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.30 July,

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Northwestern, 61 branch lines; Great Northern, 37; Expended on railways in the United Kingdom about Great Eastern, 27; London and Brighton, 22; London 720,000,0001. (since 1829); gross annual receipts about and Southwestern, 22; Midland, 17.

1872 62,000,0001. ; net earnings about 30,000,0001. ; reported Railway proposed by M. de Lesseps from Orenburg to

Aug. 1680 Peshawur (2500 miles), to connect, by means of Rus- Packet of dynamite placed on rails between Bushey and sian and East Indian railways, Calais and Calcutta,

Watford (1. & N. W. railway)........night, 12-13 Sept.

May, 1873 Board of Trade circular respecting precautions against Bill for amalgamation of London and Northwestern and accidents, etc. (accidents of 10, 11 Aug. attributed to Lancashire and Yorkshire companies rejected by the neglect)..

..20 Sept. commons committee....

.23 May, Railway rates select committee meet.........10 March, 1881 New Regulation of Railways act passed (commissioners Siemens and Halske's electrical railway at Berlin, 184

to be appointed to carry out the act of 1854), 21 July; miles an hour, tried 12 May; opened to the public, commissioners, sir Frederick Peel, Mr. Price, and Mr.

16 May, Macnamara; met first time...

....11 Nov.

Centenary of George Stephenson's birth celebrated at First railway in Persia begun at Resht.........11 Sept.

Newcastle, Chesterfield, the Crystal Palace, London, Railway accidents investigated by capt. Tyler: 1871, 171; and throughout the counties of Durham and North in 1872, 246; in the United Kingdom in 1872, 541 rail

umberland.

.9 June, way servants killed, 499 injured.

Murder of Mr. Fk. Isaac Gold in a carriage on London Circular from the Board of Trade, by Mr. Chichester For- and Brighton railway..

..27 June, tescue, to the railway companies respecting the in- Percy Lefroy, alias Mapleton, arrested on suspicion, 8 crease of preventable accidents and unpunctuality,

July; committed for trial....

....21 July, 18 Nov.

RAILWAYS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. The justificatory replies of sir Edward Watkin for the

Capital Miles

Net London and Brighton Co., and of R. Moon for the L.

Dec.

Year. and N. W. Co.; from other companies..

Paid Up. Opened. Receipts. 1851.

£240,897 6,890 Ten railway servants convicted of robbing the luggage,

19 Nov.

1854. 286,068,794 8,054 £11,009,519 severely sentenced..

1860. 348,130,127 10,433

14,579, 254 120 persons killed, 48 without their own fault, in six months..

1873-4
1865. 455, 478,143 13,289

18,602,582

1870. 529,908, 673 15,537 The Board of Trade's reply (by Mr. Malcolm) to the rail

23, 362.618 1875. ..about 24 Feb. 1874

630,223,494 16,658

28.016,272 way companies published.

1877. The Pullman palace saloon cars (American) introduced

674,059,048 17,077

29,115,350

1879. 717,003, 469 on the Midland railway, 21 March; opened to the

17,696

29,731,430 public...

...1 June, Working expenses : 1854, 9,206, 2051. ; 1861, 13,843,3371. ; 1870, Commission to inquire into causes of railway accidents 21,715,525l. ; 1874, 32,625,5291. ; 1877, 33,837, 0001.

agreed to by government, 27 April; nominated (duke Number of passengers : 1845, 33,791, 253; 1854, 111,206, 707; of Buckingham and others)....

.11 June,

1860, 163,483,572; 1865, 251,959,862; 1870, 330, 162, 801; 1874, Circular from sir C. Adderley, recommending punctuali- 478,334,368; 1877 (not season-ticket holders), 551,533,000. ty and care, to avoid accidents...

...July,

Miles Opened. Railway Travellers' Protection Society organized; duke

1843. 1861. 1874. 1877. 1879. of Manchester, president... .23 July,

11,622 England and Wales... 1,775 7,820

12,098 12,547 ...30 July, Board of Trade Arbitration act passed...

Scotland

225 1,626 2,700 2,776 2.864 New standing orders respecting laborers' houses re

Ireland
31 1,423 2,127 2, 203

2,255 moved for making railways, passed.. Statement of railway servants: that 632 were killed in For 1847-9, it was calculated that, out of 4,782, 188 travellers

1872, and 773 killed in 1873; many injured (asserted to by railway, one person was killed from causes beyond his be less than the truth)..

..Sept.

own control; for 1856-9, one in 8,708, 411; 1866-8, one in Midland railway company announces change of fares;

12,941, 170. In 1878, one in 7,503,000. Passengers killed first-class to 1 d. a mile; second class abolished; no from causes beyond their control, in 1871, 12; 1862–72, 271;

return tickets at lower fares; to begin.........1 Jan. 1875 1872, 24; 1876, 811. Other companies announce reductions in fares.....Jan.

United Kingdom. Persons employed on railways: England, 228,958; Scot- 1874, 1424 killed-211 passengers (not their fault, 86); 788 ser

land, 31,023; Ireland, 14,554; total, 274,535; (L. & vants, 425 trespassers; 5041 injured.

N. W. company, about 40,000); announced........Jan. 1876, 1286 killed—139 (by own fault, 101) passengers; 6112 inHouse of lords, on appeal, decide that railway companies jured, 1883 passengers.

are responsible for negligence in conveying persons 1877, 1175 killed—126 passengers; 3705 injured, 1283 passen. and goods, although they disclaim it on tickets. 1 June,

gers. Great trial of continuous railway brakes on Midland 1878, 1112 killed; 6507 injured by various causes.

railway, near Lowdham; Westinghouse automatic 1879. 1032 killed; 160 passengers; 3513 injured, 1307 passenbrake considered the best...

