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20 Dec. 1854 (Russian general-in-chief in Bulgaria, grand-duke Omar Pacha arrives in the Crimea (followed by the Nicholas; in Armenia, grand-duke Michael. Turkish Turkish army from Varna)
.5 Jan. 1855 generals: Abdul-Kerim in Europe; Mukhtar Pacha in Sardinia joins England and France.
Asia Minor. )
Russians defeated at Tchuruk Sou, near Batoum,
26 April, 1877 Russians defeated by the Turks at Eupatoria ....17 Feb. The Russians, under the grand-duke Michael and Loris Death of emperor Nicholas; accession of Alexander II.
Melikoff, advance into Armenia, defeat Turks, and oc(no change of policy). ..2 March, cupy Bayazid (deserted)
. 29, 30 April, Sortie from the Malakhoff tower
.22 March, The Turks stop the passage of the Danube, and blockade Capture of Russian rille-pits.
.3 May, Arrival of Sardinian contingent..
The earl of Derby replies to the Russian circular; he reResignation of gen. Canrobert, succeeded by gen. Pelis
fers to the treaty of 1856 as broken; does not consider sier.....
that the war will benefit the Christians, and asserts Desperate night combats...
that Russia has separated herself from European conExpedition into the sea of Azof (under sir E. Lyons and cert; the British government gives neither concur. sir G. Brown); destruction of Kertch and large amount
rence nor approval to the war..... .....1 May, of stores.. .24 May-3 June, Kalafat occupied by Roumanians..
..3 May, Taganrog bombarded.
.3 June, Russians defeated in attacking Batoum. ..4 May, Massacre of an English boat's crew with flag of truce at The Lufli. Djelil, Turkish monitor, with 300 men, blown Hango....
..5 June, up near Ibraila, or Braila, on the Danube (said to be by Russians evacuate Anapa..
.......11 May, The White Works and Mamelon Vert taken...6, 7 June, Much artillery-firing down the river
May, Unsuccessful attack on the Malakholl' tower and Redan, Sukhum Khaleh, Russian fortress in the Caucasus, capt
14 May, Death of lord Raglan; succeeded by gen. Simpson,
Ardahan, near Kars, Armenia, stormed by Melikoff, 28 June,
17 May, Russians invest Kars in Armenia, defended by gen. Insurrection in the Caucasus supported by the sultan, Williams.... .15 July,
18 May et seq. Bombardment of Sweaborg.
.....9 Aug. Explosion of Turkish monitor Dar-Matoin, by lieuts. T. Defeat of the Russians at the Tchernaya. ... 16 Aug
Daubassoff and Sheshlakoff, with torpedoes ...26 May, Ambuscade on the glacis of the Malakhoff taken; Rus- Neutrality of the Suez Canal assured; correspondence, sian sortie repulsed... 18 Aug.
May-June, The French take the Malakhoff (which see) by assault; Kars invested by Russians
...3 June, the English assault the Redan without success; the The czar arrives at Plojesto (Ployesto) in Roumania, Russians retire from Sebastopol to the North Forts,
6 June, and the allies enter the city; the Russians destroy or Turks defeated at Tahir, or Taghir, Armenia.... 16 June, sink the remainder of their fieet...
.8 Sept. etc. Turks victors at Zewin Dooz, Eshek Khalian, Delibaba, Tanan and Fanagoria captured ..
and other places; Russians retreating.. ..20 June, The Russiads assaulting Kars are defeated with great Turks successful in Montenegro: country reported sub. loss
12-20 Jane, Russian cavalry defeated (50 killed, 105 prisoners) at Russians cross Lower Danube by bridges at Galatz and Koughil. near Eupatoria, by the French ......29 Sept.
Braila; six hours' conflict ensues; Turks retire, 22 Kinbyrn taken....
June; Russians occupy Matchin, 23 June; and Hirsora, Russians blow up Oczakoff 18 Oct.
25, 26 June Large stores of corn destroyed near Gheisk, in the sea The grand-duke Nicholas crosses the Danube at Simof Azof...
nitza, by 208 pontoous, and enters Bulgaria; the Turks Defeat of the Russians, and passage of the Ingour by the retire after severe conflicts; 289 Russians said to be Turks under Omar Pacha..
