling Napoleon the prisoner of those

6 Oct. 1860 powers, and confiding his safeguard to England, 2 Aug. Remains of Napoleon I. deposited in the Invalides,

Establishing the boundaries of France, and stipulating

31 March, 1861 for the occupation of certain fortresses by foreign A building was erected for a permanent industrial exhi- troops for three years.

.. 20 Nov. bition by a company..

.. Oct. 1862 Treaty of Paris, confirming the treaties of Chaumont and The scheme failed. ...Feb. 1864 Vienna, same day

20 Nov. Boulevard Prince Eugène opened by the emperor .7 Dec. 1862 Treaty of Paris, to fulfil the articles of the congress of Decree for an international exhibition of the products


..10 June, 1817 of agriculture, industry, and the fine arts at Paris in Treaty of Paris between Russia and Turkey, England, 1867; commissioners appointed. . ......21 Feb. 1864

France, and Sardinia (revised 13 March, 1871; see Cab strike, 4 days

1865 Russia)...

. 30 March, 1856 Fine arts exhibition opened..

1 May, 1866 Declaration of Paris, signed by European powers, not by The cathedral of Notre Dame and other buildings re

United States, March, 1856: 1. Privateering abolished.

2. Neutral flags to exempt an enemy's goods from INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION on the Champ de Mars (with

capture, except contraband of war. 3. Neutral goods

under an enemy's flag not to be seized. 4. Blockade a new park, comprising more than 100 acres); the ob. long building designed by Leplay (enclosing 35 acres),

to be binding must be effectire. This declaration was 1245 feet wide, 1500 feet long, consisting of circles

censured in parliament in 1871. Assented to by United

States, 1861. within circles; the external corridor was a belt of iron, 85 feet high and 115 feet wide; opened by the emper

Treaty of Paris between England and Persia... 4 March, 1857

Treaty of Paris between the European powers, Prussia, or and empress.

.1 April, 1867 It was visited by the prince of Wales; the kings of

and Switzerland, respecting Neufchâtel.......26 May,

Important commercial treaty between France and Eng. Greece, Belgium, Prussia, and Sweden; the czar of


.23 Jan. 1860 Russia, the viceroy of Egypt, the sultan of Turkey,

Convention between France and Italy for withdrawal of the emperor of Austria, and other inferior potentates,

French troops from Rome....

.15 Sept. 1864 Attempted assassination of the czar by Berezowski, a Parishes. Their boundaries in England were first Pole.

....6 June, The czar and the king of Prussia entertained by M.

fixed by Honorius, archbishop of Canterbury, 636. They Haussmann, prefect of Paris (cost 36,0001.)....8 June,

were enlarged, and the number of parishes was conseDeparture of the czar, 11 June; of the king of Prussia, quently reduced in the fifteenth century, when there

14 June, were 10,000. Parish registers were commenced in 1538. Distribution of prizes to exhibitors by the emperor in the presence of the prince of Wales, the sultan, etc.,

Acts were passed in 1844 and 1856 by which new par1 July, ishes may be formed out of too extensive ones; acts


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amended in 1869. The appointment of parish consta- twelve persons should be chosen to represent the combles was made unnecessary by an act passed Aug. 1872; mons in the three parliaments, which, by the sixth statsee Registers and Benefices.

ute, were to be held yearly.-Burton's Annals.

The Parisienne, La, popular song by Casimir Dela- general representation by knights, citizens, and burgessvigne, celebrating the defeat of the troops of Charles X. es took place 49 Hen. III., 1265.-Dugdale's Summons to by the Parisians, 1 Aug. 1830; the music (an old air) Parliament, edit. 1685. See Commons and Lords. The was arranged by Auber.

power and jurisdiction of parliament are so transcendent Park, Central, New York. In the centre of New and absolute that it cannot be confined, either for causes York city is the Central Park, intended for the benefit or persons, within any bounds. It hath sovereign and of all the inhabitants of the city. It begins at Fifty- uncontrollable authority in making and repealing laws. ninth street, and is extended to One Hundred and Tenth It can regulate or new-model the succession to the crown street—a distance of 13,507 feet. Its breadth, from Fifth (as was done in the reigns of Henry VIII. and William to Eighth avenue, is 2718 feet; thus giving an area of II.). It can alter and establish the religion of the coun813 acres.