..June,

gers. Extension of Metropolitan railway to Great Eastern, Railway servants killed: annual average (1872–5), 740; 1880,

opened 10 July,

reduced to 483. Railway jubilee at Darlington; 50th anniversary of

Compensation Paid for Injuries by Companies. opening of the Stockton and Darlington railway;

1873.

1874. statue of Joseph Pease unveiled.

.27 Sept.
Passengers.

£364,509

£355,876 Dr. Strousberg, "German railway king," tried for fraud,

Goods

231,707

259, 293 etc., at Moscow,

1876

PRINCIPAL RAILWAYS OF THE UNITED KINGDOM. Metropolitan extension to Aldgate opened......11 Nov. Elevated street railways erected in New York city.....1877–8 The railways are generally named from their termini. First railway in China, from Shanghai to Oussoon (11

Railways

Date of Opening. miles), constructed by Europeans; at first opposed;

Arbroath and Forfar..

.3 Jan. 1839 trial trip. 16 March; publicly opened, 30 June, 1876; Atmospheric Railway (which see)

1840 much opposed; stopped; plant taken to Formosa....1877-8 Bangor and Carnarvon

..July, 1852 Passenger duty received, 507,0761. for year 1872-3; Belfast and County of Down.

. April, 1850 736,3691. for year 1875-6; 728,7181. for 1876–7; 741,9191. Birmingham and Derby

.12 Aug. 1839 for.. .1877-8 Birmingham and Gloucester..

.17 Dec. 1840 Folkestone and Dover tunnel injured by rains; fallings- Birmingham, Wolverhampton, and Stour Valley ...July, 1852 in. ..12, 15 Jan. 1877 Brighton and Chichester..

.8 June, 1846 Fusion of Southeastern and London, Chatham, and Do. Brighton and Hastings..

.27 June, ver companies, voted by former.. ......18 Jan.

Bristol and Exeter..

.1 May, 1844 Railway accident commission report; recommend that Bristol and Gloucester

.July, 1845 the companies' responsibilities be not diminished, etc., Caledonian..

Feb. 1848 Feb. Canterbury and Whitstable..

.May, 1830 Proposed fusion of the Great Northern and Great Eastern Charing Cross railway, London, opened. .11 Jan. 1864 fails... ....June, Cheltenham and Swindon.

,12 May, 1845 or the Manchester and Sheffield and Lincolnshire with

Chester and Birkenhead..

.22 Sept. 1840 the Great Northern and Midland, fails.... Nov. Chester and Crewe ..

1848 Many embarrassed subsidiary lines purchased by the Cockermouth and Workington

28 April, 1847 French government (for about 11,000,0001.).

1878 Colchester and Ipswich.

.15 June, 1846 Great increase of third-class passengers; receipts, about Cork and Bandon.

.8 Dec. 1851 7,000,0001., 1869; about 14,000,0001.. 1879 Cornwall..

.1 May, 1859 Sudden strike of goods - guards on Midland railway Coventry and Leamington..

..2 Dec. 1844 through alteration of modo of payment, 3 Jan., fails Croydon and Epsom..

.17 May, 1847 about 20 Jan. Devon and Somerset.

7 Nov. 1873 Southeastern railway company v. railway commissioners Dover and Deal, begun.

.29 June, 1878 (who had given orders for enlarging station at Hast- Dublin and Belfast Junction

June, 1832 ings, etc.), Queen's Bench; verdict restricting powers Dublin and Carlow

10 Aug. 1846 of the commissioners (see above, 1873), two judges

Dublin and Drogheda..

.26 May, 1844 against one... .13 Jan. 1880 Dublin and Kingstown.

17 Dec. 184 Eularged dividends on the priucipal lines for half year, Dundee and Newtyle

Dec, 1831 1 Jan. to 30 June, Dundee and Perth..

.22 May, 1847

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Railways.
Date of Opening. Year.

Miles. Year.

Miles. Durham and Sunderland.

28 June, 1839 1830

23 | 1875..

74,374 Eastern Counties

.18 June, 1840

2,818 | 1876

77,031 Eastern Union (London and Colchester). , 29 March, 1843 1850

9,021 | 1877

79,208 East London..

..10 April, 1876 1860

30,635 1878.

81,841 Edinburgh and Berwick.

.18 June, 1846 1870

52,914 1880.

93,637 Edinburgh and Glasgow.

..8 Feb. 1842 The reported sales of railroad stocks on the New York Stock Ely and Peterborough.

Jan. 1847 Exeter and Plymouth (part).

29 May, 1846

Exchange for 1880 exceeded 100,000,000 shares. Glasgow and Ayr..

19 Sept. 1840 Glasgow and Greenock.

24 March, 1841

MEMORABLE RAILWAY ACCIDENTS. * Glasgow, Garnkirk, and Coatbridge

....July, 1845 Very many (where only 2 persons killed) are not noted; in nearGloucester and Chepstow..

Sept. 1851

ly all cases a large number were injured. Grand Junction (Birmingham to Newton). .July, 1837

W. Huskisson, M.P., killed at the opening of the LiverGravesend and Rochester

.10 Feb. 1845

pool and Manchester railway. ......15 Sept. 1830 Great Northern...

1852 Great Corby (Newcastle and Carlisle): train runs offline; Great Western to Maidenhead, 4 June, 1838; to Bristol,

3 killed.

