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annum.

RECENT BISHOPS.

Acts were passed for the purpose in 1524 and 1555, fol- | lowing. A conspiracy here, in 1822, caused loss of life lowed by others in Elizabeth's and succeeding reigns. to serg. Bories and others. Roads through the Highlands of Scotland were begun Rochester, in Kent, the Roman Durobrive. The by gen. Wade in 1726. Loudon Macadam's roads were bishopric, founded by Augustin, 604, is the next in age introduced about 1818. Wooden pavements were tried to Canterbury. The first cathedral was erected by with partial success in the streets of London: at White- Ethelbert, king of Kent. St. Justus was bishop in 604. hall in 1839, and in other streets in 1840; asphalte pave- Alterations were made in the diocese in 1845. *Rochesment soon after. An act " for the better management of ter is valued in the king's books at 358l. 38. 244. per the highways" was passed in 1862 after much opposi

Present income, 50001. The cathedral retion ; another, 16 Aug. 1878, also regulated the use of opened after repairs of the choir, 11 June, 1875. locomotives on roads. Steam road-rollers were tried in 1867; used in London, 18 March, 1868; see Macadam- 1793. Samuel Horseley, translated to St. Asaph's, 1820. izing, Tolls, and Wooden Pavements.

1802. Thomas Dampier, translated to Ely, 1808. Roanoke Island (North Carolina, U. S.), discov- 1827. Hugh Percy, translated to Carlisle, 27 Oct.

1809. Walter King, died 22 Feb. 1827. ered by sir Walter Raleigh, 1584, and settled by him, George Murray, died 16 Feb. 1860. 1585, without success. Other settlers also failed.-BAT- 1860. Joseph Cotton Wigram, died 6 April, 1867. TLE OF, Feb. 8, 1862. Roanoke Island was occupied by 1877. Anthony Wilson Thorold, consecrated 25 July.

1867. Thos. Legh Claughton. gen. Wise with 2500 men. On the north shore were three forts-Barton, Huger, and Blanchard. An expedi

Rockets, destructive war implements, were intion for the capture of this island started from Hampton vented by sir William Congreve about 1803. The carRoads, 11 Jan. The fleet, consisting of 20 ressels, 50 case-rockets were first used at Boulogne, 8 Oct. 1806, guns, was commanded by flag-officer L. M. Goldsborough; when they set the town on fire, their powers being prethe military force, nearly 15,000 strong, by gen. A. E. viously demonstrated in the presence of Mr. Pitt and Burnside. The forts were bombarded 7 Feb., and under several of the cabinet ministers, 1806. Improved rockcover of this bombardment the troops were landed. On ets were made by Hales in 1846. the 8th, after a short conflict, Wise's command was sur- Rockingham Administrations. The first rendered. The national loss in all amounted to 260. succeeded the administration of Mr. Geo. Grenville; the On the confederate side, a son of gen. Wise was killed. second succeeded that of lord North,

Roasting Alive. An early instance is that of FIRST ADMINISTRATION, 13 July, 1765, to 30 July, 1766. Bocchoris, king of Egypt, by order of Sabacon of Ethi- Charles, marquess of Rockingham,* first lord of the treasury. opia, 737 B.C.Lenglet. Sir John Oldcastle, lord Cob-William Dowdeswell, chancellor of the exchequer.

Earl of Winchilsea and Nottingham, lord president. ham, was thus put to death in 1418, and Michael Serve. Duke of Newcastle, privy seal. tus for heresy, at Geneva, 27 Oct. 1553 ; see Burning Earl of Northington, lord chancellor. Alire and Martyrs.

Duke of Portland, lord chamberlain.

Duke of Rutland, master of the horse. Robbers were punished with death by Edmund I.'s Lord Talbot, lord steward. laws, which directed that the eldest robber should be Henry Seymour Conway and the duke of Grafton, secretaries

of state. hanged. Remarkable robbers in England were Robin Lord Egmont, admiralty. Hood, 1189 (see Robin Hood), and Claud Du Val, "exe- Marquess of Granby, ordnance. cuted at Tyburn," says an historian, quaintly, “ to the Viscount Howe, treasurer of the

navy.

Viscount Barrington, secretary-at-war. great grief of the women," Jan. 1670. In Ireland, the Charles Townshend, paymaster of the forces. famous MacCabe was hanged at Naas, 19 Aug. 1691. Earl of Dartmouth, first lord of trade. Galloping Hogan, the rapparee, flourished at this period. Lords Besborough and Grantham, lord John Cavendish,

Thomas Townshend, etc. Freney, the celebrated highwayman, surrendered him

(See Chatham Administration.) self, 10 May, 1749. The accomplished Barrington was transported, 22 Sept. 1790; see I'rials.

SECOND ADMINISTRATION, March to 1 July, 1782, when the mar

quess died. Robin Hood, captain of a band of robbers, in Sher- Marquess of Rockingham, first lord of the treasury. wood forest, Nottinghamshire ; traditionally reported to Lord John Cavendish, chancellor of the exchequer. have been the earl of Huntingdon, disgraced and ban- Lord Camden, president of the council.

Duke of Grafton, privy seal. ished the court by Richard I. at his accession (1189). Lord Thurlow, lord chancellor. Robin Hood and Little John and their band are said to William, earl of Shelburne, and Charles James Fox, secretaries have continued their depredations till 1247, when Robin Augustus, viscount Keppel, first lord of the admiralty. died.---Stow.