It contains the great Croton reservoir for try, as was done in the reigns of Henry VIII., Edward the use of New-Yorkers. The water surface of the res- VI., Mary, and Elizabeth. -- Sir Edward Coke.* The ervoir is 96 acres, and the depth of water when full is fourth edition of May's “ Practical Treatise on Parlia

ment about 38 feet; its capacity more than 1,000,000,000 gal

was published in 1859; see Triennial and Septenlons. The cost of the reservoir was nearly $600,000. nial. Return of the names of members of parliament The park was laid out in 1858. It contains the Ameri- from the earliest period to the present time ordered by can Museum of Natural History, and the Metropolitan the house of commons, 4 May, 1876, and 9 March, 1877. Museum of Art and Archäology; of which the Cesnola Part I. (1213–1702) published 1879. collection of Cypriote antiquities is a chief feature. First summons of barons by writ directed to the bishop

of Salisbury, by John.....

1205 Parker Museum, see Sanitary.

Parliament of Merton ..

1236 Parkesine. A new substance, composed of gun- An assembly of knights and burgesses (the mad parlia

ment).. cotton, obtained from various vegetable bodies and oil.

11 June, 1258 It can be formed with the properties of ivory, tortoise- First assembly of the commons as a confirmed repre


20 Jan, 1265 shell, wood, india-rubber, gutta-percha, etc. It is the first regular parliament (according to many bistorians), invention of Mr. Alexander Parkes of Birmingham, and

22 Edw. I...


First a deliberative assembly; it becomes a legislative was shown by him at the Exhibition in 1862. In Dec.

power, whose assent is essential to constitute a law... 1308 1863, at the Society of Arts, parkesine was proved to be the commons elect their first speaker, Peter de la Mare, 1377 an excellent electric insulator, and therefore likely to Parliament of only one day (Richard II. deposed), be suitable for telegraphic purposes.

29 Sept. 1399

Parliamentum Indoctum" at Coventry (lawyers ex. Park-lane Murder, see Trials, 1872.


.6 Oct. 1404 Parks. The Romans attached parks to their villas. Members obliged to reside at the places they repre. Fulvius Lupinus, Pompey, and Hortensius, among oth- Forty-shilling freeholders only to elect knights... 1430 ers, had large parks. In England, the first great park “Parliamentum Diabolicum ' at Coventry; attainted the of which particular mention is made was that of Wood- Journals of the lords commenced.


1459 stock, formed by Henry I. 1125. Queen Caroline, con- Acts of Parliament printed in 1501, and consecutively sort of George II., inquired, it is said, of the first Mr. Pitt (afterwards earl of Chatham), how much it would cost Members protected from arrest (see Ferrars).

Journals of the commons begun..

1347 to shut up the parks as private grounds. He replied, Francis Russell, son of the earl of Bedford, was the first “ Three crowns, your majesty.” The design was never peer's eldest son who sat in the house of commons... 1549 afterwards entertained ; see Finsbury, Southwark,Green, The Addled Parliament; remonstrated with James I. Ilyde, James's (St.), Regent's, Victoria, Alexandra, Bat

respecting benevolences; dissolved by him in anger,

5 April, 1614 tersea, and People's Parks, and Yellowstone Park, U.S.

The parliament in which were first formed the Court The Parks Preservation Society, established by Mr. F. G.

and Country parties, 1614; disputes with James I., Heath and others... 1871

June, 1620 The Parks' Regulation act, passed

.. 27 June, 1872 Charles I. dissolves parliament, which does not meet for By new regulations, Hyde, Battersea, Regent's, and Vic

eleven years.. toria parks are the only metropolitan parks in which

The Long Parliament (which voted the house of lords as public addresses may be given, under certain restric

useless) first assembled...

...3 Nov. 1640 tions...

The bishops excluded from voting on temporal matters. These regulations (much objected to; broken, and of- The Rump Parliament; it voted the trial of Charles I., fenders lined) were modified by the home secretary,

Jan. 1649 Feb. 1873 House of peers abolished...

.6 Feb. Acts for the establishment of public parks in England

A peer sat as a member of the commons. and Ireland wore passed, 12 July, 1869; for Scotland,

Cromwell roughly dissolves the Long Parliament, 18 March, 1878

20 April, 1653

A convention parliament (see Convention). Park's Travels. Mungo Park set sail on his first Roman Catholics excluded from parliament.

