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1724. Sir Philip Yorke, afterwards earl of Hardwicke. celerated motion by the falling of weights, invented by 1734. Sir John Willes, knt. 1737. Sir Dudley Ryder, knt.

George Atwood, described 1784: he died 11 July, 1807. 1754. Hon. William Murray, afterwards earl of Mansfield. 1156. Sir Robert Henley, kut., afterwards earl of Northington.ed from the begiming of the monarchy, whereby they

Aubaine, a right of the French kings, which exist1757. Sir Charles Pratt, knt., afterwards lord Camden. 1762. Hon. Charles Yorke.

claimed the property of every stranger who died in their 1763. Sir Fletcher Norton, knt., afterwards lord Grantley. 1765. Hon. Charles Yorke, again; afterwards lord Morden, and country without having been naturalized, was abolished Jord chancellor; see Chancellors.

by the National Assembly in 1790-1, re-established by 1766. William de Grey, afterwards lord Walsingham.

Napoleon in 1804, and finally annulled 14 July, 1819. 1771. Edward Thurlow, esq., afterwards lord Thurlow. 1778. Alex. Wedderburn, afterwards lord Loughborough. Auberoche, Guienne (S. France). The earl of 1780. James Wallace, esq.

Derby defeated the French, besieging this place, 19 1782. Lloyd Kenyon, esq. 1783. James Wallace, esq.

Aug. 1344.
John Lee, esq.

Auckland, capital of New Zealand (north island), Lloyd Kenyon, again; afterwards lord Kenyon. 1784. Sir Richard P. Arden, afterwards lord Alranley.

was founded Sept. 1810. The population of the district 1788. Sir Archibald Macdonald.

in 1857 was estimated at 15,000 Europeans and 35,000 1793. Sir John Scott, afterwards lord Eldon.

natives. The seat of government was removed to Wel1799. Sir J. Mitford, afterwards lord Redesdale.

lington, on Cook's Strait, Dec. 1864. 1801. Sir Edward Law, afterwards lord Ellenborough, 11 Feb. 1802. Hon. Spencer Percival (murdered by Bellingham, 11 Auction, a kind of sale known to the Romans, menMay, 1812), 15 April.

tioned by Petronius Arbiter (about A.1). 66). The first 1806. Sir Arthur Pigott, 12 Feb. 1807. Sir Vicary Gibbs, afterwards chief-justice of the common in Britain was about 1700, by Elisha Yale, a governor pleas, 7 April

of Fort George, now Madras, in the East Indies, who 1812. Sir Thomas Plumer, afterwards first vice-chancellor of thus sold the goods he had brought home. Auction

England, 26 June. 1813. Sir William Garrow, 4 May.

and sales' tax began 1779. Various acts of parliament 1817. Sir Samuel Shepherd, 7 May.

have regulated auctions and imposed duties, in some 1819. Sir Robert Gifford, afterwards lord Gifford, 24 July. cases as high as five per cent. By 8 Vict. c. 15, 1845, 1824. Sir John Singleton Copley, afterwards lord Lyndhurst, 9 the duties were repealed, and a charge imposed " on the

Jan. 1826. Sir Charles Wetherell, 20 Sept.

license to be taken out by all auctioneers in the United 1827. Sir James Scarlett, 27 April.

Kingdom of 101.” In 1858 there were 4358 licenses 1828. Sir Charles Wetherell, again, 19 Feb. 1829. Sir James Scarlett, again; afterwards lord Abinger, 29 granted, producing 43,5801. The abuses at auctions, June.

termed "knock-outs,” caused by combinations of brokers 1830. Sir Thomas Denman, afterwards lord Denman, 26 Xor. and others, excited much attention in Sept. 1866. An 1832. Sir William Horne, 26 Nov.

act regulating sales of land by auction was passed 15 1834. Sir John Campbell, 1 March. Sir Frederick Pollock, 17 Dec.

July, 1867. Certain sales are now exempt from being 1835. Sir John Campbell

, again; afterwards lord Campbell (and conducted by a licensed auctioneer, such as goods and 1859, lord chancellor), 30 April.

cbattels under a distress for rent, and sales under the 1841. Sir Thomas Wilde, 3 July. Sir F. Pollock, again; afterwards chief baron, 6 Sept.

provisions of the Small Debts Acts for Scotland and Ire1844. Sir William W. Follett, 15 April.

land.-Abuses at auctions in the United States have led 1843. Sir Frederick Thesiger, 4 July.

to various statutory regulations in the several states. In 1846. Sir Thomas Wilde, again ; afterwards lord Truro, and New York, where abuses have been greatest, auctioneers

lord chancellor, 6 July.
Sir John Jervis, afterwards chief justice of the common

must give bonds in $100,000 for faithful conduct of busipleas, 13 July

ness, must make semi-annual accounts of sales, and pay 1850, Sir John Romilly, afterwards master of the rolls, 11 July to the state a certain percentage of the sales of goods, 1851. Sir Alexander James Edmund Cockburn, 28 March. 1852. Sir Frederick Thesiger, again; afterwards lord Chelms except certain goods which are exempt. Sir Alexander Cockburn, again; afterwards chief justice baring been expelled from the Syrian church on account

Audiani, followers of Audæus of Mesopotamia, who, of common pleas and queen's bench, 23 Dec. 1856. Sir Richard Bethell, 15 Nov.