Duke of Richmond, master general of the ordnance. "Robinson Crusoe," by Daniel De Foe; the Isaac Barré, Edmund Burko, John Dunning, etc.

Thomas Townshend, secretary-at-war. first part appeared in 1719; see Juan Fernandez, Three old ladies, Mary Ann, Jane Amelia, and Sarah Frances Rocky Mount (South Carolina, U.S.). Here gen. De Foe, lineally descended from De Foe, pensioned by Sumter attacked a British post, 30 July, 1780, and was the queen, May, 1877.

repulsed with a small loss. Rochefort (W. France), a seaport on the Charente.

Rocroy (N. France). Here, 19 May, 1643, the The port was made by Louis XIV. in 1666. In Aix: Spaniards were totally defeated by the French, comroads or Basque-roads, near Rochefort, capt. lord Cocb- manded by the great Condé. rane attacked the French fleet and destroyed four ships,

Rodney's Victories. Admiral Rodney fought, 11, 12 April, 1809. Near Rochefort, the emperor Napo- near Cape St. Vincent, the Spanish admiral Don Lanleon surrendered himself to capt. Maitland of the Belle- gara, whom he defeated and made prisoner, capturing rophon, 15 July, 1815.

six of his ships, one of which blew up, 16, 17 Jan. 1780. Rochelle (W. France), a seaport on the Atlantic, the West Indies, commanded by the count de Grasse,

On 12 April, 1782, he encountered the French fleet in belonging to the English for some time, but finally sur- took five ships of the line, and sent the French admiral rendered to the French leader, Du Guesclin, in 1372. prisoner to England. Rodney was raised to the peerAs a stronghold of the Calvinist party, it was vainly besieged by the duke of Anjou in 1573; and was taken

age, June, 1782. after a siege of thirteen months, by cardinal Richelieu,

Rogation Week. Rogation Sunday, the Sunday in 1628. The duke of Buckingham was sent with a fleet and army to relieve it; but the citizens declined to * Charles Watson Wentworth, marquess of Rockingham, admit him. He attacked the Isle of Rhé, near Rochelle,

was born 13 May, 1730; succeeded his father as marquess,

He died without issue, 1 July, 1782; and his estates and failed, 22 July, 1627. He was repulsed 8 Nov. fol- | passed to his nephew, earl Fitzwilliam.

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before Ascension Day, received its title from the Mon-, Bishop Fisher, sir Thomas More, and others executed day, Tuesday, and Wednesday following it, called Roga- Catholics absolved from their allegiance to the king by

1535 tion days, derived from the Latin rogare, to beseech. Paul III., 1535; by Pius V.. Extraordinary prayers and supplications for these three They rebel in.

.1549 and 1569

1605 days are said to have been appointed in the third cen- The gunpowder plot (which see)..

They suffer by Oates's fictitious popish plot.. tury, as a preparation for the devout observance of our They are excluded from the throne.

1689 Saviour's ascension on the next day succeeding to them, They suffer by the Gordon riots....

.June, 1780

1780 and 1791 denominated Holy Thursday or Ascension Day. The various disabilities removed in.. whole week in which these days happen is styled Roga- Mr Post proposes measures for their relief, which he

... 1801-4 tion Week; and in some parts it is still known by the Roman Catholic Association organized in Ireland, with other names of Crop Week, Grass Week, and Procession the object of removing the political and civil disabilWeek. The perambulations of parishes have usually Bills in their favor frequently brought in without effect

ities of Roman Catholics..

1824 been made in this week.

from..

.1813 to 1828 Rohan, an illustrious family, descended from the An act of parliament passed for the suppression of the

Catholic Association (it had voted its own dissolution, ancient sovereigns of Brittany. Henri de Roban, son- 12 Feb.).....

...5 March, 1829 in-law of the great Sully, after the death of Henry IV. The duke of Wellington and sir Robert Peel carry the (14 May, 1610), became head of the Protestant party,

Catholic emancipation bill (10 Geo. IV. c. 7) in the com

mons, 30 March; in the lords, 10 April; received the and sustained three wars against Louis XIII. He event- royal assent..

.13 April, ually entered the service of the duke of Saxe-Weimar, The duke of Norfolk and lords Dormer and Clifford, the and died of wounds received in battle in 1638. of this the first English Roman Catholic member returned, the

first Roman Catholic peers, take their seats... 28 April,“ family was the cardinal de Rohan; see Diamond Neck

earl of Surrey, for Horsham..

.4 May, lace.

Mr. O'Connell elected for Clare, 1828 ; takes his seat (first
Roman Catholic M. P. since 1689).

.... Aug. Rohilcund, a tract of country, N.E. India, was con- Mr. Alexander Raphael, the first Roman Catholic sheriff quered by the Rohillas, an Afghan tribe, who settled of London..

.28 Sept. 1834 here about 1747. After aiding the sovereign of Oude to Sir Michael O'Loghlen, the first Roman Catholic judge overcome the Mahrattas, they were treated with much St. George's cathedral, Southwark, erected by A. W.

(as Master of the Rolls in Ireland), appointed...30 Oct. 1836 treachery by him, and nearly exterminated. Rohilcund Pugin; founded..