27 June, The czar visits his army near Sebastopol. .10 Nov.
The czar, in his proclamation to Bulgarians, encourages Sir Wm. Codrington takes the command in room of gen.
Christians and warns Mahometans. ...28 June, Simpson....
.14 Nov. The Simnitza bridge destroyed by a storm or by Turks, Explosion of 100,000 lbs. of powder in the French siege.
about 30 June, train at Inkerman, with great loss of life...... 15 Nov. The British feet arrives at Besika bay.
.3 July, Sweden joins the allies by a treaty
Biela, Bulgaria, taken by Russians.. .. about 5 July, Capitulation of Kars to gen. Mouraviefs, after a gallant Plevna, Bulgaria, occupied by Russiads. .6 July, defence by gen. Williams
26 Nov. Tirnova, ancient capital of Bulgaria, captured by RusDeath of admiral Bruat..
.....6, 7 July, Russian attack on the French posts at Baidar repulsed, Bayazid reoccupied by Turks..
12 July, 8 Dec. Russians compelled to retire from Kars by Mukhtar Proposals of peace from Austria, with the consent of the
.13 July, allies, sent to St. Petersburg.
12 Dec. The invasion of Armenia considered a failure.. ....July, Centre dock at Sebastopol blown up by the English,
Gourko crosses the Balkans and enters Roumelia, 13
2 Jan. 1856 July (this movement censured); several skirmishes Council of war at Paris 11 Jan.
14, 15, 20 July, Protocol signed accepting the Austrian propositions as a Nicopolis (Nikopol) surrenders (after severe conflicts, basis of negotiation for peace..
12-14 July); capture of 2 pachas, 6000 men, 2 moni. Destruction of Sebastopol docks.
.15, 16 July, Report of sir John M'Neill and col. Tulloch on state of The Turkish commander, Abdul Kerim, replaced by Mo. the army before Sebastopol, published .. .....5 Feb.
hemet Ali (Jules Détroit, of French extraction); RusPeace conferences open at Paris; an armistice till 31
....July, March agreed on
25 Feb. Suleiman Pacha brought from Montenegro to the Schipka Suspension of hostilities..
..about 21 July, Treaty of peace concluded at Paris.
Aziz Pacha (able and popular) killed in a rash conflict at Proclamation of peace in the Crimea, 2 April; in London, Esirje, near Rasgrad.
... 26 or 28 July, 29 April, Russians severely defeated; Plevna retaken by Osman The Crimea evacuated
...9 July, * Pasha, 19, 20 July; Russians again defeated, 30, 31 July, Russo-Turkish War, 1877. For the insurrec- Hostilities revived in Montenegro; the Turkish fortress
....July, tions, Servian war, and the negotiations, see Turkey. The Roumanian army joins the Russians. .....9 Aug.
Severe conflicts between Russians and Suleiman Pasha; The czar addresses the army near Kischenoff, saying that
the Turks eventually victors: Eski Saghra and Yeni "he has done everything in his power to avoid war,
Sagra, July; Kezanlik and Kalofer.....30 July et seq. and patience is exhausted;" the Russian embassy
Russians under Gourko expelled from Roumelia; retreat quits Constantinople....
23 April, 1877
....about 11 Aug War declarou; the czar's manifesto says that he is com:
Russians in the Schipka passes relieved by Radetzky, pelled, by the haughty obstinacy of the Porto, to pro
21 Aug ceed to more decisive acts; a justificatory circular to
Russians defeated at Kara Silar, near Osman Bazar, 14 foreign powers sent out by prince Gortschakoff; the
Aug. ; in the valley of the Lom, by Mehemet Ali, Russians enter the Turkish dominions in Roumania
about 22-24 Aug. and Armenia..