of his severely reproring the vices of the clergy, about 1858. Sir Fitzroy Kelly, 27 Feb.; afterwards chief baron, 1866; 338, formed a sect and became its bishop. He was ban

died 1880. 1859. Sir R. Bethell (since lord Westbury, and lord chancellor), ished to Scythia, where he is said to have made many 18 June.

converts. His followers celebrated Easter at the tinie 1861. Sir William Atherton, 27 July. 1863. Sir Roundell Palmer, afterwards lord Selborne, and lord the Deity, and had other peculiar tenets.

of the Jewish passover, attributed the human figure to chancellor, 2 Oct. 1866. Sir Hugh M. Cairns, afterwards lord Cairns, and lord Audiometer (from audio, I hear), an instrument

chancellor, 13 July. Sir John Rolt (made justice of appeal), 28 Oct.

for the measurement of the faculty of hearing, invent1867. Sir John Karslake, 1 July.

ed by prof. Hughes. It consists of a battery of two 1868. Sir Robert Porrett Collier, 12 Dec.

Leclanche's cells connected with a simple microphone 1871. Sir John Duke Coleridge, afterwards lord Coleridge, and and telephone; described to the Royal Society, 15 May,

lord chief jnstice, 10 Nov. 1873. Sir Henry James, Nov.

1879. 1874. Sir John Karslake, Feb.

Audiphone, an instrument to assist the partially Sir Richard Baggallay, 22 April.

deaf, invented by Mr. R. G, Rhodes of Chicago, and mod. 1875. Sir John Holker, 25 Nov. 1880. Sir Henry James, 13 May.

ified by M. Colladon of Genera, in 1880. It consists of a

thin sheet of baru ebonite rubber or card-board. This Attorney-general, UNITED STATES, see Adminis- should be placed against the teeth, through which and tration.

other bones the vibrations are conveyed to the auditory Attorneys and Solicitors' Act, passed 14 nerve. July, 1870.

Audit-office, Somerset House. Commissioners for Attraction, described by Copernicus, about 1520, auditing the public accounts were appointed in 1785, and as an appetence or appetite which the Creator impressed many statutes regulating their duties have since been upon all parts of matter; by Kepler as a corporeal affection, enacted. tending to union, 1605. In 1687, sir Isaac Newton pub- Audley's Rebellion, see Rebellions, 1497. lished his “Principia,"containing his important researches

Auerstädt (Prussia). Here, on 14 Oct. 1806, the on this subject. There are the attractions of grarita. French, under Davoust, signally defeated the Prussians, tion, magnetism, and electricity (which see). Dr. C. Will- under Blucher; see Jena. iam Siemens exbibited and described his attraction

Aughrim, rear Athlove, in Ireland, where on 12 meter at the Royal Society, 1876.

July, 1691, a battle was fought between the Irish, headAtwood's Machine, for proving the laws of ac- / ed by the French general, St. Ruth, and the English

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under gen. Ginckel. The former were defeateil and lost London, crected 1354, and since the Reformation used 7000 men; the latter lost only 600 killed and 960 wound by Dutch Protestants, was partially destroyed by fire, 22 ed. St. Ruth was slain. This engagement proved de- Nov. 1862. It was restored, and reopened 1 Oct. 1865. cisively fatal to the interest of James II., and Ginckel A religious house of the order, dedicated to St. Monica, was created earl of Athlone.

mother of Augustin, was founded in Hoxton Square, Augmentation of Poor LivingS' OFFICE, es

London, 1864. tablished in 1704. 5597 clerical livings, not exceeding Aulic Council, a sovereign court in Germany, es501. per annum, were found by the commissioners under tablished by the emperor Maximilian I., being one of the act of Anne capable of augmentation by means of the the two courts, the first called the Imperial Chamber, bounty then established.

civil and criminal, instituted at Worms, 1495, and afterAugmentations Court, established in 1535 by wards held at Spires and Wetzler; and the other the 27 Henry VIII. c. 27, in relation to cap. 28, same session, Aulic Council at Vienna, 1506. These courts, having conwhich gave the king the property of all monasteries current jurisdiction, were instituted for appeals in partichaving 2001. a year. The court was abolished by Mary, ular cases from the courts of the Germanic states. 1553, and restored by Elizabeth, 1558.

Auray (N.W, France). Here, on 29 Sept. 1364, the Augsburg (Bavaria), originally a colony settled by English, under John Chandos, defeated the French and Augustus, about 12 B.C.; became a free city, and flour- captured their leader Du Guesclin. Charles of Blois, ished during the middle ages. Here many important

made duke of Brittany by the king of France, was slain,

and diets of the empire have been held. In A.D. 952, a coun

a peace was made in April, 1365. cil confirmed the order for the celibacy of the priesthood. Auricular Confession. The confession of sin at Augsburg has suffered much by war, having been fre- the ear (Latin, auris) of the priest was an early practice, quently taken by siege--in 788, 1703, 1704, and, last, by since it is said to have been forbidden in the fourth centhe French, 10 Oct. 1805, who restored it to Bavaria in tury by Nectarius, archbishop of Constantinople. It March, 1806.

was enjoined by the council of Lateran in 1215, and by

the council of Trent in 1531. It was one of the six arAugsburg Diet, summoned by the emperor Charles V. to settle ihe religious disputes of Germany, met 20 June,

ticles of faith enacted by our Henry VIII. in 1539, but and separated...