1840 was ceded to the British in 1801. After the great mu- Tablet newspaper established.

Mr. O'Connell elected first Roman Catholic lord mayor tiny, Rohilcund was tranquillized in July, 1858.

of Dublin..

1841 Roller-skates, see Rink.

“Catholic Poor School Committee" established..

The “Papal Aggression” (which see); cardinal Nicholas Rolling-mills, in the metal manufactories, were in Wiseman appointed archbishop of Westminster.30 Sept. 1860 use in England in the seventeenth century, and in 1784 Roman Catholic University, Dublin, originated...5 May, 1861 Mr. Cort patented his improvements.

Universe newspaper established..
Agitation in favor of the pope...

1860-2 Rolls, see Master of the Rolls and Records.

Missionary college founded at Drumcondra, Ireland,

20 July, 1862 Rolls' Chapel (London), founded by Henry III., Roman Catholic chaplains permitted for jails, by Prison about 1233, for receiving Jewish rabbis converted to

Ministers act...

...July, 1863 Christianity. On the banishment of the Jews in 1290, Sergeant William Shee made a justice of the Queen's

Bench, the first Roman Catholic judge since the Refor. the buildings now called the Rolls, and the chapel, were mation (died 19 Feb. 1868)....

.....15 Dec. annexed by patent to the office of the keeper or master Death of cardinal Wiseman, aged 63; seventh English of the rolls of chancery, from which circumstance they Henry Manning (formerly an archdeacon in the English

.....15 Feb. 1865 took their name. A number of public records from the

church) consecrated archbishop of Westminster, time of Richard III., kept in presses in this chapel, have

8 June, been removed to the Record Office (which see).

Conference of Roman Catholic bishops at Dublin; pub.

lish resolutions declining state help (in accordance with Rolt's Act, 25 & 26 Vict. c. 42 (1862), relates to the the papal injunctions, 1801 and 1805), and condemning Chancery Court.

mixed education and secret societies..........17 Oct. 1867

In Great Britain 1639 Roman Catholic priests; 1283 Romagna, a province of the papal states, comprised chapels and churches; 227 convents for women (prin. in the legations of Forli and Ravenna. It was conquer

cipally educational); 21 colleges and large schools,

Dec. ed by the Lombards; but taken from them by Pepin, A proposal of the Derby government to endow a Catholic and given to the pope, 753. Cæsar Borgia held it as a university for Ireland, Oct. 1867, failed through the duchy in 1501, but lost it in 1503. In 1859 the Romagna

Catholic bishops claiming the entire practical control,

31 March1868 threw off the temporal authority of the pope, and de-" Mr. Justice Thomas (aft. lord) O'Hagan appointed lord clared itself subject to the king of Sardinia, who accept- chancellor of Ireland, is the first Roman Catholic who ed it in March, 1860. It now forms part of the province A Roman Catholic made M. A. at Oxford, after the aboli

has held that office since the revolution of 1688-9. Dec. of Æmilia, in the new kingdom of Italy. Population

tion of the test....

.22 June, 1871 (1860), 1,014,582; see Rome.

The Catholics opposing the dogma of papal infallibility Romainville and Belleville, heights near Paris, The Ecclesiastical Titles act (see Papal Aggression) re

term themselves “Old Catholics" (which see)... where Joseph Bonaparte, Mortier, and Marmont were pealed.. defeated by the allies after a vigorous resistance, 30 Pastoral issued by the Roman Catholic bishops in Ireland March, 1814. The next day Paris capitulated.

claiming endowment for colleges, etc., under their sole control.......

..Oct. Roman Catholics, ROMANISTS and Papists. "Catholic Education Crisis Fund” established. . Their religion was the established one in Britain till the Two Roman Catholic bishops consecrated at Salford,

28 Oct. 1872 Reformation. Since then many laws were made against Catholic l'nion,” Dublin, reorganized to obtain educathem, which have been repealed; see Rome, Religion, tion under ecclesiastical control.........about 4 Dec. 1873 Leagues, Maynooth. Among other disabilities, Roman Roman Catholic university senate meet.. . 21 May, 1874 Catholics were excluded from corporate offices, 1667; Catholic Congress at Venice met..

Archbishop Manning made a cardinal..

.12 June, from parliament, 1691 ; forbidden to marry Protestants, The marquess of Ripon becomes a Roman Catholic, 1708; to possess arms, 1695, etc.

7 Sept.

Roman Catholic university college, Kensington; toon. Roman Catholic Church in England and Wales, 1878: signor Capel, principal; opened...

H. E. Manning, archbishop of Westminster, metropol. Several English clergymen secede to Rome.........Oct itan, 1865; cardinal, 1875; auxiliary bishop, William New Catholic club opened in London by the duke of Weathers, 1872. 12 bishops (Beverley, Birmingham, Norfolk, lords Denbigh and Petre, and others. 27 Nov. Clifton, Hexham, Liverpool, Newport, Northampton, Mr. Gladstone's pamphlet, “ The Vatican Decrees," OC. Nottingham, Plymouth, Salford, Shrewsbury, South casions declarations respecting papal infallibility--from wark). Scotland, hierarchy revived, 4 March, 1878. abp. Manning, monsig. Capel, the Catholic Union, and Ireland, 4 archbishops (metropolitan, Paul Cullen, arch. others for it; from lords Acton, Camoys, and sir George bishop of Armagh, 1850; of Dublin, 1852); 24 bishops. Bowyer, against it.