. 24 April, Russians defeated by Mukhtar l'acha at Kurukdara, or The sultan's circular protests against the war, and refers Kizil Tepé, between Kars and Alexandropol, 24, 25 Aug. to his reforms and the treaty of Paris ....... 25 April,
Desperate fruitless attempts of Suleiman Pacha to gain
the Schipka Pass held by Gourko and Radetzky; great * The English lost: killed in action and died of wounds, slaughter
20, 27 Aug about 3500; died of cholera, 4244; of other diseases, nearly Severe twelve hours' battle in the valley of the Lom, 16.000; total loss, nearly 24.000 (including 270 officers); 2873 Dear Szedina; Karahassankoi taken and retaken six were disabled. The war added to the national debt 41,041,- times; Russians (under the czarowitch) retire in good 0001. The French lost about 63,500 men; the Russians about order.
..30 Aug half a million. The army suffered greatly by sickness; see Prince Charles with Roumanians crosses the Danube,
about 31 Aug Scutari, Times, and Nightingale.
Further successes of Mehemet Ali on the Lom at Kat. Alleged Russian losses, 80,435 men; Turkish many more, zelero, Ablava, etc..... 4 Sept. 1877 and 80,000 prisoners..
.. Dec. 1877 Loratz or Luficha (important) captured by Prince Ime. Mukhtar Pacha recalled to Constantinople about 29 Dec.
ritinsky and Russians after a sharp conflict...3 Sept. The sultan requests mediation of England; the British Niksicla (left by Turks) captured by Montenegrins,
government only convey to Russia the sultan's desire 7 Sept.
to make peace; Russia declines mediation.26-31 Dec. Sanguinary conflicts at Plevna, greatly strengthened by Servians advancing successfully.... ...end or Dec. Osman Pacha; artillery duel. .
.7-10 Sept. Gourko crosses the Balkans and advances on Sofia; Fierce assault by Russians and Roumanians; they gain Turks defeated in an engagement......about 31 Dec.
the strong Gravitza redoubt (with others, which are Col. Baker gallantly protects the retreating Turkish retaken); the czar present; Russian loss about 20,000,
army. defeating the Russians...
..1 Jan. 1878 11, 12 Sept. Sofia taken by Russians after an engagement.....3 Jan. Fort St. Nicholas in Schipka Pass taken by Suleiman Russians said to be defeated near Erzeroum. about 5 Jan.
Pacha and quickly lost; much bloodshed..... 17 Sept. Servians defeated; Kurschumli reoccupied by Turks,
6, 7 Jan. Tchercovna, fifteen miles from Biela.... .21 Sept. Gen. Radetzky crosses the Balkans; the Trojan pass Siege of Plevna; Chefket Pacha enters with reinforce
taken about 9 Jan. ; the Turkish army (about 32,000) ments after several skirmishes...
and cannon taken by Skobeleff and Radetzky, after Montenegrin successes continued..
conflicts, 8, 9, 10 Jan. (see Senova); Gourko advances Battles of the Yagni; severe conflicts; Russians re
... 11 Jan. pulsed near Ardahan, Asia. .... ..about 27, 30 Sept. Nisch taken by the Servians; Antivari by the Montene. Russian losses, killed, wounded, and missing, 47, 400 re.
.. about 10 Jan, ported..
.....up to 20 Sept. Russians advance successfully; Turkish envoys proceed Mehemet Ali retires to Kara Lom ........ about 25 Sept.
to treat for peace.
..about 16-18 Jan. Gen. Todleben made chief of staff before Plevna. 28 Sept. Gourko advances towards Philippopolis; totally defeats Mehemet Ali replaced by Suleiman Pacha; Raouf Pacha Suleiman Pacha, who retreats to the sea, losing many sent to Schipka...
.2, 3 Oct.
16, 17 Jan. Battles near Kars; army of grand duke Michael attacks Adrianople abandoned; occupied by Russians. 19, 20 Jan.
Turks under Mukhtar Pacha; severely defeated. 2-4 Oct. Suleiman with remains of his army at Karala on the Turkish monitor in the Danube exploded by torpedoes,
Fyean transporting his troops. .about 21 Jan. 8 Oct. Servians occupy nearly all Old Servia.
..29 Jan. Relief and supplies received by Turks at Plevna,
Russian attack on Batoum defeated..