.3 Dec. 1836 30 June, 1841

Brentwood (Eastern Counties): carriages overturned; 3 Hertford Branch of Eastern Counties..

.31 Oct. 1843
killed...

21 Aug. 1840 Ipswich and Bury St. Edmund's..

24 Dec. 1846 Cuckfield (London and Brighton): engine runs off line; Isle of Man..

...1 July, 1873
4 killed.

.2 Oct. 1841 Kendal and Windermere.

.21 April, 1847 Sonningbill cutting, near Reading: engine forced off Lancaster and Carlisle

16 Dec. 1846
line; 8 killed.

24 Dec. Lancaster and Preston

.30 June, 1840 Versailles: carriages take fire, passengers locked in; 52 Leeds and Bradford....

.1 July, 1846

or 53 lives lost, including admiral D'Urville....8 May, 1842 Leeds and Derby.

... July, 1840 Masborough (Midland Counties): collision; Mr. Boteler Liverpool and Birmingham..

.4 July, 1837
and others killed, many injured...

20 Oct. 1845 Liverpool and Manchester.

.15 Sept. 1830 Stratford (Eastern Counties): collision through great Liverpool and Preston..

31 Oct. 1838 London and Birmingham..

.17 Sept.

carelessness; Mr. Hind killed, many mutilated. 18 July, 1846

Pevensey (Brighton and Hastings): collision; 40 injured, London and Blackwall. ...2 Aug. 1811

24 Aug. London and Brighton

.21 Sept. Clifton (Manchester and Bolton): express runs off line; London and Bristol..

.30 June,
2 killed, many injured...

....15 Dec. London and Cambridge..

..30 July, 1845 Chester (Chester and Shrewsbury): train runs off bridge; London, Chatham, and Dover.

29 Sept. 1860
4 killed; greater number injured..

.18 May, 1847 London and Colchester..

.29 March, 1843 Wolverton (Northwestern) : collision; 7 killed, many London and Croydon...

.1 June, 1839
injured....

,5 June, London and Dover....

.7 Feb. 1844

Shrivenham (Great Western): collision; 7 killed, many London and Greenwich..

.. 26 Dec. 1838
injured..

10 May, 1843 London and Richmond..

27 July, 1846 Carlisle (Caledonian): axletree of carriage breaks; 5 London and Southampton ...11 May, 1840

10 Feb. 1849 London and Southend

June, 1856 Frodsham Tunnel (Chester and Warrington Junction); London and Warrington; branch of the Great Northern

collision; 6 killed..

30 April, 1351 Aug. 1850 Newmarket Hill (Lewes and Brighton): train runs off Lowestoft branch; Norwich and Yarmouth.

1847
line; 4 killed..

.6 June, Lynn and Ely Manchester and Birmingham

Bicester (Oxfordshire): collision; 6 killed.......6 Sept.

10 Aug. 1842 Burnley Great Northern): collision; 4 killed...12 July, 1852 Manchester and Leeds..

.1 March, 1841

Dixonfold (Great Northern): engine wheels broke; 7 Manchester and Shellield.

.22 Dec. 1845
killed....

.4 March, 1853 Metropolitan, London; act obtained, 1853; construction

Near Straffan (Great Southern and Western, Ireland): began, 1860; opened

..10 Jan. 1863
collision; 13 killed..

.5 Oct. Midland Counties..

30 June, 1840 Near Harling, Norfolk (Eastern Counties): collision; 6 Newcastle and Berwick

...July, 1847
killed..

...12 Jan. 1854 Newcastle and Carlisle..

.18 June,

Croydon (Brighton and Dover): collision; 3 killed. 24 Aug. Newcastle and North Shields.

18 June, 1839 Burlington, between New York and Philadelphia; 21 Newmarket and Cambridge...

Oct. 1851
killed...

29 Aug Northampton and Peterborough

.2 June, 1845 Reading (Southeastern): collision; 5 killed.....12 Sept. 1955 North and Southwestern Junction. ...Dec. 1852 Near Paris: collision; 9 killed.

.9 Oct. Northeastern ......

..July, 1845 Between Thoret and Moret: collision; 16 killed. . 23 Oct. Norwich and Yarmouth

...1 May, 1844 Campbell (N. Pennsylvania). collision; above 100 killed, Nottingham to Grantham. ...July, 1850

17 July, 1856 Nottingham and Lincoln.

...3 Aug 1846 Dunkett (Waterford and Kilkenny): collision; 7 killed, Nottingham branch; Rugby and Derby. .30 May, 1839

19 Nov. Oxford branch of London and Bristol...

12 June, 1814 Kirby (Liverpool and Blackpool): collision; 200 injured; Oxford, Worcester, and Wolverhampton,

.May, 1852

none killed.. Penzance to Camborne....... ..Jan.

. 27 June, 1857

Lewisham (North Kent): collision; 11 killed... 28 June, Rugby and Derby...

July, 1840

Between Pyle and Port Talbot; collision; 4 killed. 14 Oct. Rugby and Leamington... .Feb. 1851 Attleborough, Warwickshire (Northwestern):

train St. Andrew's.

July, 1852

thrown off the line through a cow crossing the rails; St. Helen's; first act passed..

1830

3 killed.. Salisbury branch of the London and Southampton

...10 May, 1858 1847

Near Mons, Belgium: coke wagon on the rails; 21 killed, Settle and Carlisle.. . 1 May, 1876

June, .1 June, Southampton and Dorchester.