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Roman Catholic hierarchy re-established in Scotland by north; and by the Atlantic on the west. Numerous ecpope Leo XIII....

.4 March, 1878 clesiastical councils have been held at Rome, from 197 to (For the dissension between Church and State respecting

the doctrine of papal infallibility, see Prussia and Ger- 1869-70. Population, 1872, about 240,000 ; 1877, 250,000. many.)

Chiefly through the exertions of Mr. John Henry Parker Church in low state in Germany, 3 dioceses (of 12) occu

of Oxford, the Roman exploration fund was established, pied: 200 parishes without priests; 1500 priests expelled, reported.....

.. April, 1879 for the preservation of ancient architectural remains. His

“ Archæology of Rome" (with many photographs) pubRoman Law, see Codes. ROMAN LITERATURE, see lished 1874-8. The Italian government votes 12001. a Latin.

year for a similar purpose. Roman Roads in England. Our historians Foundation of the city by Romulus... maintain, but are mistaken, that there were but four of The Romans seize on the Sabine women at a public

750 these roads.-Camden. “The Romans,” says Isidore, The Cæninians defeated, and first triumphal procession. 748 “made roads almost all over the world, to have their Rome taken by the Sabines; the Sabines incorporated marches in a straight line, and to employ the people;" Romulus sole king of the Romans and Sabines.

747 and criminals were frequently condemned to work at The Circensian games established by him.. such roads, as we learn from Suetonius, in his Life of Romulus murdered by senators.

716 Caligula. They were commenced and completed at va- Numa Pompilius elected king, 715; institutes the priestrious periods, between the second and fourth centuries, Roman calendar of 10 months reformed and made 12... and the Roman soldiery were employed in making them, The Romans and the Albans, contesting for superiority, that inactivity might not give them an opportunity to agreed to choose three champions on each part to deraise disturbances.-Bede.

cide it. The three Horatii, Roman knights, overcame

the three Curiatii, Albans, and united Alba to Rome, Ist, WaTLING STREET, so named from Vitellianus, who is sup

about 669 posed to have directed it, the Britons calling him in their War with the Fidenates; the city of Alba destroyed.... 665 language Guetalin (from Kent to Cardigan Bay).

Ostia, at the mouth of the Tiber, built. 2d, IKENELD, or IKENILD STREET, from its beginning among The capital founded.... the Iceni (from St. David's to Tynemouth).

The first census of the Roman state taken. 3d, Fosse, or FOSSE WAY, probably from its having been de- Political institutions of Servius Tullius... fended by a fosse on both sides (from Cornwall to Lincoln). The rape of Lucretia by Sextus, son of Tarquin.

510 4th, ERMIN STREET, from Irmunsul, a German word, meaning Royalty abolished: the Patricians establish an aristoMercury, whom our German ancestors worshipped under cratical commonwealth.

509 that name (from St. David's to Southampton).

Junius Brutus and Tarquinius Collatinus first consuls;

first alliance of the Romans with Carthage.. Roman Walls. One was erected by Agricola (79 The capital dedicated to Jupiter Capitolinus..

507 to 85) to defend Britain from the incursions of the Picts First dictator Titus Lartius... and Scots. The first wall extended from the Tyne to the The Latins and the Tarquins declare war against the ro

.498 or 496 Solway Frith (80 miles); the second from the Frith of Secession of the plebeians to the sacred mount; establishForth, near Edinburgh, to the Frith of Clyde, near Dum- ment of tribunes of the plebeians. barton (36 miles). The former was renewed and strength. First agrarian law passed : Spurius Cassius put to death

493 ened by the emperor Adrian (121), and by Septimus Seve- c. Martius Coriolanus banished.. rus (208). It commenced at Bowness, near Carlisle, and He (with the Volsci) besieges Rome, but withdraws at

the suit of his wife and mother..

488 ended at Wallsend, near Newcastle. It had battlements and towers to contain soldiers. The more northern wall Contests between the patricians and plebeians respect.

ing the agrarian law... was renewed by Lollius Urbicus, in the reign of Anto- Quæstors appointed....

.about 484 ninus Pius, about 140. Many remains of these walls still The Fabii slain (see Fabii)..

477 exist, particularly of the southern one; see Bruce's “ Ro- The Secular Games first celebrated.

Cincinnatus, dictator, defeats the Æqui. man Wall,” published 1853-1868.

The Decemviri created..

451 Romance, originally a composition in the Romance Virginders kiUs his daughter, Virginia, to save her from or Provençal idiom. The term in the middle ages was in prison; the decemviral government abolished)..... 449 extended to narrative poetry in general. Heliodorus, a The Canuleian law passed, permitting marriages between bishop of Tricca, in Thessaly, about 398, was the author Military tribunes first created. of Æthiopica (relating to the loves of Theagenes and Office of censor instituted.

443 Charicleia), the first work in this species of writing. The Rome afflicted with an awful famine, and many persons first part of the “Roman de la Rose” was written by The Veientes defeated, and their king Tolumnus slain..