.Nov. 1530 was abolished in England at the Reformation. Its reConfession of Augsburg, compiled by Melanchthon, Lu- viral here has been attempted by the church party

ther, and others, signed by the Protestant princes, presented to the emperor Charles V., and read to the

called Puseyites, Tractarians, or Ritualists. diet..

. 25 June, The rev. Alfred Poole, a curate of St. Barnabas, Knightsbridge, Interim of Augsburg, a document issued by Charles V.:

was suspended by his bishop from his office for practising an attempt to reconcile the Catholics and Protestants auricular confession in June, 1858, and the suspension was

(it was fruitless, and was withdrawn).... read 15 May, 1548 confirmed in Jan. 1859. Much excitement was created by a " Peace of Religion" signed at Augsburg. ...... 25 Sept. 1555

similar attempt by the rev. Temple West at Boyne Hill in League of Augsburg, for maintenance of the treaties of

Sept. 1858. Münster, Nimeguen: a treaty between Holland and

In May, 1873, 483 clergymen of the Church of England preother powers against France...........signed 9 July, 1686

sented a petition to convocation for the education, selection, Augury. Husbandry was in part regulated by the

and licensing of duly qualified confessors, in accordance

with the provisions of canon-law. Strongly disapproved of coming or going of birds long before the time of Hesiod.

by the bishops. Three augurs at Rome, with vestals and several orders Letter from the bishop of London asserting that confession of the priesthood, were formally constituted by Numa should be to God; that to the minister optional, 21 July, about 710 B.C. The number increased, and was fifteen Archdeacon Denison (in a letter) declares war against all op. at the time of Sylla, 81. The college of augurs was abol- posing auricular confession, 22 Aug. 1873. ished by Theodosius about A.D. 390.

96 peers send an address against auricular confession to the

archbishop of Canterbury about 9 Aug. 1977; see Holy Cross. August, the eighth Roman month of the year (previously called Sextilis, or the sixth from March), by a

Auriflamma, or ORIFLAMME, the national banner decree of the senate received its present name in honor mentioned in French history, belonging to the abbey of of Augustus Cæsar, in the year 8 B.C., because in this St. Denis, and suspended over the tomb of that saint. month he was created consul, had thrice triumphed in Louis le Gros was the first king who took this standard Rome, added Egypt to the Roman empire, and made an

from the abbey to battle, 1124.-Hénault. It appeared end of the civil wars. He added one day to the month, for the last time at Agincourt

, 25 Oct. 1415.— Tillet. making it 31 days. The appearance of shooting-stars Others say at Montlhéry, 16 July, 1465. on the 10th of Aug. was observed in the middle ages, Aurora," FRIGATE, sailed from Britain in 1771 to when they were termed "St. Lawrence's tears." Their the last Indies, and was never again heard of.-AURORA, periodicity was noticed by Mr. Forster early in the pres- daily papal newspaper, appeared at Rome, 1 June, 1880. ent century:

Auroræ Boreales AND Australes (Northern Augusta, Siege of. Augusta (in Georgia, United and Southern Polar Lights), though rarely seen in cenStates) was held by a force under a loyalist named tral Europe, are frequent in the arctic and antarctic reBrown in the spring of 1781. While gen. Greene was gions. In March, 1716, an aurora borealis extended carrying on the siege of fort Ninety-six, Lee, Pickens, from the west of Ireland to the confines of Russia. The Clarke, and other Southern partisan leaders laid siege to whole horizon lat. 57° N. was overspread with continuAugusta. It commenced on 23 May, and on 5 June ous haze of a dismal red during a whole night, Nov. Brown surrendered. The Americans lost 51 men killed 1765. - Mr. Foster, the companion of capt. Cook, saw and wounded; the British lost. 52 killed, and 334, includ- the aurora in lat. 58° S. The aurora is now attributed ing the wounded, were taken prisoners.

to the passage of electric light through the rarefied air Augustan Era began 14 Feb. 27 B.c., or 727 years of the polar regions. In Aug. and Sept. 1859 (and about after the foundation of Rome.

24 Oct. 1870), when brilliant aurora were very frequent, Augustin (or Austin) Friars, a religious order communications interrupted. Aurore were seen at Rome

the electric telegraph - wires were seriously affected, and which ascribes its origin to St. Augustin, bishop of Hip- and Basel, and also in Australia. po, who died 430. They first appeared about the eleventh century, and the order was constituted by pope Al- Auscultation, see Stethoscope. exander IV., 1256. The rule requires poverty, humility, Austerlitz, a town in Moravia, where a battle was and chastity. Martin Luther was an Augustin monk. fought between the French and the allied Austrian and The Augustins held the doctrine of free grace, and were Russian armies, 2 Dec. 1805. Three emperors commandrivals of the Dominicans. The order appeared in Eng-ed: Alexander of Russia, Francis of Austria, and Naland soon after the conquest, and had 32 houses at the 'poleon of France. The killed and wounded exceeded suppression, 1536. One of their churches, at Austin Friars, , 30,000 on the side of the allies, who lost 40 standards, 150

1873.

pieces of cannon, and thousands of prisoners. The deci- Census (including Port Phillip)—114,700 males ; 74,800

1846 sive victory of the French led to the treaty of Presburg, Kennedy's expedition, 1847; killed..

1848 sigued 26 Dec. 1805; see Presburg.

Great agitation against transportation, which had been revived by earl Grey.....