1678 voyage to Africa under the patronage of the African So- The commons committed a secretary of state to the ciety, to trace the source of the river Niger, 22 May, The speaker of the commons refused by the king...... 1679


.Nov. 1793; and returned 22 Dec. 1797, after having fruitlessly A convention parliament (sce Convention). encountered great danger. He again sailed from Ports- James II. convenes the Irish parliament at Dublin, which mouth on his second voyage, 30 Jan. 1804, appointed to a

Act for triennial parliament (see Triennial). new expedition by government; but never returned. His first parliament of Great Britain met.. ...23 Oct. 1707 murder at Broussa on the Niger was well authenticated. Members of the house of commons accepting any office Parliament (from the French parlement, discourse)

of profit ordered to be re-elected by statute 6 Anne,

cap. 7. derives its origin from the Saxon general assemblies, The Triennial act repealed, and Septennial act voted (see called Witenagemotes. The name was applied to the as- Septennial Parliament).

.7 May, 1716 semblies of the state under Louis VII. of France, about Privilege as to freedom from arrest of the servants of

The journals ordered to be printed... the middle of the twelfth century; but it is said not to

members relinquished by the commons...

1770 have appeared in our law till its mention in the statute of Westminster I., 3 Edw. I., 1272; and yet Coke de- * When the royal assent is given to a public bill, the clerk clared in his “Institutes," and spoke to the same effect says, “Le roi (or la reine) le veut." If the bill be a private

bill, he says, when speaker (1592), that this name was used even in subsidies for its object, he says, " Le roi (or la reine) remercie

Soit fait comme il est désiré." If the bill have the time of Edward the Confessor, 1041. The first clear ses loyaux sujets, accepte leur bénévolence, et aussi le veut." if account we have of the representatives of the people the king do not think proper to assent to the bill, the clerk forming a house of commons was in the 43d Hen. III., says " Le roi (or la reine) s'avisera;” which is a mild way of

giving a refusal. It is singular that the French language 1258, when it was settled by the statutes of Oxford that should still be used.





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attaints 3000 Protestants

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The lord mayor of London (Oliver) and alderman Crosby lan), sat from 3.45 P.M. 2 July to 7.15 A.M. 3 July; from committed to the Tower by the commons in Wilkes's

about 4 P.M. 31 July to 6.10 P.M...

1 Aug. 1877 affair

1771 Temporary resolution to check obstructiveness (by abuse Reporting the debates permitted..


of the power of moving the adjournment of the house) Assembly of the first parliament of the United Kingdom passed (282-32)..

.. 27 July, of Great Britain and Ireland....

.2 Feb. 1801 Major O'Gorman, M.P. for Waterford," named” by the Clergy men prohibited from becoming M.P.'s.

speaker for refusing to submit to his authority, 6 Aug. ; Sir F. Burdett committed to the Tower. .6 April, 1810 apologizes...

.7 Aug 1878 Murder of Spencer Perceval by Bellingham, at the house Much obstruction by home-rule party, June, July; Mr. of commons.

.11 May, 1812 Parnell's virtual vote of censure of the speaker (for diReturn for Clare county, Ireland, of Mr. O'Connell, the recting notes to be taken, etc.) lost (29-421).11, 12 July. 1879

first Roman Catholic commoner elected since the Rev. Breach of privilege; Mr. C. E. Grissell having stated olution..

..5 July, 1828 that he could intluence the committee on the Tower The duke of Norfolk took his seat in the lords, the first

high-level bridge,” is examined by a committee; he Roman Catholic peer under the Relief bíll (see Roman and Mr. John Sandilands Ward convicted, 16 July; Catholics)..

28 April, 1829 Mr. Grissell went abroad; order for his apprehension The reformed parliament meet.

...7 Aug. 1832 issued; Mr. Ward appeared before the house; taken Joseph Pease, the first Quaker, admitted M.P. on his into custody, 23 July; released 30 July; Mr. Grissell atlirmation.

15 Feb. 1833 surrenders; sent to Newgate, 14 Aug. ; released 15 Aug. Houses of parliament destroyed by fire.. .....16 Oct. 1834

Motion for quinquennial parliaments negatived (110–160), New houses of parliament commenced *.


24 Feb. 1880 The members of the commons' and lords' houses relin

Sir Stafford Northcote's resolutions against obstruction, quish the privilege of franking letters (see Franking), 26 Feb. ; adopted in the standing orders (160-20), 10 Jan

28 Feb. Committal of Smith O'Brien by the commons for con- Mr. Grissell arrested, and committed to Newgate, 2, 3, tempt (see Ireland).. ..30 April, 1846 March; discharged.

.24 March, The peers took possession of their house, that portion of Mr. Charles Bradlaugh, M. P. for Northampton (not bethe palace being ready..