Chilham (Southeastern): either too great speed or South Devon..

1850
broken axletree; 3 killed...

..30 June, Southeastern (London and Dover).

...7 Feb. 1844 Near Round Oak Station (Oxford and Wolverhampton)Southeastern; North Kent line..

1849
excursion train: collision; 14 killed..

23 Aug. Stockton and Darlington

27 Sept. 1825 Tottenham (Eastern Counties): engine wheel breaks; 6 Trent Valley

26 June, 1847
killed......

... ... 20 Feb. 1860 Ulster...

.....Aug. 1839 Helmshore (Lancashire and Yorkshire)-excursion train: West and East India Docks and Birmingham Junction from the Blackwall railway to Camden Town ....Ang. 1850

collision; 11 killed..

4 Sept.

Atherstone (Northwestern): collision of mail and cattle Worcester and Droitwich.

.Jan. 1852 York and Darlington (Northeastern).

4 Jan. 1841

trains; 11 killed..
Near Wimbledon: Dr. Baly killed..

.28 Jan. 1861 York and Newcastle

.17 June, 1847 York and Normanton

.30 June, 1840

Railway tunnel falls in near Haddon Hall, Derbyshire;

5 men killed...... York and Scarborough

.2 July, ...7 July, 1845

Clayton Tunnel (London and Brighton): collision; 23 Yarmouth and Norwich.

...1 May, 1844
killed, 176 injured...

25 Aug. Alleged EXTENT OF RAILWAYS (in miles), 1867: Austrian do. Kentish Town (Hampstead Junction): 16 killed, 320 inminions, 4001; France, 8989 (1880, 16,627); Italy, 3040;

jured.

..2 Sept. Prussia, 5483; Russia, 2893; Spain, 3216; United States of Market Harborough: collision; 1 killed and 50 injured, America, 32,896; India, 8215 (1879); Australia, 669. 1872

28 Aug. 1862 (end): Great Britain, 15,814; India,' 5372; France, 10,610; Near Winchburgh (Edinburgh and Glasgow): collision; Belgium, 1892; Germany, 10,916; United States of America, Near Streatham (London and Brighton): explosion of

15 killed, 100 wounded..

13 Oct. 60,382; in 1876, 73,508; in 1880, 86,497.

boiler through attempting too great speed; 4 killed;

above 30 injured.. RAILROADS IN THE UNITED STATES.

...30 May, 1863 In addition to matters noted under the preceding general

title, the following table shows the number of miles of rail. * On 27 Dec. 1864, the queen wrote to the directors of the road in operation in the United States at various times railway companies of London, requesting them to be as caresince the establishment of our railway system:

ful of other passengers as of hersell."

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Near Lyon (Lynn and Hunstanton): carriages upset Ferry-hill (North British): collision; 2 killed. ...16 Oct. 1871

through bullock on the line; 5 killed.... .3 Aug. 1863 Antibes railway between Nice and Cannes: train thrown Egham (Southwestern) : collision; 5 killed, above 20 in. into the river Brague; 12 said to be killed..... 24 Jan. 1872 jured......

...7 June, 1864 Belleville (Grand Trunk of Canada): engine broke off the Canada: train ran off a bridge at St. Hilaire in crossing; line; many burned, scalded, etc.; about 30 killed, about 83 killed, 200 wounded. 29 June,

22 June, Blackheath Tunnel: fast train ran into a ballast train; 6 Connellsville (Baltimore and Pittsburgh): collision; many killed..

..16 Dec.
hurt, 3 killed...

.22 June, Near Redna (on a branch of Great Western): train Juvisy (Orleans railway): express ran into luggage train; ran off insecure rails; 13 killed, about 40 injured

boiler exploded; 5 burned to death (including mother 7 June, 1865 of the duchess of Malakoff).

..26 June, Near Staplehurst (Southeastern): train ran off insecure Rose-hill junction (Newcastle and Carlisle); collision; 4 rails, etc. ; 10 killed and about 50 injured......9 June,

killed..

.5 July, Near Colney Hatch (Midland): collision with coal-trucks; Red-hill junction (Great Western and L. & N.W.), near above 50 persons injured...

..30 Aug
Hertford; 2 killed. .

.29 July, Fall of a bridge at Sutton (S. coast-line): 6 men killed, Clifton junction (Lancashire and Yorkshire): collision; 28 April, 1866 4 killed..

.3 Aug Near Caterham junction (London and Brighton): 3 kill- Kirtlebridge, Dumfries (Caledonian): collision; express ed, 12 injured.

.30 April,

train late; error of pointsman; 12 killed.. .2 Oct. In Welwyn Tunnel (Great Northern): a steam tube burst; Kelvedon, near Chelmsford (Great Eastern): locomotive collision of three goods trains, and a great fire; 2 driven off the line by a raised rail; 1 killed, many hurt, lives lost.. .9, 10 June,

17 Oct. Near Royston (Great Northern): train ran off line; 3 lives Near Woodhouse junction (Manchester, Sheffield, and lost...

.2 July,
Lincolnshire): collision; 2 killed..

.18 Oct. Brynkir station (Carnarvonshire): points said to have Corry, Pennsylvania, U.S.; train broke through a bridge; been tampered with; train ran of line; 6 persons

about 20 killed..

.24 Dec. killed.

...6 Sept.

Near Pesth: train run off line; 21 killed...about 7 May, 1873 20 miles from Carlisle (Lancaster and Carlisle): an axle Near Shrewsbury (Great Western and London & N. W. of carriage of goods train broke; collision with another

Junction): axle of engine broke; carriages driven off goods train; tire, and explosion of 5 tons of gunpowder; the line; 4 killed...