1849 Austin Friars, see Augustin Friars.

Port Phillip erected into a separate province as Victoria. 1850
Gold discovered by Mr. Hargraves, etc. *.

1851
Australasia, the fifth great division of the world. Census - males, 106,000; females, 81,000 (exclusive of
This name, originally given it by De Brosses, includes Victoria, 80,000)..
Australia, Van Diemen's Land, New Guinea, New Zea- Mints established...

. March, 1853 land, New Britain, New Caledonia, etc., mostly discov- Gregory's explorations of interior..........

Transportation ceased...

1848, 1855-8 ered within two centuries. Accidental discoveries were Death of archdeacon Cowper (aged 80), after about fifty made by the Spaniards as early as 1526; but the first years' residence..

..July, 1858

.4 Dec. 1859 accurate knowledge of these southern lands is due to the Queensland made a province...

J. McDouall Stuart's expeditions.

.1858-62 Dutch, who in 1606 explored a part of the coast of Pap- Expedition into the interior under Mr. Landells organ. ua, or New Guinea. Torres, a Spaniard, passed through

ized.

Aug. 1860 the straits which now bear his name, between that isl- Robert O'Hara Burke, William John Wills, and others

start from Melbourne.

20 Aug. and and Australia, and gave the first correct report of the Burke, Wills

, and two others, cross the Australian contilatter, 1606. The Dutch continued their discoveries. nent to the gulf of Carpentaria; all perish on their reGrant in 1800, and Flinders again (1801-5), completed stuart, Mckinlay, and Låndsborough cross Australia from

turn, except John King, who arrives at Melbourne, Nov. 1861 the survey.M'Culloch.

sea to sea...

1801-2 Australia (formerly New Holland), the largest isl. Remains of Burke and Wills recovered; public funeral,

21 Jan. 1863 and and smallest continent; estimated area about three strong and general resistance throughout Australia to million square miles, including tive provinces — New the reception of British convicts in West Australia, South Wales, Victoria (formerly Port Phillip), South

about June, 1864 Australia, West Australia (or Swan River), and Queens- Cessation of transportation to Australia in three years

26 Jan. 1865 land (all which see). Population, with Tasmania and Morgan, a desperate bushranger and murderer, surrounded New Zealand, in 1871, about 1,958,650; 1874, 2,334,210; and shot..

. April, 1878, 2,705,700.

Boundary disputes between New South Wales and Vic

toria, in summer of 1864; settled amicably..,19 April, Mr. R. H. Major, in 1872, alleged that Australia was known Total population of Australia, exclusive of natives, 1,298.. to the French prior to....

1531
667.

..Jan. 1866 Alleged discovery by Manoel Godinho de Eredia, a Por- Royal Society of New South Wales (originally the Philo. tuguese..

1601 sophical Society of Australia, founded 1821), estabThe Dutch also discover Australia.

. March, 1606
lished..

..May, The coast surveyed by Dutch navigators; north, by Zea. Meeting of ministers from the Australian colonies at

chen, 1618; west, by Edels, 1619; south, by Nuyts, 1627; Melbourne to arrange postal communication with Eu. north, by Carpenter... 1627 rope.

. March, 1867 William Dampier explores the W. and N. W. coasts....1684-90 Exploration of S. Australia; capt. Cadell discovers mouth Tasman coasts S. Australia and Van Diemen's Land. ...1642-4 of the river Roper, and fine pastoral country, lat. 14° S. Terra Australia (Western Australia) named New Holland

Nov. by order of the States-General.

1665 Despatch from lord Kimberley objecting to the comples William Dampier lands in Australia....

........Jan. 1686 tariffs between the Australian colonies........13 July, 1871 Explorations of Willis and Carteret...

.1763-6 Meeting of delegates from New South Wales, Victoria, Capt. Cook, sir Joseph Banks, and others land at Botany S. Australia, and Tasmania; they object to imperial Bay, and name the country “New South Wales,

interference with their mutual fiscal arrangements, 28 April, 1770

27 Sept Exploration of Furneaux...

1773 Synod of the church of Australia and Tasman a held at Governor Phillip founds Sydney near Port Jackson, with Sydney......

25 Oct. 1872 1030 persons.

26 Jan. 1788

GOVERNORS. [The 82d anniversary of this event was kept with much festivity, 26 Jan. 1870.)

Captain Arthur Phillip..

1788 Captain Hunter...

1755 Great distress in consequence of the loss of the store-ship Guardian, capt. Riou.

1800 1790

Captain Philip G. King .1789-92

Captain William Bligh.. Voyages of Bligh...

1806 First church erected..

Colonel Lachlan Macquarie (able and successful adminis

..Aug. 1793 Government gazette first printed..

tration)..

1809 1795 General sir Thomas Brisbane,

1821 Bass's straits discovered by Bass and Flinders.

1798
Sir Richard Bourke..

1831 First brick church built...

1802 Colony of Van Diemen's Land (now Tasmania) established 1803 Sir Charles Fitzroy, governor general of all the Australian

Sir George Gipps.

1838 Grant, 1800, and Flinders survey the coasts of Australia. 1801-5 Insurrection of Irish convicts quelled.....

1804

colonies, with a certain jurisdiction over the lieutenantGovernor Bligh, for his tyranny, deposed and sent home. 1808

governors of Van Diemen's Land, Victoria, and S. and W. Australia....