440 Guillaume de Lorres (1226-70); the second, a separate War with the Tuscans.. poem, by Jean de Meung (1285–1314); the “Decameron " A temple is dedicated to Apollo on account of a pestilence. 431 of Boccaccio was published 1358 ; “Don Quixote," by Cer- Æqui

and Volsci defeated by Tubertus, dictator.

421 vantes, 1605; “Gil Blas,” by Le Sage, 1715. Dunlop's Another dreadful famine at Rome..

411 " History of Fiction" published 1814; see English Au- Three quæstors are chosen from the plebeians for the thors and “ Reynard the Fox.

first time.

409

Institution of the Lectisternian festival on account of a Rome. The foundation of the city, by Romulus, pestilence...

396 was laid on 20 April,* according to Varro, in the year Veii taken by Camillus after ten years' siege.

391 3961 of the Julian period (3251 years after the creation The Gauls, under Brennus, besiege Clusium (sce Gauls).. 390 of the world, 753 years before the birth of Christ, 431 They are expelled by Camillus.

389 years after the Trojan war, and in the fourth year of the Rome burned to the ground the Gauls, who besiege

387 sixth Olympiad. Other dates given: Cato, 751; Po

the capital......

Rebuilt-Capitoline games instituted. lybius, 750; Fabius Pictor, 747; Cincius, 728 B.c.). The M. Manlius Capitoline thrown from the Tarpeian rock on Romans conquered nearly the whole of the then known a charge of aiming at sovereign power..

384 world. In the time of Julius Cæsar, the empire was

The first appointment of curule magistrates..

371

366 bounded by the Euphrates, Taurus, and Armenia on the Marcus Curtius leaps into the gulf which had opened in

Lucius Sextus, the first plebeian consul.. east; by Æthiopia on the south; by the Danube on the the forum....

362 The Gauls defeated in Italy.

Treaty with Carthage to repress Greek piracy. * In its original state, Rome was but a small castle on the War with the Samnites (with breaks) 51 years. summit of Mount Palatine; and the founder, to give his fol- Latin war..

.340-338 lowers the appearance of a nation or a barbarian borde, was Embassy to Alexander the Great. obliged to erect a standard as a common asylum for crimi. Defeat at Caudium.. nals, debtors, or murderers, who fled from their native coun- Priests first elected from the plebeians. try to avoid the punishment which attended them. From Etruscans, Samnites, and others defeated at Sentinum by such an assemblago a numerous body was soon collected, and Fabius..

295 before the death of the founder the Romans had covered End of the third Samnite war.. with their habitations the Palatine, Capitoline, Aventine, and The Gauls invade the Roman territory; siege of Arezzo, 284 Esquiline hills, with Mounts Cælius and Quirinalis.

Etruscans defeated at Vadimouian lake. .310 and 283

483

458 456

445

437 434

399

350 348 343

324 321 300

290 324

Pyrrhus of Epirus invades Italy, 281; defeats the Romans Palmyra conquered, and Longinus put to death ...: A.D. 273 at Pandosia, 280; and at Asculum, 279; defeated by The era of Martyrs, or of Diocletian..

284 them at Benevento. .B.C. 275 The Franks settle in Gaul (Fréret)..

287 All Italy subdued by Rome.. 266 Constantius dies at York....

306 First Punic war commenced (see Punic Wars).. 264 Four emperors reign at one time.

308 First Roman fleet built

260 Constantine the Great, it is said, in consequence of a visAttilius Regulus said to be put to a cruel death by the ion, places the cross on bis banners, and begins to favor Carthaginians.. 255 the Christians,

312 End of first Punic war; Sicily annexed.

241 Constantine defeats Licinius at Chrysopolis, and reigns Temple of Janus closed.

235 alone..

.18 Sept. 323 Corsica and Sardinia annexed.

231 He tolerates the Christian faith. First Roman embassy to Greece.

228 Puts his son Crispus to death. Invasion of the Gauls; beaten by the consuls.

225 Constantine convokes the first general council of ChrisSecond Punic war breaks out.. 218 tians at Nice....

325 The Romans are defeated by Hannibal at Thrasymene, The seat of empire removed from Rome to Byzantium, 217; Cannæ.. .2 Aug. 216 321; dedicated by Constantine...

330 Syracuse taken by Marcellus.

212 Constantine orders the heathen temples to be destroyed, Marcellus defeated by Hannibal, and slain near Venusia, 208 Revolt of 300,000 Sarmatian slaves suppressed...

334 Scipio defeats Hannibal at Zama, in Africa.... 202 Death of Constantine, soon after being baptized..

337 The Macedonian wars with Philip begin, 213 and 200; his The army under Julian proclaims him emperor..

360 defeat at Cynoscephalæ.

197 Julian, who had been educated for the priesthood, and Death of Scipio Africanus the elder.

185 had frequently officiated, abjures Christianity, and reThird Macedonian war begins, 171; Perseus beaten at opens the heathen temples, becoming the pagan ponPydna; Macedon annexed.. 168 tiff

361 First public library erected at Rome.

167 Julian killed in battle in Persia; Christianity restored Philosophers and rhetoricians banished from Rome. 161 by Jovian....

363 Third Punic war begins...

149 The empire divided into Eastern and Western by ValenCorinth and Carthage destroyed by the Romans (see Cor

tinian and Valens, brothers: the former has the Westinth and Carthage). ... 146 ern portion, or Rome. .....