.8 May, 2 killed..

25 Feb. 1867 Near Higham, Derbyshire (Midland); engine.tire broke; Between Bhosawul and Khundwah (Great Indian Penin. train ran off the line; 2 killed..

21 June, suar): train precipitated into a chasm made in an em- Wigan (London and Northwestern): carriages thrown bankment by a river torrent; many lives lost,

off the line; sir John Anson and others (13 persons) 26 June, killed

..23 Aug. Walton junction, Warrington (London and Northwest- Retford junction (Great Northern, Manchester, and Shef. ern): collision with coal train; error of pointsman; 8 field): collision; 3 killed..

.23 Aug. lives lost

. 29 June, Near Hartlepool (Northeastern) : train thrown off the At Bray head, near Enniscorthy (Dublin, Wicklow, and

line; 3 killed...

.2 Sept. Wexford): went off the line into a gorge; 2 killed, Peamarsh crossing, near Guildford (Southwestern): col. many injured..

..9 Aug

lision with a bullock; train thrown off the line; 3 killed, Between New Mills and Peak Forest: 2 collisions; 5

9 Sept. lives lost....

.9 Sept. Barkston junction, near Grantham (Great Northern): 2 French Great Northern, about 14 miles from Paris: sey

killed..

.. 10 Jan. 1874 eral killed, many wounded..

..27 Oct. Near Manuel and Bo'ness junction, between Edinburgh Lake Shore railway, New York: embankment fell; 41

and Glasgow (North British): collision of London expersons burned to death...

.18 Dec.
press with mineral train; 16 killed..

.27 Jan, Carr's Rock, on river Delaware; (Erie railway): carriages Euxton junction, between Preston and Wigan; collision precipitated down an embankment; 26 persons killed,

through fog and too great speed; 2 killed.. ..20 Feb. 62 very seriously injured..

.14 April, 1868 Merthyr Tydvil (Great Western): coupling broke, causAbergele, N. Wales (London and Northwestern): collision ing collision; about 40 seriously injured; 1 death, between Irish mail train and luggage train; barrels of

18 May, petroleum ignited; 33 persons burned to death (see Bargoed (Rhymney railway): collision; train ran away Abergele)..

..20 Aug.

through brakes not acting; 2 killed; much damage, Near Birlingbury station (Rugby and Leamington): car

12 Aug. riages went over Draycot embankment; 2 persons Thorpe, near Norwich (East Norfolk): collision; two killed....

.....1 Oct.

trains met (mistake of Cooper and Robson, telegraph Near Bull's Pill, S. Wales (Great Western): mail train ran clerks; committed for trial for manslaughter); 26 into a cattle train; 1 person and many cattle killed,

deaths; about 50 injured; 8.30 P.M. ... ....10 Sept. 6 Nov.

(Cost the company above 13,0001. ; Cooper senteuced Near Copenhagen Tunnel, Holloway (Great Northern): to 8 months' imprisonment; 7 April, 1875.)

coal train ran off the line; 2 killed... .18 Jan. 1869 Shipton, near Oxford (Great Western): tire of carriage Near Khandalla, Bombay (Great Indian Peninsular):

wheel broke; train driven over an embankment; 34 train ran off the line; about 18 killed.. .26 Jan.

deaths ensued, about 70 injured...

24 Dec. Arch fell in at Bethnal Green (Great Eastern): coal train

[Verdict of inquiry, accidental deaths; 16 March, passing; 5 killed.

25 Feb.

1875.) Newcross (London and Brighton): collision; 2 killed, Rothbury, near Morpeth (Northeastern): train ran off many injured; loss to the company by compensation,

embankment; 4 killed..

..3 July, 1875 about 70,0001..

.23 June, Kildwick, near Skipton, Yorkshire (Midland): Scotch exNear Barnet (Great Northern): collision; 1 man burned press ran into an excursion train; 7 deaths, 11.30 P. M. , to death.. ..16 Aug

28 Aug Long Eaton junction (Midland): collision; 7 killed. 9 Oct. Between Mutford and Somerleyton; train ran off the line; Near Welwyn (Great Northern): collision; 3 killed. 24 Oct.

3 killed...

...1 Jan. 1876 Eureka, St. Louis, Missouri: collision; 19 killed,

Near Odessa; train ran over embankment; about 68 12 May, 1870 killed..

.8 Jan. Near Newark (Great Northern): collision; a wagon of a Abbot's Ripton (Great Northern); near Huntingdon: 2 goods train, through the breaking of an old axle, went

collisions; first, Scotch express with coal train; and, of the rails and met an excursion train; 19 deaths;

second, with Leeds express from London, whereby 14 1.30 AM....

.21 June, deaths, including Mr. Thomas Mure, Scotch advocate; Near Carlisle: collision; 5 killed.

.10 July,

a son of Mr. Noble, the sculptor; a son of Mr. Dion Tamworth (London and Northwestern): Irish mail (late)

Boucicault, dramatist; brother and two nieces of Dr. sent into a siding; broke down a buttress and ran into Burdon Sanderson; during a snow-storm......21 Jan. the river Anker (error of a pointsman); 3 deaths,

(Coroner's inquest : verdict, virtually accidental

4.7 A.M. 14 Sept. deaths; directors censured for not baving a separate Plessis, near Tours: collision between two trains; sev

line for mineral traffic, 3 Feb. 1876.) eral killed

.4 A.M. 20 Sept. Near Long Ashton (on Great Western), “Flying DutchHarrow (London and Northwestern): collision with

man” express: about 67 miles an hour; driver and coal wagons; 7 killed...