1846 Superseded by governor Macquarie...

1809 Expeditions into the interior by Wentworth, Lawson, Bloxland, 1813; Oxley, etc...

1817-1823 * GOLD-DISCOVERY.-Mr. Edward Hargraves went to Califor. Population, 29,783 (three fourths convicts).

1821 nia in search of gold, and was struck with the similarity be. West Australia formed into a province..

1829tween the rocks and strata of California and those of his own Legislative council established....

district of Conobolas, some thirty miles west of Bathurst. On Sturt's expeditions into S. Australia..

1828-31 his return home, he examined the soil, and after one or two South Australia erected into a province... Aug. 1834 months' digging, found a quantity of gold, 12 Feb. 1851. Ho Sir T. Mitchell's expeditions into E. Australia. ... 1831-6 applied to the colonial government for a reward, which he First Roman Catholic bishop (Polding) arrivos..... Sept. 1835 readily obtained, with an appointment as commissioner of Port Phillip (now Victoria) colonized...

Nov. crown-lands. The excitement became intense throughout the First Church of England bishop of Australia (Broughton) colony of New South Wales, rapidly spread to that of Victoria arrives...

June, 1836 and other places; and in the first week of July, 1851, an aboColony of South Australia founded..

.Dec. riginal inhabitant, formerly attached to the Wellington mis. Eyre's expedition overland from Adelaide to King sion, and then in the service of Dr. Kerr, of Wallawa, discor. George's Sound....

1836-7 ered, while tending his sheep, a mass of gold among a heap Melbourne founded..

......Nov. 1837 of quartz. Three blocks of quartz (from two to three cwt.), Capt. Grey explores N. W. Australia..

.1837-9 found in the Murroo creek, fifty miles to the north of Bath Count Strzelecki explored New South Wales and Tas. urst, contained 112 lbs. of pure gold, valued at 40001. The

mania, 1838-43; discovered gold - fields in Bathurst, * Victoria nugget," a magniticent mass of virgin gold, we gh

Wellington, etc. (kept secret by sir George Gipps).. 1839 | ing 340 02., was brought to England from the Bendigo diggings; Suspension of transportation....

and a piece of pure gold of 106 Ibs. weight was also found, Strzelecki explores the Australian Alps; discovers Gipps's From the gold-fields of Mount Alexander and Ballarat, in the Land; Eyre explores W. Australia.

1840 district of Victoria, up to Oct. 1852, there were found 2,532, 422 Great exertions of Mrs. Chisholm; establishment of oz., or 105 tons 10 cwt. of gold; and the gold exported up to * Home for Female Emigrants".

.1841-6 the same date represented 8,863,4771. sterling. In Nov. 1853 Census—87,200 males; 43,700 females..

... 1841

the James Baines and Lightning brought gold from Melbourne Very numerous insolvencies...

.1841-2 valued at 1,200,0001. The "Welcome nugget” weighed :01 # Incorporation of city of Sydney..

1842 oz. ; value, 83761. 108. 10d.; found at Baker's Hill, Ballarat, Leichhardt's expedition (never returned).

1844 11 June, 1858. Between May, 1851, and May 1861, gold 10 Sturt proceeds from S. Australia to the middle of the con- the value of 96,000,0001. had been brought to England from tinent.......

1845 New South Wales and Victoria.

1363

Sir William T. Den son.

1854 Compelled to cede Styria to Hungary, he makes war and Sir John Young of New South Wales only. 1860 recovers it, in consequence of a great victory..

1260 (See New South Wales.)

He inherits Carinthia, 1263; refuses to become emperor Acts for the government of Australia, 10 Geo. IV. c. 22, 14 of Germany, 1272; and to render homage to Rodolph May, 1829; 6 & 7 Will. IV. c. 68, 13 Aug. 1836; 13 & 14 of Hapsburg, elected emperor..

1273 Vict. c. 59, 5 Aug. 1850. Act for regulating the sale War against Ottocar as a rebel; he is compelled to cede of waste lands in the Australian colonies, 5 & 6 Vict. c. Austria, Carinthia, and Styria to Rodolph..

1274 36, 22 June, 1842.

The war renewed: Ottocar perishes in the battle of Marchfeld...

26 Aug. 1278 Austrasia, Oesterreich (Eastern Kingdom), also Albert I. assassinated by his nephew while attempting called Metz, a French kingdom which lasted from the

to enslave the Swiss..

.1 May, 1308

.1307-9 6th to the 8th century. It began with the division of Successful revolt of the Swiss..

They totally defeat the Austrians under duke Leopold at the territories of Clovis by his sons, 511, and ended by Morgarten ..

16 Nov, 1315 Carloman becoming a monk and surrendering his power The Tyrol acquired. to his brother Pepin, who thus became sole king of The duke Leopold imposes a toll on the Swiss, which

they resist with violence: he makes war on them, and France, 747.

is defeated and slain at Sempach..

....July, 1386 "Austria," a Hamburg company's steamship, sailed Duke Albert V. obtains Bohemia and Hungary, and is

elected emperor of Germany...

1437 from Southampton to New York 4 Sept. 1858, with 528 per- The emperor Frederic III., as head of the house of Hapssons on board. On 13 Sept., in lat. 45° N., long. 41° 30' W., burg, creates the archduchy of Austria with sovereign it caught fire through the carelessness of some one in burn- Austria divided between him aud his relatives, 1457; war

.6 Jan. 1453 ing some tar to fumigate the steerage. Only 67 persons

ensues between them till......