364 Celtiberian and Numantine war in Spain..

...153-133

(See Western and Eastern Empires and Italy.) Attalus III. of Pergamos bequeaths his kingdom and riches Rome placed under the exarchate of Ravenna.

404 to the Romans.

133 Taken by Alaric..

24 Aug. 410 The Servile war in Sicily.

132 Taken and pillaged by Genseric.

.15 July, 455 Two plebeian consuls chosen.

Odoacer takes Rome, and becomes king of Italy

476 Agrarian disturbances; Gracchus slain. 121 Rome recovered for Justinian by Belisarius

536 The Jugurthine war..

.112–106 Retaken by Totila the Goth, 546; recovered by BelisaThe Mithridatic war (which see).. .108-63 rius, 547; seized by Totila..

549 The Ambrones defeated by Marius.

102 Recovered by Narses, and annexed to the Eastern em. The Social war.. .90-88 pire; and the senate abolished.

553 Rome besieged by four armies (viz., those of Marius, Rome at her lowest state

...about 600 Cinna, Carbo, and Sertorius) and taken...

87 Rome independent under the popes..

..about 728 Sylla defeats Marius; becomes dictator; sanguinary pro- Pepin of France compels Astolphus, king of the Lomscriptions, 82; abdicates...

79 bards, to cede Ravenna and other places to the Holy Bithynia bequeathed to the Romans by king Nicomedes, 74 Church

755 Revolt of Spartacus and the slaves.

73–71 Confirmed and added to by Charlemagne. Syria conquered by Pompey..

65 Charlemagne crowned emperor of the West by the pope The Catiline conspiracy suppressed by Cicero.

63 at Rome...

..25 Dec. 800 The first triumvirate: Cæsar, Pompey, and Crassus. 60 Rome taken by Arnulf and the Germans

896 Cæsar's campaigns in Gaul, 58; in Britain

55 Otho I. crowned at Rome..

.2 Feb. 962 Crassus killed by the Parthians.

53 The emperor Henry IV. takes Rome..

....... March, 1084 Gaul conquered and made a province

61 Arnold of Brescia, endeavoring to reform church and War between Cæsar and Pompey,

50 state and to establish a senate, is put to death as a Pompey defeated at Pharsalia (which see)

48
heretic. ..........

1155 Cæsar defeats Pharnaces at Zela; and writes home, The pope removes to Avignon. “ Veni, vidi, vici”.

47 Nicola di Rienzi, tribune of the people, establishes a reCato kills himself at Utica; Cæsar dictator for ten years, 46

public, 20 May; is compelled to abdicate.......15 Dec. 1347 Cæsar killed in the senate-house.

15 March, 44 Returns; made senator, i Aug.; assassinated. .....8 Oct. 1354 Second triumvirate: Octavius, Antony, and Lepidus.. 43 Papal court returns to Rome..

1377 Cicero killed, proscribed by Antony...

Rise of the families Colonna, Orsini, etc... .about Battle of Philippi; Brutus and Cassius defeated.

42 Julius II. conquers the Romagna, Bologna, and Perugia, Lepidus ejected from the triumvirate, 36; war between

1503-13 Octavius and Antony, 32; Antony defeated totally at The city greatly embellished by pope Leo X........ .1513-21 Actium...

2 Sept.

31 It is captured by the constable de Bourbon, who is slain, Octavius emperor, as Augustus Cæsar.

27

6 May, 1527 The empire now at peace with all the world; the temple Ferrara annexed.

1597 of Janus shut... ..., 4 April, 5 St. Peter's dedicated..

.18 Nov. 1626 JESUS Christ born (see Jews).

Expulsion of the Jesuits

...16 Aug. 1773 Varus defeated by Hermann and the Germans... .A.D. 9 Harassed by the French, German, and Spanish factions Ovid banished to Tomi..

from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. Death of Ovid and Livy..

18 The French invasion; the Legations incorporated with Tiberius retires to Capræ; tyranny of Sejanus.. 26 the Cisalpine republic...

1796 A census being taken by Claudius, the emperor and cen- The French proclaim the Roman republic..

....20 March, 1798 sor, the inhabitants of Rome are stated to amount to Recovered for the pope by the Neapolitans. .Nov. 1799 6,944,000.-[It is now considered that the population Retaken by the French, 1800; restored to Pius VII. .July, 1801 of Rome within the walls was under a million.)

48 Annexed by Napoleon to the kingdom of Italy, and deCaractacus brought in chains to Rome..

50 clared second city of the empire..

May, 1808 St. Paul arrives in bonds at Rome...

62 Restored to the pope, who returns

.23 Jan. 1814 Nero burns Rome to the ground, and charges the crime He re-establishes the Inquisition and the Jesuits. 7 Aug. upon the Christians...

64 The papal government endeavor to appul all innovaSeneca, Lucan, etc., put to death.

65 tions, and thus provoke much opposition; the CarboPeter and Paul said to be put to death. 67 nari increase in numbers

.1815-17 Jerusalem levelled to the ground by Titus 70 Political assassinations in the Romagna..

1817 Coliseum founded by Vespasian.

75 The “Young Italy" party established by Joseph Mazzi. The Dacian war begins (continues 15 years)

86 ni; temporary insurrections at Bologna suppressed by Pliny junior, proconsul in Bithynia, sends Trajan his cel

Austrian aid... ebrated account of the Christians..