.26 Nov.

stoker killed; defective condition of permanent way, Brockley Whins (Northeastern): collision through mis.

27 July, take of Hedley, a pointsman; 5 killed.... ....6 Dec. Between Radstock and Wellow, about four miles from Barnsley (Manchester, Sheffield, and Lincolnshire rail.

Bath (Somerset and Dorset), single line: collision beway): collision; goods trucks broke loose; 14 killed,

tween excursion trains; 14 killed; about 11 P. M. 7 Aug. many injured...

...12 Dec.

[Inquest: verdict, manslaughter against James Bell bar, near Hatfield (Great Northern): tire of wheel Sleep, station master, 12 Sept. 1876.)

broke; break and carriages overturned; 8 killed. 26 Dec. Wambrechie, near Lille (French Great Northern): colBetween Bandoz and St. Nizaire: explosion of gun

lision with a conveyance on level crossing; 6 killed, powder in casks; 60 killed.... .25 Feb. 1871

5 Nov. Revere (Eastern railroad, between Boston and l'ortland, Arlsey siding, near Hitchin (Great Northern): collision U.S.): collision; above 20 killed.

.. 26 Aug.

of Manchester express with goods train; 6 killed. 23 Dec. Near Champigny (Lyons Company): a spring broke; 11

(Verdict of inquest: neglect of Thomas Pepper, the killed...

. 16 Sept. driver skilled), in not obeserving the s gual, 5 Jan. 1877.]

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Near Ashtabula, U.S., Pacific express from New York: a gained by the English, under the duke of Marlborough,

bridge over a creek broke down during a snow-storm;

above 100 perished by drowning, burning, etc. 29 Dec. 1876 and the allies over the French, commanded by the elecNear Morpeth (Northeastern): Scotch express went off

tor of Bavaria and the marshal de Villeroy, on Whitthe line; 5 killed.

.. early 25 March, 1877 sunday, 23 May (0.s. 12), 1706. The French were soon Near Billing, Northamptonshire (London and North

seized with a panic, and a general rout ensued: about western): collision; 2 deaths.

18 Oct. Buckstone junction, near Grantham (Great Northern):

4000 of the allied army were slain in the engagement. express ran off the rails; 2 killed...

.7 Dec. This accelerated the fall of Louvain, Brussels, etc. Holcombe, near Leeds (Midland): collision of trains; 2 killed..

24 Dec.

Ranelagh (near Chelsea), a public garden for conChester: 2 carriages went off rails; 1 death; above 30

certs and dancing, occupying the grounds of Ranelagh hurt.

18 July, 1878 House (built by Jones, earl of Ranelagh, about 1691), Newcross: collision between carriages of Brighton and

Southeastern Cos. : several injured, 7.45 P.M. (Bank was opened with a breakfast, 5 April, 1742. The music holiday)...

for the orchestra was frequently composed by Dr. Arne. Sittingbourne (London, Chatham, and Dover): cheap fast

The gardens were closed, and the buildings taken down, train, bringing home holiday-makers; ran into luggage trucks; mistake of pointsman; midday.......31 Aug.

in 1804. (Jacob Moden and Charles Clarke committed for

Rangoon, maritime capital of the Burmese empire, trial for manslaughter, 3 Sept. 1878.) Curragheen, near Cork: engine uncoupled; ran off line;

built by Alompra, 1753, was taken by sir A. Campbell on 3 killed and many injured.

...5 Sept. 11 May, 1824. In Dec. 1826, it was ceded to the BurNear Pontypridd junction (Rhondda branch of Taff val.

mese on condition of the payment of a sum of money, ley line): collision through error of signals; 13 killed; about 40 hurt..

the reception of a British resident at Ava, and freedom of

...19 Oct. Talybont (Brecon and Merthyr): engines uncontrolled; commerce. Oppression of the British merchants led to

ran down steep descent; 4 killed; great destruction the second Burinese war, 1852. Rangoon was taken by of property

..2 Dec, Bloomfield, near Tipton, Staffordshire (London and

storm by gen. Godwin, 14 April, and annexed to the Northwestern): collisions; about 30 severely injured,

British dominions in December. An English bishopric

31 May, 1879 founded, 1877; see Burmah. Near Manningtree (Great Eastern): train ran off line; 1 killed, several injured...

.8 Dec.

Ransome's Artificial Stone, the invention of Tay bridge, Dundee: bridge and train blown into the Mr. Fred. Ransome, 1848, is made by dissolving common river; about 74 lives lost....

.28 Dec. Brickfield siding, Burscough junction (Lancashire and

flint (silica) in heated caustic alkali, adding fine sand. Yorkshire): collision, through error of signalman; 8 The mixture is pressed into moulds and heated to reddeaths.

....15 Jan. 1880 ness. Argenteuil, near Paris: collision; 7 killed. ........4 Feb. Lofthouse, near Wakefield (Great Northern); train ran

Ranters, a sect which arose in 1645, similar to the off line; 2 deaths.