..15 April, 1847 lieving in God), objects to take oath of allegiance; his Reporters excluded, by motion of John O'Connell, for affirmation refused, 3 May; his offer to take oath not two hours.. 18 May, 1849 permitted..

...21 May, 1880 The commons assemble in their new house.

.4 Nov. 1852 A committee appointed; recommends that he be allowed The chairman of committees of the whole house ap

to affirm, 16 June; much discussion ensues; resolupointed to act as a deputy-speaker of the house of tion of Mr. Laboucherc, M.P. for Northampton, that commons..

. Aug. 1853

Mr. Bradlaugh be permitted to affirm, negatived (275– The two houses began to communicate by letter. 1855 230).....

22 June, Baron L. Rothschild the first Jew admitted... . 26 July, 1858 Mr. Bradlaugh's claim to take the oath or affirm denied Court of referees to examine private bills established... 1865 by the house; he refuses to withdraw, and is taken Henry Fawcett (blind) elected M.P..


into custody, and imprisoned in the clock tower (vote The parliamentary oaths modified and made uniform, (326–38), 23 June; released by vote....

.24 June, 30 April, 1866 Resolution moved by Mr. Gladstone that affirmation be Arthur M. Kavanagh (without arms and legs) elected, accepted instead of an oath in certain cases; opposed


by sir Stafford Northcote as rescinding vote of 22 June; Her majesty authorized to proclaim prorogation of par- resolution accepted (303–249), 1, 2 July; Mr. Bradlaugh liament during the recess by act passed.. ....12 Aug. 1867 affirms, is admitted, and votes.

...2 July, New Reform bill received royal assent..... ...15 Aug

(See Trials, 1881.) Great dissatisfaction in the commons at the smallness The commons sat continuously 21 hours (devoted to Irish of their building; a committee's report (proposing


26, 27 Aug changes or a new house) printed...


Debate on Irish amendments to the address: Changes in mode of dealing with private bills in court

Mr. Parnell's lost (57-435)..

.6-14 Jan. 1881 of referees... March, 1868 Mr. Justin McCarthy's (37–201).

17-19 Jan. Vote by proxy in the house of lords abolished by stand

Mr. Dawson's (36-274).

20 Jan. ing order...

.31 March,
Mr. O'Kelly's (34-178).

20 Jan, Reform acts for Scotland and Ireland, and Parliamentary House of commons on Irish Protection will sat from 4 Boundaries act passed..

13 July,
P. M. 25 Jan. to 2 P.M...

26 Jan. Parliamentary Elections act passed.

...31 July, Mr. Gladstone's motion for urgency carried (251-33)... Parliament dissolved

.11 Nov. On first reading of Mr. Forster's Coercion bill; debato New parliament met..

10 Dec.

summarily closed by Mr. H. Brand, the speaker (termReporters excluded from the commons during debates ed coup d'état), 4 P. M. 31 Jan. to 9.30 P M........2 Feb.

on the Contagious Diseases act.... 24 May and 20 July, 1870 Thirty-six Irish members, Mr. Parnell, Mr. Justin Mc. The commons sat from 2 P. m. 15 July to 5.30 A. M.

Carthy, and others, suspended for the sitting for disor.

16 July, derly conduct; Mr. Gladstone's resolutions; speaker Meeting of parliament in six days after proclamation,

invested with all the powers of the house to regulate legalized by act passed..

..9 Aug

business when voted urgent by three fourths of the Death of the earl of Onslow, father of the house of lords, members (at least 200) (234-150).

...3 Feb. aged 93...

24 Oct. New stringent rules to be enforced when business is deMr. Fawcett alone in the lobby (350-1 on grant of

clared urgent by a minister of the crown; laid on table 30.0001. to princess Louise on her marriage). .. 16 Feb. 1871 by the speaker..

.....9 Feb. Bankrupt peers disqualified from sitting or voting in Supplemental rules, 17 Feb., modified; acted on 21 Feb.; parliament by act passed.

.13 July,
new rules announced.

11, 12 March, Mr. Bonham Carter succeeds Mr. J. C. Dodson as deputy. Mr. Gladstone's resolution for "urgency,

"' with the supspeaker and chairman of committees.........8 April, 1872 plies, lost (212-296).

14 March, Mr. Biggar and others caused reporters and others to be Mr. Bradlaugh re-elected for Northampton......9 April,

excluded from the debates in the commons; much His offer to take the oath opposed (208–175); he is forcidiscussion ensued; Mr. Disraeli's resolution that bly removed, 26 April; again cjected...