102 Election of Pius IX..

.16 June, 1846 Trajan's expedition into the East against the Parthians, He proclaims an amnesty; and authorizes a national etc.; subdues Dacia.... 106 guard and municipal institutions...

1847 Trajan's Column erected at Rome.

114 The Romans desire to join the king of Sardinia against Adrian resides in Britain, and builds the Wall.

121 the Austrians; the pope hesitates; the Antonelli minThe capitol destroyed by lightning.

188 istry retires; and the Mamiani ministry is formed.... 1848 Byzantium taken; its walls razed

196 Count Rossi, minister of justice of the pontifical governThe Goths are paid tribute

222 ment, assassinatod on the staircase of the Chamber of [The Goths, Vandals, Alani, Suevi, and other north- Deputies at Rome....

....15 Nov. ern nations attack the empire.)

Insurrection at Rome, the populace demand a demoPompey's amphitheatre burned

248

cratic ministry and the proclamation of Italian nationInvasion of the Goths......

250 ality; the pope (Pius IX.) hesitates, the Romans surPestilence throughout the empire..

252 round the palace, and a conflict ensues. Great victory over the Goths obtained by Claudius II. ; accepts a popular ministry cardinal Palma, the pope's 300,000 slain

269 secretary, shot in this conflict)....

....16 Nov Dacia relinquished to the Goths.

270 | A free constitution published. .

.....20 Xor.

1303

.8 Sept.

1831

The pope

86

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The pope escapes in disguise from Rome to Gaeta. 24 Nov. 1848 | The emperor of France declines a union with Austria M. de Corcelles leaves Paris for Rome, a French armed and Spain for the maintenance of the pope's temporal expedition to Civita Vecchia having preceded him, to

power..

..June, 1861 afford protection to the pope..

.27 Nov. Grand ceremony at the canonization of 27 Japanese marProtest of the pope against the acts of the provisional tyrs (see Canonization)..

.8 June, government..

.28 Nov. The pope declares a severe allocution against the Italians, A constituent assembly meets at Rome .....5 Feb. 1849

9 June, The Roman National Assembly divests the pope of all Garibaldi calls for volunteers, taking as his watchword temporal power, and adopts the republican form of

“Rome or death!'.

19 July, 1862 government.

......8 Feb. Railway between Rome and Naples completed; its open. The pope appeals to the Catholic powers. ....18 Feb.

ing opposed by the papal government.

.Nov. Civita Vecchia occupied by the French force under mar- Earl Russell's offer to the pope of a residence at Malta, shal Oudinot... ...........26 April, 25 Oct. ; declined...

11 Nov. A French force repulsed with loss..

..30 April, Antonelli's resignation of his office not accepted.5 March, 1863 Engagement between the Romans and Neapolitans; the Convention between France and Italy; French troops to former capture 60 prisoners and 400 muskets..5 May, quit Rome within two years ....

.15 Sept. 1864 The assembly refuses to receive the French as allies, Encyclical letter of the pope, publishing a “syllabus,"

19 May,

censuring 80 errors in religion, philosophy, and politics The French under marshal Oudinot commence an at. (caused much dissatisfaction, and was forbidden to be tack on Rome.

.......3 June,

read in churches in France and other countries).8 Dec. After a brave resistance, the Romans capitulate to the Jews persecuted at Rome..

..Dec. French army..

.30 June, Fruitless negotiations between the pope and the king of The Roman assembly dissolved..

.4 July, Italy (by Vegezzi); mutual concessions proposed, An officer from Oudinot's camp arrives at Gaeta to pre

21 April-23 June, 1865 sent the pope with the keys of the two gates of Rome Pope's severe allocution against secret societies (Freeby which the French army had entered the city. .4 July, masons, Fenians, etc.).

...25 Sept. The re-establishment of the pope's authority proclaimed Merode, the papal minister of war, dismissed.....20 Oct. at Rome..

.15 July,

A part of the French troc leave the papal dominions, Oudinot issues a general order stating that the pope (or

Nov. his representative) now repossesses the administration Rupture with Russia.....

Dec. 1865-Jan. 1866 of affairs, but that public security in the pontifical do- A Franco pontifical legion (1200 men), formed at An. minions still remains under the special guarantee of tibes, arrives; blessed by the pope.. ..24 Sept. the French army.

.3 Aug.

Pope's severe allocution against Italy and Russia. 29 Oct. The pope arrives at Portici on a visit to the king of Na- The pope invites all Catholic bishops to meet at Rome to ples.....

.4 Sept. celebrate the 18th centenary of the martyrdom of PeHe arrives at Rome; cardinal Antonelli becomes foreign

ter and Paul...

...8 Dec. minister...

.. April, 1850 The pope's blessing given to French troops, 6 Dec., who He issues the bull establishing a Roman Catholic hie- all quit Rome...

.2-12 Dec. rarchy in England (see Papal Aggression). ....24 Sept. Rome tranquil.

.13 Dec. Important concordat with Austria..

..18 Aug. 1855 Law prohibiting Protestant worship except at embas. The pope visits his dominions.. May-Sept. 1857 sies in Rome enforced.

.31 Dec. Insurrection in the Romagna, at Bologna, and Ferrara, Negotiation with Italy fruitless; the Italian councillor June, 1859 Tonello quits Rome....