20 March Seekers, now termed Quakers. The name is now applied A bridge fell near Hereford (Midland): 1 death .18 June,

to the Primitive Methodists, separated from the main Marshall Meadows, 2 or 3 miles north of Berwick (North British); “Flying Scotchman" engine ran off the line;

body in 1810; see Wesleyans. carriages precipitated down embankment; guard,

Rape was punished with death by the Jews, Romans, driver, and fireman killed; much damage to carriages; few passengers (alleged cause, loose rails),

and Goths; by mutilation and loss of eyes in William

about 11 A. M. 10 Aug. I.'s reign. This was mitigated by the statute of WestNear Wennington junction, 12 miles north of Lancaster minster 1,3 Edw. I. 1274. Made felony by stat. West(Midland): train went off the rails; 8 deaths..11 Aug.

minster 2, 12 Edw. III. 1338; and without benefit of Near Manchester (Midland): train went off rails; 17 injured.

2 Sept.

clergy, 18 Eliz. 1575. Rape made punishable by transNear Nine Elms station, Vauxhall (Southwestern): colli- portation in 1841; by penal servitude for life, or a less sion of train with a left engine; 5 killed, 20 injured,

11 Sept.

period, 1861. Kibworth, Leicestershire (Midland): Scotch express; Raphia, a port of Palestine. Here Antiochus III. of

driver by mistake reversed the engine; collision with advancing train; several severely injured......9 Oct.

Syria was defeated by Ptolemy Philopator, king of Egypt, Leeds (Midland): collision; 2 deaths, many injured,

217 B.C.

21 Dec. Dalston junction (North London): collision, through

Raphoe, a bishopric in N. Ireland. St. Columberror in signalling; 2 deaths ensued, about 30 hurt, kill, a man of great virtue and learning, and of royal

26 Feb. 1881 blood, founded a monastery in this place, and it was Mexico (Morelos railway): through fall of bridge near

afterwards enlarged by other holy men; but it is the Cuartla; train precipitated into river San Antonio; about 200 lives lost...

night of 24 June,

received opinion that St. Eunan erected the church into Spuyten Duyvil Creek, New York (Hudson River rail- a cathedral, and was the first bishop of the see in the road): collision; 9 killed

...13 Jan.

eighth century. Raphoe was united to the bishopric of Rainbow. Its theory was developed by Kepler in Derry by act 3 & 4 Will. IV. 1833; see Bishops. 1611, and by René Descartes iu 1629; see Spectrum.

Rappahannock, see Chancellorsville and Trials, Rainfall. Mr. G. J. Symons printed a table of 1865. rainfall in Britain for 140 years, 1726–1865, in the Re- Raspberry, not named among the fruits early inports of the British Association in 1866. The wettest troduced into this country from the continent. The year was 1852, being 38 per cent. above the average; but Virginian raspberry (Rubus occidentalis), before 1696, and 1872 was 58 per cent. He began to publish his “ Annual the Aowering raspberry (Rubus odoratus), about 1700, Rainfall in the British Isles" in 1866. In 1867 he pub- came from North America. lished “ Rain: How, When, Where, Why, it is Meas

Rastadt, Baden. Here the preliminaries of a peace ured.” It contains an attempt at a rainfall table of the

were signed, 6 March, 1714, by marshal Villars, on the world.

part of the French king, and by prince Eugene, on the Raleigh's Conspiracy, termed the Main Plot part of the emperor; the German frontier was restored (which see).

to the terms of the peace of Ryswick.---The CONGRESS Ramadan, the Mahometan month of fasting, in oF RASTADT, to treat of a general peace with the Ger1865, 28 Jan. to 27 Feb.; and from 27 Dec. 1867 to 30 manic powers, was commenced 9 Dec. 1797; and negotiJan. 1868 inclusive. It is followed by the festivai of ations were carried on throughout 1798. The atrocious Bairam (which see).

massacre of the French plenipotentiaries at Rastadt by Rambouillet, a royal château, about 25 miles from the Austrian regiment of Szeltzler took place 28 April, Paris. Here Francis I. died, 31 March, 1547; and here 1799. Charles X, abdicated, 2 Aug. 1830. After being owned

Ratcliffe Highway (now St. George's street), East by the count of Thoulouse and the duc de Penthièvre, it

London. Mr. Marr, a shopkeeper here, with his wife, was bought by Louis XVI, 1778.

child, and boy, were brutally murdered in a few minutes, Ramillies (Belgium), the site of a brilliant victory | 7 Dec. 1811. In the same neighborhood, on 11 Dec., Mr.

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and Mrs. Williamson, their child and servant, were also Real Actions Limitation Act, passed 1874, murdered. A man, named Williams, arrested on suspi- came into operation 1 Jan. 1879. cion, committed suicide, 15 Dec.

Real Presence, see Transubstantiation. Rathmines (near Dublin). Col. Jones, governor Realists, see Nominalists. of Dublin castle, made a sally out, routed the marquess of Ormond at Rathmines, killed 4000 men, and took 2517 country early in the present century, but failed from its

Reaping-machines. One was invented in this prisoners, with their cannon, baggage, and ammunition, intricacies. At the meeting of the British Association 2 Aug. 1649.

at Dundee, Sept. 1867, the rev. Patrick Bell stated that Rating Act, 37 & 38 Vict. c. 54, passed 7 Aug. 1874; he invented a reaping-machine in 1826, which was used abolishes exemptions from the Poor-law act, 43 Eliz.; in 1827; the principle being that on which the best and provides for the rating of woods, mines, rights of American machines are now constructed. On 15 Jan. fowling, fishing, etc.

1868, he was presented with a valuable testimonial, and Rationalism, the doctrine of those who reject a

10001, in money. McCormick's American machine was divine revelation and admit no other means of acquiring invented about 1831, and perfected in 1846; he received knowledge but experience and reason.