. 10 May, strangers are not to withdraw without a vote of the New Parliamentary Oaths bill discharged. .......5 July, house or order of the speaker unanimously adopted,


1299 TO 37 VICT. 1874. Only 89.9381. paid to members (commons) for salaries

Edward I.. and pensions, civil, naval, and military.. ....July,

8 parliaments in 8 years' reign

15 Edward II..

20 The Ballot act passed....

.. 18 July,
Edward III.


50 Mr. Plimsoll, greatly excited, makes unparliamentary

26 Richard II..

22 charges at the proposed withdrawal of the Merchant

10 Henry IV.

14 Shipping bill, 22 July; apologizes; motion for repri


9 mand withdrawn.

22 Henry VI.

39 The commons, through Irish members (principally Messrs.

Edward IV.


22 Parnell, Biggar, O'Donnell, Power, Gray, Kirk, and No.

Richard III.


2 Henry VII...


24 * Termed the "Palace of Westminster." The first contract for the embankment of the river was taken in 1837 by Messrs.


Day of Meeting. + When Dissolved. Lee; this embankment, faced with granite, is 886 feet in length, and projected into the river in a line with the inner HENRY VIII.

21 Jan......

1510 23 Feb..... 1510 side of the third pier of old Westminster bridge. Sir Charles

4 Feb..


4 March... 1513 Barry (born 1795. died 1860) was the architect of the sumptu

5 Feb. 1514 22 Dec..... 1515 ous pile of buildings raised since 1840. The whole stands on

15 April.... 1523

13 Aug

1523 a bed of concrete twelve feet thick; to the east it has a front

3 Nov. 1529

4 April.... 15:36 of about 1000 feet, and covers an area of nine statute acres. It

1536 18 July contaius 1100 apartments, 100 staircases, and two miles of pas.

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28 April.... 1539 24 July.. 1540 sages or corridors. The great Victoria tower at the southwest extremity is 346 feet in height, and towers of less magnitude + Corrected by the blue book, "Parliaments of England," crown other portions of the building.

printed 1875.

8 June ...


5 Oct.....


5 May,


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8 Aug.....


Day of Meeting. * When Dissolved. | pressed by Louis XV., 1771; restored by Louis XVI.,

1774; demanded a meeting of the states-general in 1787; HENRY VIII.... 16 Jan...... 1541 28 March... 1544 30 Jan... 1545 uncertain.

and was suspended by the national assembly, 3 Nov. 23 Nov.,

31 Jan.. 1547 | 1789; see Commune. EDWARD VI.

4 Nov. 1547 15 April. 1552
1 March.. 1553 31 March. 1553

Parliament oF SCOTLAND consisted of barons, prelMARY..

5 Dec....

ates, and abbots, and occasionally of burgesses. A great 2 April.... 1554

5 May

1554 national council was held at Scone by John Balliol, 9 12 Nov.

16 Jan. 1555 21 Oct...... 1555 9 Dec...

Feb. 1292, and by Robert Bruce at Cambuskenneth in 20 Jan.... 1558 17 Nov. 1558 1326. A house of commons was never formed in ScotELIZABETII..

23 Jan. 1559 8 May. 1559 land. The parliament of Scotland sanctioned the act
11 Jan. 1563 2 Jan.. 1567
2 April. 1571 29 May

of union on 16 Jan. 1707, and met for the last time on

1571 8 May.

1572 19 April.... 1583 22 April, same year. 23 Nov.. 1584 14 Sept..... 1585 Parliamentary and Municipal Registra29 Oct... 1586 23 March... 1587 tion Acts (41 & 42 Vict. c. 26), passed 22 July, 1878. 12 Nov. 1588 29 Marcb... 19 Feb.. 1593 10 April.... 1593

Parma (N. Italy), founded by the ancient Etrurians. 24 Oct.. 1597 9 Feb..... 1598

It took part with the Lombard league in the wars with 27 Oct.....

1601 | 19 Dec. 1601 JAMES I..

19 March... 1604 9 Feb... 1611 the German emperors. It was made a duchy (with

5 April.... 1614 7 June. 1614 Placentia), 1545.
16,23,30 Jan. 1621 8 Feb....

12 Feb...... 1624 27 March... 1625 United to Spain by Philip V'.'s marriage with Elizabeth

1714 CHARLES I........

16:25 12 Aug.
17 May.....
6 Feb.... 1626 15 June.....