.... April, 1867 The pope appeals to Europe for help against Sardinia, 599 bishops and thousands of priests present at the

12 July, pope's allocution, 26 June; and canonization of 25 The Legations form a defensive alliance with Tuscany,

martyrs..

.29 June, Parma, and Modena....

20 Aug.

The pope receives an album and address from 100 cities The queen of Spain engages to send troops to Rome if

of Italy.

....8 July, the French retire...

.....26 Aug. Cholera in Rome; death of cardinal Altieri while assistThe assembly at Bologna vote annexation to Piedmont, ing the afflicted.

.11 Aug. 7 Sept.; the king engages to support their cause before The pope's allocution censures the sacrilegious audacity the great powers, 15 Sept. ; the pope annuls the acts of of the Subalpine kingdom in confiscating ecclesiastical the assembly at Bologna; and announces the punish

property..

.20 Sept. ment due to those who attack the holy see, 26 Sept. ; Garibaldi arrested at Sinalunga, near the Roman fronand dismisses the Sardinian chargé d'affaires at Rome,

tier...

..23 Sept. 1 Oct. Irruption of Garibaldians in Viterbo-conflicts with vaThe Romagna, Modena, and Parma formed into a prov. rious results; reported appeal of Antonelli for help ince, to be called Æmilia

.24 Dec.
from the great powers..

.. ... Oct. The Sardinian government annul the Tuscan and Lom- Zouave barracks at Rome blown up; many killed. 22 Oct. bard concordats..

27 Jan., 20 March, 1860 Attempt at insurrection in Rome suppressed, 22 Oct.; Riots at Rome suppressed by the police with great cru.

state of siege proclaimed; Garibaldi within 20 es of elty...

.19 March,

Rome, 24 Oct. ; takes Monte Rotondo.. ...26 Oct. The pope excommunicates all concerned in the rebellion French brigades enter Rome..

..30 Oct. in his states..

...26 March, Italian troops cross the frontier, 30 Oct.; occupy several Gen. Lamoricière takes command of the papal army, posts..

..1 Nov. March; which is reorganized, and increased by volun. Garibaldians defeated by the papal and French troops at teers from Ireland, etc..

. May,
Mentana (which see)...

..3 Nov. Tuscan volunteers enter the papal states and are re- Italian troops retire from the papal states.. . . . . . Nov. pulsed....

.19 May,

The Roman committee of insurrection issue a narrative, Irish volunteers are severely treated for insubordination; and state that their watchword is “Try again and do many dismissed...

....July,

better". The papal army estimated at 20,000.. ...Aug. The papal army increased to about 15,000.

.Dec. Insurrection in the Marches, 8 Sept. ; Fossembrone sub- The pope's short allocution (thanking and blessing the dued by the papal troops; the people appeal to the French government)..

19 Dec. Sardinian government, whose troops, under Cialdini New cardinals made; Lucien Bonaparte one.. 13 March, 1868 and Fanti, enter the papal states.

.11 Sept.
Sudden death of cardinal Andrea...

.15 May, Fanti takes Pesaro, 12 Sept.; and Perugia, including gen. The pope, in his allocution, censures the Austrian new Schmidt and 1600 prisoners..

14 Sept.
civil marriage law...

.22 June," Ancona besieged by sea and land. .

.17 Sept. Arrangement respecting the papal debt made with Italy, Severe allocution of the pope against France and Sar

30 July, dinia; he appeals to Europe for help.........28 Sept. Encyclical letter of the pope, summoning an ecumenical Cialdini defeats Lamoricière at Castel. Fidardo, 18 Sept. ; council at Rome on 8 Dec. 1869, and inviting minisand takes Ancona......

ters of the Greek and other churches....... .13 Sept. Additional French troops sent to Rome

... ... Oct.

The patriarch of the Greek church declined to attend, The Marches vote for annexation to Sardinia....... Nov.

about 3 Oct. Subscriptions raised for the pope in various countries; Monti and Tognetti (for complicity in the explosion of

the formal collection forbidden in France and Belgium; the Zouave barracks, 22 Oct. 1867) executed...24 Nov. permitted in England..

Nov.
The pope celebrates a jubilee....

..11 April, 1869 Monastic establishments suppressed in the Legations; In his allocution he deplores the opposition to the the monks pensioned; educational institutions founded, church in Austria and Spain. ..

...25 June, " Dec. He declares, in a letter to archbishop Manning, that no The French emperor advises the pope to give up his re

discussions on disputed points can take place at the volted provinces...

.21 Dec.
council..

.4 Sept. Publication of Rome et les Evêques, 6 Jan.; and of La The council opened (see Council XXI.).. ..8 Dec.

France, Rome et l'Italie, 15 Feb.; great excitement, An exhibition of objects of Christian art opened by the and strong advocacy of the pope's temporal govern

pope.

...7 Feb. 1870 ment (attacked by prince Napoleon) in the French British and American bishops protest against discussing chambers....

.... March, 1861 the dogma of papal infallibility in the council, 11 April; Cavour claims Rome as capital of Italy.......27 March, the discussion begins...

.14 May, Petition to the emperor Napoleon to withdraw French Count Arnim, on behalf of the North German confederatroops from Rome......

.10 May,
tion, protests against the dogma ...

... May,

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