The leading

a gold medal from the jurors of the Exhibition of 1851; writers are Reimarus of Hamburg (clied 1768), Paulus and also at the Royal Agricultural Society's competition of Heidelberg, Eichhorn, Reinhard, and Strauss. w. at Bristol, 6 Aug. 1878. The sheaves are bound by these Lecky's “ History of Rationalism in Europe" appeared reaping - machines. About 200 patented; few good. July, 1865; and Dr. J. Hurst's, April, 1867.

Hussey's machine, also American, exhibited in 1851, was

highly commended. Ratisbon (in Bavaria) was made a free imperial city about 1200. Several diets have been held here. A by the French republicans, 10 Nov. 1793, and was per

Reason was decreed to be worshipped as a goddess peace was concluded here between France and the em- sonified by an actress.— Thomas Paine’s “ Age of Reaperor of Germany, by which was terminated the war for the Mantuan succession, signed 13 Oct. 1630. In later son” was published in 1794–5; Immanuel Kant's “Critimes it was at Ratisbon, in a diet held there

, that the tique of Pure Reason” (“ Kritik der reinen Vernunft"),

1781. German princes seceded from the Germanic empire, and placed themselves under the protection of the emperor

Rebecca Riots, see Wales, 1843, 1878. Napoleon of France, 1 Aug. 1806. Ratisbon was made

Rebellion, Dorr's. For nearly two hundred years an archbishopric in 1806; secularized in 1810; was ceded the people of Rhode Island had lived under a charter to Bavaria in 1815; became again an archbishopric in from Charles II., according to which only those owning 1817.

a certain amount of property could vote. In 1843 the Rattening (from ratten, provincial for rat), the re

desire to change this provision gave rise to two parties, moving and hiding workmen's tools as a punishment for the “Suffrage” and the “ Law and Order.” Each deternon-payment to trades-unions, or opposition to them. mined to secure to their party the administration of afMuch" rattening” was disclosed at the commission of fairs, and each elected their own state officers. Thomas inquiry at Sheffield in June, 1867; and at Manchester W. Dorr was chosen governor by the “Suffrage” party, Sept. following; see Sheffield.

and took possession of the state arsenal; the militia were

called out, and he was compelled to flee. In a second atRaucoux (Belgium). Here marshal Saxe and the tempt, the party was overpowered by U. S. troops, and French army totally defeated the allies under prince Dorr was arrested, brought to trial, convicted of treason, Charles of Lorraine, 11 Oct. 1746.

and sentenced to imprisonment for life; but some time Ravaillac's Murder of Henry IV. of France, 14 after he was pardoned. A free constitution was adopted May, 1610. The execution of the assassin on 27 May in the meantime by the people, under which the governwas accompanied by most elaborate tortures.

ment is now conducted. Ravenna (on the Adriatic), a city of the papal

Rebellion, SaaYs's. At the close of the Revolution, states, founded by Greek colonists, fell under the Roman the United States were burdened with a very heary forpower about 234 B.C. It was favored and embellished eign and domestic debt. They were impoverished by by the emperors, and Honorius made it the capital of the long war, and it was difficult to raise the means to the Empire of the West about A.D. 404. In 568 it be- meet the arrears of pay due the soldiers of the Revolucame the capital of an exarchate. It was subdued by tion. On the recommendation of Congress, each state the Lombards in 752, and their king, Astolphus, in 754 endeavored to provide means for raising its quota by a

direct tax. surrendered it to Pepin, king of France, who gave it to

This effort produced much excitement in the pope Stephen, and thus laid the foundation of the some of the states, and finally, in 1787, a portion of the temporal power of the Holy See. On 11 April, 1512, a people of Massachusetts openly rebelled. Daniel Shays, battle was fought between the French, under Gaston de who had been a captain in the Continental army, marchFoix (duke of Nemours and nephew of Louis XII.), and ed at the head of a thousand men, took possession of the Spanish and Papal armies. De Foix perished in Worcester, and prevented a session of the Supreme Court. the moment of his victory, and his death closed the He repeated his performance at Springfield; and the ingood-fortune of the French in Italy. Ravenna became surrection soon became so formidable that the governor part of the kingdom of Italy in 1860.

was compelled to call out several thousand militia under

gen. Lincoln to suppress it. This was speedily accomMany of the Accoltellatori, a secret society of assassins (said to have been formerly followers of Garibaldi)

plished. Though some of the insurgents were sentenced who long kept the city in terror, arrested Sept.-Oct.;

to death, none were executed. A free pardon was final. condemned to life imprisonment. .............12 Dec. 1874 ly given to all. Ré, ISLE OF (W. coast of France, near Rochelle).

Rebellion, WHISKEY. In 1794, a rebellion broke Oyster-beds planted here in 1862 have flourished; see

out in Western Pennsylvania, in opposition to the naRochelle.

tional excise laws. The insurgents put 16,000 men in Readers, a new order of ministrants in the Church outrages, and defied the national government. The gov

the field, maltreated the excise officers, committed many of England, received the assent of the archbishops and

ernor of Pennsylvania refusing to act, Washington, as bishops in July, 1866. They were not to be ordained or

president of the United States, called out 13,000, alteraddressed as reverend.

wards increasing the number to 15,000, militiamen of Reading (Berkshire). Here Alfred defeated the Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey; and, Danes, 871. The abbey was founded in 1121 by llenry putting gen. Henry Lee of Virginia in command, orderI. The last abbot was banged in 1539 for denying the ed a movement against the insurgents on 1 Sept. 1794. king's supremacy. The palace prison was erected 1850. The prompt response to the call for militia intimidated

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