Battle near Parma; the confederates, England, France, 17 March,.. 1628 10 March... 1629

and Spain, against the emperor; both armies claimed the victory..

.29 June, 1734 13 April.... 1640

1640 Long Parliament.. 3 Nov

20 April... 1653 Battle near the Trebbia; the French, under Macdonald, COMMONWEALTH

3 Sept.
1654 | 22 Jan... 1655

defeated by Suwarrow, with the loss of 10,000 men and
17 Sept.
1656 4 Feb.... 1658
four generals...

...19 June, 1799 The duke of Parma made king of Etruria.......... Feb. 1801 27 Jan. 1659 22 April. 1659 7 May

16 March... 1660 Parma united to France: with Placentia and Guastalla CHARLES IL... 25 April...

conferred on Maria Louisa, ex-empress, by treaty of 1660 29 Dec.....

8 May. l'ensionary Parl......

1661 24 Jan..

Fontainebleau.... 1679

..5 April, 1814 6 March...

12 July.
Parma occupied by the Austrians and Sardinians in the


war of.. Seven Prorogations... 17 Oct...... 18 Jan... 1681

The Sardinians retire after the battle of Novara, JAMES II...

21 March... 1681 28 March... (Convention). 19 May..... 1685 2 July.

23 March, 1849 1697

The duke Charles II. abdicates in favor of his son, WILLIAM III.. 22 Jan...... 1689 6 Feb. 1690

Charles III... 20 March... 1690 | 11 Oct..

..14 March, 1695 22 Nov.. 1695

7 July


Charles III. stabbed by an assassin, 26 March, dies, 24 Aug..... 1698 19 Dec....

27 March, 1854

1700 ANYE... 6 Feb..... 1701 11 Nov. 1701

Robert I., a minor (born 9 July, 1848); whose mother

becomes regent.
30 Dec.

2 July. 1702
20 Aug
1702 5 April..


War in Italy; the Parmesans establish a provisional 25 Oct.. 1705 11 April.... 1708

government; the duchess-regent retires to Switzer

land.. 18 Nov. 1708 28 Sept..... 1710

......1 May, 1859 Farina became dictator.

.18 Aug. 25 Nov., 1710 1713

.12 Sept. GEORGE I..

11 Nov.... 1713 15 Jan...... 1715 Annexation to Sardinia voted..

21 March... 1715 10 March... 1722 Col. Anviti, a former obnoxious police minister, having GEORGE II. 9 Oct.... 1722 7 Aug.


rashly returned, cruelly murdered by the mob..5 Oct. 28 Jan. 1728 18 April...: 1731 Parma is now part of the province of Æmilia in the 14 Jan.. 1735 28 April.... 1741

kingdom of Italy, to which it was annexed by decree 1741 | 18 June. 1747 after a plébiscite...

.18 March, 1860 10 Nov. 1747

8 April

Duchess-regent died.

.........1 Feb. 1864 GEORGE III... 14 Nov. 1754 21 March... 1761

Parochial Charities Commission, see Lon3 Nov. 1761 12 March... 1768 10 May

1768 30 Sept..... 1774 don, 1878. 29 Nov. 1774 1 Sept..


Parricide. There was no law against it in Athens 31 Oct... 1780 25 March... 1784

or Rome, such a crime not being supposed possible. 18 May

1784 12 June ... 1790
26 Nov
1790 20 May.

1796 About 172 B.C., L. Ostius having killed his father, the 27 Sept.

1796 29 June 1802 Romans scourged the parricide; sewed him up in a 16 Nov... 1802 24 Oct... 1806

leathern sack made air-tight, with a live dog, a cock, a 15 Dec... 1806 29 April 1807 22 June...

Miss 1807 24 Sept.

1812 viper, and an ape, and thus cast him into the sea. 24 Nov 1812 10 June 1818 Blandy was executed at Oxford for the murder of her GEORGE IV.

14 Jan.. 1819 29 Feb...... 1820 father, April, 1752.
23 April, . 1820 2 June. 1826

14 Nov. 1826 24 July. 1830 Parsees, or GUEBRES, the followers of Zerdusht, WILLIAX IV....

26 Oct.. 1830 22 April.. 1831 dwelt in Persia till 638, when, at the battle of Kadseah, 14 June.. 1831

3 Dec......

1832 29 June 1833 30 Dec.....

their army was decimated by the Arabs, and the mon

1834 VICTORIA......

19 Feb.. 1835 17 July. 1837 archy annihilated at the battle of Náhárand in 641.
15 ov..... 1837 23 June .... 1841 Many submitted to the conquerors, but others fled to
19 Aug..
1841 23 July.