1463 were saved-upwards of 60 by the Maurice, a French The Low Countries accrue to Austria by the marriage of bark, the rest by a Norwegian bark. A heart-rend- Maximilian with the heiress of Burgundy..

1477 ing account was given in the Times, 11 Oct. 1858, by Also Spain, by the marriage of Philip 1. of Austria with

the heiress of Aragon and Castile..

1496 Mr. Charles Brews, an English survivor.

Bohemia and Hungary united to Austria under FerdiAustria, Oesterreich (Eastern Kingdom), anciently Austria harassed by Turkish invasions.

1526

1529-45 Noricum and part of Pannonia, was annexed to the Ro- Charles V., reigning over Germany, Austria, Bohemia, man empire about 33; was overrun by the Huns, Avars, Hungary, Spain, the Netherlands, and their dependenetc., during the fifth and sixth centuries, and taken from cies, abdicates (see Spain).

1556

...1618-48 them by Charlemagne, 791-6. He divided the gov- War of Spanish Succession..

The destructive Thirty Years' war...

1701-14 ernment of the country, establishing margraves of East- Mantua ceded to the emperor.

..3 Jan. 1703 ern Bavaria and Austria. Louis the German, son of By treaty of Utrecht he obtains part of the duchy of Louis le Débonnaire, about 817, subjugated Radbod, mar- By treaty of Rastadt be acquires the Netherlands..

Milan.

11 April, 1713

1714 grave of Austria ; but in 883 the descendants of the lat- Naples, etc., added to his dominions..... 15 Nov. 1715 ter raised a civil war in Bavaria against the emperor Further additions on the east (Temeswar, etc.) by the Charles the Fat, and eventually the margraves of Austria Naples and Sicily given up to Spain..

1718

1735 were declared immediate princes of the empire. In 1156 Death of Charles VI., the last sovereign of the male lino the margraviate was made an hereditary duchy by the of the house of Hapsburg; his daughter, Maria Theresa, emperor Frederic I.; and in 1453 it was raised to an

becomes queen of Hungary...

20 Oct. 1740 Silesian wars.

.1740-2; 1744-5 archduchy by the emperor Frederic III. Rudolph, count

Maria Theresa is attacked by Prussia, France, Bavaria, of Hapsburg, elected emperor of Germany in 1273, ac- and Saxony; but supported by Great Britain... 1741 quired Austria in 1278; and from 1493 to 1804 his de Francis, duke of Lorraine, who had married Maria Theresa scendants were emperors of Germany. On 11 Aug. 1804, Peace of 'Aix-la-Chapelle: Parma, Milan, etc., ceded to

in 1736, elected emperor.

1745 the emperor Francis II, renounced the title of emperor Spain.

1748 of Germany, and became hereditary emperor of Austria. Seven Years' war; Silesia ceded to Prussia.. 1745-63

1772 The condition of Austria is now greatly improving under Galicia, etc., acquired from Poland.

.1792-7 the enlightened rule of the present emperor. The po- By the treaty of Campo Formio, the emperor gives up litical constitution of the empire is based upon-1. The Lombardy (which see) and obtains Venice......15 Oci. 1797 Pragmatic Sanction of Charles VI., 1734, which declares Treaty of Luneville (more losses). .......

1801 the indivisibility of the empire and rules the order of

Francis II., emperor of Germany, becomes Francis I. of

Austria : declared hereditary emperor of Austria, succession. 2. The Pragmatic Sanction of Francis II., 1

11 Aug. 1804 Aug. 1804, when he became emperor of Austria only. 3. His declaration against France....

..5 Aug. 1805

.20 Oct. The diploma of Francis Joseph, 20 Oct. 1860, whereby Capitulation of his army at Ulm..

.14 Nov. he imparted legislative power to the provincial states Austrians and Russians defeated at Austerlitz....2 Dec. and the council of the empire (Reichsrath). 4. The law By treaty of Presburg, Austria loses Venice and the

Tyrol...

.1 Jan. 1806 of 26 Feb. 1861, on the national representation. Self

Vienna evacuated by the French.

.12 Jan. government was granted to Hungary, 17 Feb. 1867. The Dissolution of the Germanic confederation, and formal empire was ordered to be named henceforth the Austro- abdication of the emperor...

...6 Aug. Hungarian monarchy, by decree, 14 Nov. 1868. Popula- The French again take Vienna...

..13 May, 1809 But restore it at the peace...

24 Oct. tion of the empire * in Oct. 1857, 35,018,988; reduced to Napoleon marries the archduchess Maria Louisa, the 32,530,000 by the loss of Venetia, etc., in 1866 (about daughter of the emperor....

.1 April, 1810 16,000,000 Slavs of different dialects). Population, Aus- Congress at Vienna..

....2 Oct. 1814

..25 Feb. 1815 tria and other Cis-Leithan provinces, 20,396,580 (31 Dec. Treaty of Vienna...

[Italian provinces restored with additions-Lombar. 1869); Hungary and Trans-Leithan provinces, 15,509,- do Venetian kingdom established, 7 April.) 455.

Francis I. dies; Ferdinand I. succeeds.. .2 March, 1835 Frederic II., the last male of the house of Bamberg, killed

New treaty of commerce with England.. .......3 July, 1838 in battle with the Hungarians...