India, and their descendants still reside at Bombay 18 Nov...,

1947 1 July 1852 4 Nov. 1852 21 March... 1857 (where they are termed Parsees), and where they num1 April.. 1857 23 April.... 1859 bered 114,698 in 1819. Sir Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy, the 31 May

1859 6 July. 1865 3d baronet, was elected president of the community 1 Feb.... 1866 11 Nov. 1868 10 Dec.. 1868 26 Jan. 1874 there, July, 1877. Mr. Dadabhai Naoroji, a Parsee mer5 March... 1874 23 March... 1880 chant, was for several years professor of Gujerati at Uni29 April.... 1880

versity College, London; see Bombay. Parliament of IRELAND, it is said, began with "Partant pour la Syrie," popular French song; conferences of the English settlers on the hill of Tara, words by comte Alexandre de Laborde; music by Horin 1173. Writs for knights of the shire were issued in tense Beauharnois, wife of Louis Bonaparte, king of 1295. The Irish parliament met last on 2 Aug. 1800, Holland, about 1809. The music became very popular the bill for the union having passed.

after her son became emperor, in 1852, as Napoleon III. Parliament of Paris was made the chief court of

Parthenon (from Greek napjévos, virgin), a temjustice in France by Philip IV.; at his suggestion it re- ple at Athens dedicated to Minerva, erected about 442 voked a bull of pope Boniface VIII., 1302.

It was sup- B.C.

In it Phidias placed his renowned statue of that

The roof was destroyed by the Vene* Corrected by the blue-book, “ Parliaments of England," goddess, 438 B.C. printed 1879.

tians in 1687; see Elgin Marbles.

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4 Dec.....

Parthenopean Republic was established by the Passion-week, the name given since the ReforFrench at Naples (anciently called Parthenope), 23 Jan. mation to the week preceding Easter, was formerly ap1799, and overthrown in June same year,

plied to the fortnight. Archbishop Laud says the two Parthia (Asia). The Parthians were originally a weeks were so called "for a thousand years together," tribe of Scythians who, being exiled, as their name im- and refers to an epistle by Ignatius, in the first century, plies, from their own country, settled near Hyrcania. in which the practice is said to have been “ observed by Arsaces laid the foundation of an empire which ulti- all.” The week preceding Easter is now by some termed mately extended over a large part of Asia, 250 B.C.; the “ Holy-week,” the previous week “ Passion-week.” Parthians were never wholly subdued by the Romans. Passion Music. Gregory Nazianzen (A.D. 330-90) is said to The last king, Artabanus V., was killed A.D. 226; and his have first set forth the history of the Passion in a dramatic territories were annexed to the new kingdom of Persia Guidetti

, in 1586, published music for this subject, which has founded by Artaxerxes, who had revolted against Parthia.

been treated since by many composers. Particularists. The name given to those Ger- J. S. Bach's great "Passion. Musik,” first performed on Good mans who desire the maintenance of the independence

Friday, 1729, has been revived with great success in this

country, beginning with that “according to St. Matthew," of the German states, and oppose their absorption into 6 April, 1854. the empire. M. Gasser, one of them, failed in an at

Passover, the most solemn festival of the Jews, intempt to form a ministry in Bavaria, Sept. 1872.

stituted 1491 B.C. (Exod. xii.) in commemoration of their Partition Act, relative to the division of property coming out of Egypt; because the night before their sold by direction of the court of chancery, passed 25 departure the destroying angel, who put to death the June, 1688.

first-born of the Egyptians, passed over the houses of the Partition Treaties. The first treaty between Hebrews without entering them; the door-posts being England and Holland for regulating the Spanish suc- marked with the blood of the Paschal lamb killed the cession (declaring the elector of Bavaria next heir, and evening before. The Passover was celebrated in the ceding provinces to France) was signed 19 Aug. 1698; new temple, 18 April, 515 B.C.-L'sher. and the second (between France, England, and Holland,

Passport System forbids subjects to quit one declaring the archduke Charles presumptive heir of the Spanish monarch, Joseph Ferdinand having died in country or enter another without the consent of the 1699), 13 March, 1700. Treaty for the partition of Po- sovereign thereof. In 1858 the system was somewhat land; the first was a secret convention between Russia changed in this country, and the stamp-duty on passand Prussia, 17 Feb. 1772; the second between the same ished in Norway in 1859; in Sweden in 1860; and (with

ports was reduced from 58. to 6d. Passports were abolpowers and Austria, 5 Aug. same year, the third was regard to British subjects) in France, 16 Dec. 1860; in between Russia, Austria, and Prussia, 24 Oct. 1795.