. 15 June, 1246 Insurrection at Vienna; flight of Metternich..13 March, 1848 Disputed succession; the emperor Frederic II. seques

Insurrection in Italy (see Milan, Venice, and Sardinia), tered the provinces, appointing Otto, count of Eber

18 Marcli, stein, governor in the name of the emperor ; they are

Another insurrection at Vienna; the emperor flees to seized by Ladislaus, margrave of Moravia, in right of

Innspruck. ..

15-17 May, his wife, Frederic's niece, Gertrude: he died childless 1247

Archduko John appointed vicar-general of the empire, Herman, margrave of Baden, marries Gertrude, and holds

29 May, the provinces till his death.

A constituent assembly meet at Vienna.........22 July, Premislas Ottocar of Bohemia acquires the provinces.: 1254 Revolution in Hungary (see Hungary)..

.11 Sept. Insurrection of Vienna; murder of count Latour,

6 Oct. * The empire is now divided into two parts, separated by the The emperor abdicates in favor of his nephew, Francis river Leithe. The Cis Leithan section comprises 14 provincial Joseph...

.2 Dec diets: Galicia, Rohemia, Silesia, Moravia, lower and upper Convention of Olmütz.

.29 Nov. 1850 Austria, Styria, the Tyrol and Voralburg, Salzburg, Carinthia, The emperor revokes the constitution of 4 March, 1849, Carniola, Trieste, and Istria, Dalmatia, and the Bukovina. The

31 Dec. 1851 Trans Leithan section comprises Hungary, Transylvania, Cro Trial by jury abolished in the empire....... 15 Jan. 1852 atia, Slavonia, and the city of Fiume.

Death of prince Schwartzenburg, prime minister, 4 April,

1250

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Attempted assassination of the emperor by Libenyi, 18 Ministerial crisis: M. Schmerling becomes ministerFeb.; who was executed.. .28 Feb. 1853 more political concessions....

13 Dec, 1860 Commercial treaty with Prussia..

19 Feb. The proscribed Hungarian count Teleki, at Dresden, is Austrians epter Danubian principalities.. ...Aug. 1854 given up to Austria, which causes general indignation, Alliance with England and France relative to Eastern

about 20 Dec.; he is released on parole... 31 Dec. question...

.2 Dec. Amnesty for political offences in Hungary, Croatia, etc., Great reduction of the army.. .24 June, 1855 published..

7 Jan. 1861 By a concordat the pope acquires great power in the em- Reactionary policy of the court leads to increased genpire..

...18 Aug.
eral disaffection.

.Jan. and Feb. Amnesty for political offenders of 1848-9........ 12 July, 1856 The statutes of the new constitution for the Austrian Austria remonstrates against the attacks of the free Sar

monarchy published..

.26 Feb. dinian press.

10 Feb. 1857 Civil and political rights granted to Protestants throughFirm reply of count Cavour.

.... 20 Feb.

out the empire, except in Hungary and Venice, 8 April, Austrians quit the Danube principalities. . ... March, Meeting of Reichsrath-no deputies present from Hun Diplomatic relations between Austria and Sardinia bro

gary, Croatia, Transylvania, Venetia, or Istria 29 April, ken off in consequence... .23-30 March, Ministry of marine created.

...Jan. 1862 Emperor and empress visit Hungary

May, Inundation of the Danube, causing great distress.. 4 Feb. Death of marshal Radetzky (aged 92). .5 Jan. 1858 Increased taxation proposed....

March, Excitement throughout Europe, caused by the address At an imperial council, the emperor present, the princi. of the emperor Napoleon III. to the Austrian ambassa

ple of ministerial responsibility is resolved on, dor: "I regret that our relations with your govern

26 April, ment are not as good as formerly, but I beg of you to Deficiency of 1,400,0001. in financial statement; indignatell the emperor that my personal sentiments for him

tion of the Reichsrath.

June, have not changed ”.

.....1 Jan. 1859 Amnesty to condemned political offenders in Hungary The emperor of Austria replied in almost the same proclaimed.

18 Nov. words

.4 Jan. Reduction in the army assented to; and a personal lib. Prince Napoleon Bonaparte marries princess Clotilde of erty law (resembling our habeas corpus act) passed, Sardinia.. .30 Jan.

Dec. Austria prepares for war; enlarges her armies in Italy; Insurrection in Russian Poland, Jan. ; Austria joins in

and strongly fortifies the banks of the Ticino, the boun. the intercession of England and France......... April, 1863 dary of her Italian provinces and Sardinia,

Meeting of the German sovereigns (except kings of Prus.

Feb. and March, sia, Holland, and Denmark) with the emperor of AusLord Cowley at Vienna on a “mission of peace,'' 27 Feb

tria at Frankfort, by his invitation; the draft of a reIntervention of Russia; proposal for a congress; disputes form of the federal constitution agreed to..16-31 Aug.

respecting the admission of Sardinia ; Sardinia and Transylvanian deputies accept the constitution, and take France prepare for war.

March and April,
seats in the Reichsrath..

20 Oct. Austria demands the disarmament of Sardinia and the Austria joins Prussia in war with Denmark (sec Den. dismissal of the volunteers from other states within

mark)...

.Jan. 1364 three days.....

23 April,

Galicia and Cracow declared to be in a state of siege, This demand rejected.. 26 April,

29 Feb. The Austrians cross the Ticino..

26 April, The Archduke Maximilian becomes emperor of Mexico The French troops enter Piedmont.

27 April,
(see Mexico)

... April, The French emperor declares war (to expel tho Austri- The emperor and the king of Prussia meet at Carlsbad, ans from Italy)... .3 May,

22 June, Resignation of count Buol, foreign minister; appoint- Resignation of count Rechberg, foreign minister, sucment of count Rechberg..

13-18 May,
ceeded by count Mensdorff-Pouilly.

27 Oct. The Austrians defeated at Montebello, 20 May; at Pales- Peace with Denmark, signed at Vienna. ..30 Oct.

tro, 30-31 May; at Magentit, 4 June; at Malegnano Emperor opens Reichsrath, 14 Nov. ; great freedom of (Mariguano).

.8 June,

debate; the state of siege in Galicia censured.... Dec. Prince Metternich dies, aged 86 (he had been actively en. Austria supports the confederation in the dispute regaged in the wars and negotiations of Napoleon I.),

specting the duchies...

Dec 11 June, Apparent reunion between Austria and Prussia.....Jan. 1365 Austrians defeated at Solferino (near the Mincio); the Great financial difficulty; proposed reduction in the emperors of Austria and France and king of Sardinia army by the chambers....

.Jan. present..

...24 June, Contest between the government and the chambers, Arinistice agreed upon, 6 July; the emperors meet, 11

April, July; the preliminaries of pace signed at Villa Franca Reported failure of Mr. Hutt's mission to Vienna, to pro(Lombardy given up to Sardinia, and an Italian con

mote free trade.

..June, federation proposed to be formed)...

12 July,

New ministry formed; count Mensdorff as nominal preManifesto justifying the peace issued to the army, 12 mier; counts Belcredi and Esterhazy as ministers; con. July; to the people...

15 July,

ciliatory measures towards Hungary proposed, Patent issued, granting greatly increased privileges to

27 July, the Protestants; anuounced..

.Sept. Convention of G:stein (see Gastein) signed Conference between the envoys of Austria and France at Emperor's rescript suppressing the constitution, with Zurich..

..8 Aug. to Sept. the view of giving autonomy to Hungary (which sce), Many national reforms proposed.. ...Sept.

20 Sept. Treaty of Zurich, confirming the preliminaries of Villa Rejoicings in Hungary, but dissatisfaction in Austria, Franca, signed..

..10 Nov.
Croatia, etc. ......

.Nov., Dec. Decrees removing Jewish disabilities..6, 10 Jan., 18 Feb. 1860 Treaty of commerce with Great Britain, signed. .16 Dec. Patent issued for the summoning the great imperial Amnesty for Italy issued..

1 Jan. 1866 council (Reichsrath), composed of representatives elect- Warm disputes with Prussia (aggressive) respecting the ed by the provincial diets..

.5 March,
settlement of Holstein...

.Jan., March, Discovery of great corruptions in the army financial ar- Preparations for war begin.

March rangements, a deficiency of about 1,700,0001. discov. The archduke Albrecht made commander of the southern ered; general Eynatten commits suicide; 82 persons army, 6 May; Benedek of the northern........12 May, arrested..

March, War declared by Prussia, 18 June; by Italy (which see), Austria protests against the annexation of Tuscany, etc.,

20 June, by Sardinia

March, The Austrians enter Silesia, 18 June; and the Prussians Baron Brück, suspected of complicity in the army frauds,

Bohemia..

23 June, dismissed 20 April; commits suicide...

23 April,

The Ital ans defeated by the archduke Albrecht at ('usThe Reichsrath assembles, 30 May; addressed by the

tozza...

.24 June, emperor.. ..1 June, Prussian victories at Nachod, etc.

...27-9 June, Liberty of the press further restrained. ...July, Benedek totally defeated at Königgrätz or Sadowa, Unsettled state of Hungary (which see). July-Oct.

3 July, Friendly meeting of the emperor and the regent of Prus.

(For details of the war, see Prussia and Ilaly.) sia at Töplitz..

... 26 July, The emperor cedes Venetia to the emperor Napoleon, Free debates in the Reichsrath; strictures on the con

and requests intervention.

.4 July, cordat, the finances, etc.; proposals for separate con- Preliminaries of peace signed at Nikolsburg. .... 26 July,

stitutions for the provinces... ........ Aug. and Sept. Treaty of peace with Prussia signed at Prague... 23 Aug. The Reichsrath adjourned..

29 Sept.

Treaty of peace with Italy signed at Vienna, ceding ve. Diploma conferring on the Reichsrath legislative pow- netia, 3 Oct.; the iron crown given up.. ..11 Oct.

ers, the control of the finances, etc., a manifesto issued The Quadrilateral and Venice surrendered to the Italians, to the populations of the ompire (not well received),

11-19 Oct. 20 Oct. Baron Ferdinand von Beust, late Saxon minister of Meeting of the emperor with the emperor of Russia and foreign affairs, made Austrian foreign minister..30 Oct. prince regent of Prussia at Warsaw; no important re- Meeting of the Reichsrath..

....19 Nov. sult.

20-26 Oct. Commercial treaty with France (to commence 1 Jan. The government prosesses non-intervention in Italy, but 1867) signed.....

....11 Dec. increases the army in Venetia.... ..Oct, and Nov. Great dissension among the nationalities of the empire, The empress goes to Madeira for health. Nov.

Dec. Sale of Venetia, publicly spoken of, is repud ated in Iec. Extraordinary diet convoked (for 25 Feb.). ....... 3 Jan. 1837

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