Italy, 26 June, 1862; in Portugal, 23 Jan. 1863; and are Partnership. The laws respecting it were amend- falling into disuse in other countries. The passport sysed in 1863; see Limited Liability.

tem was established in the United States on 19 Aug. Party, see Processions.

1861, and maintained during the continuance of the Pasigraphy (from Greek Tãou, for all): a system civil war. The United States government issues passwhich professes to teach people to communicate with ports to its citizens travelling abroad, but except during each other by means of numbers which convey the same the civil war no domestic passport system has ever existed ideas in all languages. A society for this purpose was in the republic. The passport system, revived in France established at Munich; and the president, Anton Bach- on account of the war, 1 Aug. 1870, was ai olished by M. maier, published a dictionary and grammar for German, Thiers, 10 April, 1872, in compliance with the wish of French, and English, 1868-71; 4334 mental conceptions the British government. may be thus communicated.

Paston Letters, the correspondence of a Norfolk Pasquinades. Small satirical poems obtained family, 1422-83, giving a picture of social life in Engthis name about 1533.

land, were edited by sir John Fenn, and published in At the stall of a cobbler named Pasqnin, at Rome, idle per- five volumes, quarto, 1787–1823. Their authenticity

sons used to assemble to listen to his sallies, to relate an. ecdotes, and rail at the passers - by. After the cobbler's

was questioned Sept. 1865, but was satisfactorily vindideath, his name was given to a statue to which lampoons cated by a committee of the Society of Antiquaries in

May, 1866. Part of the MS. was soon after purchased Passarowitz Treaty, concluded 21 July, 1718, by the trustees of the British Museum. The publicabetween Germany and Venice, and the Turks, by which tion of a new edition, by James Gairdner, with additionthe house of Austria ceded certain commercial rights, al letters, 1872-5. The MS. of the second series, with and obtained from Turkey the Temeswar, Belgrade, and other letters, was found in 1875, by Mr. Frere, of Roydon part of Bosnia, Servia, and Wallachia. The Turks gained Hall, near Diss, Norfolk. the Morea.

Patay (France), where Joan of Arc, the Maid of OrPassau (Germany), TREATY OF, whereby religious leans, was present when the earl of Richemonte signally freedom was established, was ratified between the em- defeated the English, 18 June, 1429. Talbot was taken peror Charles V. and the Protestant princes of Germany, prisoner, and the valiant Fastolfe was forced to flee. In 31 July, 1552. In 1662 the cathedral and great part of consequence, Charles VII. of France entered Rheims in Passau were consumed by fire.

triumph, and was crowned 17 July, following year, Joan Passengers-by public vehicles, are protected by of Arc assisting in the ceremony in full armor, and hold1 & 2 Will. IV. c. 22 (1831),1 & 2 Vict. c. 79 (1838), and ing the sword of state; see Joan of Arc. 16 & 17 Vict. c. 33 (1853). Mr. Cleghorn, under whom Patent Medicines. Received for stamps, year the front seat on the near side of one of the general 1875-6, 123,1361. omnibus company's carriages had given way, recovered

Patents (from pateo, I lie open), licenses and all4001. damages against the company, in a verdict by con- thorities granted by the king. Patents granted for tisent, in the Queen's Bench, 10 Dec. 1856. The Ships' tles of nobility were first made 1344, by Edward III. Passenger act, 18 & 19 Vict. c. 119, passed in 1855, was They were first granted for the exclusive privilege of amended in 1863; see Campbell's Act.

printing books in 1591. The property and right of inPassionists, a congregation of Clerks of the Holy ventors in arts and manufactures were secured by letCross, founded by St. Paul of the Cross, who died 1775, ters-patent by an act passed in 1623. The later laws and was canonized by the pope, 1867. A home was set regulating patents are very numerous; among them are up in England in 1841, and others since. The monas- 5 & 6 Will. c. 83 (1835), and 15 & 16 Vict. c. 83 (1852). tery, Highgate, London, N., solemnly blessed by cardinal By the latter COMMISSIONERS OF Parents were apManning, and opened 16 July, 1876.

pointed—viz., the lord chancellor, the master of the rolls, Passion-play, see Drama.

the attorney-general for England and Ireland, the lord

were affixed.

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