.30 Jan. about 9 Oct. After much delay, an armistice signed at Adrianople, Battle of Aladja Dagh before Kars; Russians, under grand
31 Jan. duke Michael, and generals Loris Melikoff, Lazareff, Russian losses announced-89,879 men... ..Feb. and Heimann, totally defeat Ahmed Mukhtar, taking Continued advance of Russians towards Constantinople; 10,000 prisoners...
14, 15 Oct. great panic; figlit of many Turks; many deaths and Gravitza battery, near Plevna, captured by Roumanians, great sufferings.
.Jan. Feb. is quickly retaken...
..19, 20 Oct. Part of British fleet ordered to Constantinople to protect Suleiman and his army said to be retreating from Kadi.
British life and property, 8 Feb.; enters Dardanelles koi to Rasgrad..
13 Feb. Battle at Gornij Dubnik, near Plevna; Russians under Erzeroum evacuated by Turks..
.17-21 Feb. Gourko said to be victorious; losses about equal (2500), Rustchuk occupied by Russians.
20 Feb. 24 Oct. Treaty of peace signed at San Stefano (see Stefano), 3 Rrissians said to be defeated near Kara Ourgan, Armenia,
March; ratified at St. Petersburg.
.17 March, 24 Oct. The war lasted 322 days. ..
.....12 April, 1877, to 3 March, Battle of Sofia Road, near Plevna; Turkish position at Long negotiation respecting a European congress, Teliche captured ...28 Oct.
March-May, Mukhtar Pacha defe:tted by Heimann and Tergukasoff at Grind duke Nicholas in Roumelia replaced by gen. Deve-Boyun, Armenia, after nine hours' contlict 4 Nov.
Todleben, who assumes command.. .30 April, Russians severely defeated at Azizi, before Erzeroum, by Conference at Berlin, meets 13 June; treaty signed (sec Mukhtar Pacha....
..3 Aug Change in Turkish generals; Suleiman ordered to com- Grand review of about 80,000 Russians near Constanti. mand the army of Roumelia, replaced by Azli Pasha; nople..
.17 Aug. Mehemet Ali organizes army to relieve Plevna,
40,000 Russians sailed for home,
..12 Sept. early in Nov.
Definitive treaty of peace with Turkey signed at Con. Russian attack on Plerna repulsed
.8 Feb. 1879 Turks thrice repulsed near Plevna..
Estimuted cost of the war to Russia, 120,000,0001. Kars taken by storm; the Russians climbed steep rocks;
fierce contlict from 8 P. M. to 8 A.M. ; 300 guns and Rustchuk, Turkish town on the Danube, one of 10,000 prisoners taken; about 5000 Turks killed and
the “quadrilateral” fortresses lost to Turkey with Bulwounded; Russian loss about 2500; the grand - duke Michael present,
17, 18 Nov.
garia by treaty of Berlin, 13 July, 1878. Russians said to be severely repulsed at Orchanie,
Ruthenium, a rare metal, discovered in the ore of Plevna said to be thoroughly invested (30 miles round, platinum by M. Claus in 1845. with 120.000 men)...
.. Nov. Osman Pacha, invited to surrender at Plevna, refuses,
Rutherfurd's Act, LORD (13 and 14 Vict. c. 36),
about 16 Nov. for simplifying law proceedings in Scotland, passed 1850. Rahova on the Danube taken by Roumanians...21 Nov. Entrepol (fortified) near Plevna taken by Russians,
Ruthven, RAID OF, a term applied to the seizure
24 Nov. Indecisive fighting in the valley of the Lom between the
of the person of James VI. of Scotland by William Ruthczırowitch and Mehemet Ali; Russians said to be de
ven, earl of Gowrie, and other nobles, in 1582, to compel feated
.30 Nov. the king to dismiss his favorites, Arran and Lennox. Turks capture Elena with guns and prisoners, after sharp
Ostensibly for this, Gowrie was judicially put to death coullict.
.4 Dec. Skirmishing on the Lom..
by his two opponents in 1584. Osman Pacha endeavors to break out of Plevna, about 7 P. M. 9 Dec.; six hours' fierce contlict; surrounded;
Rutland, STATUTE OF, 10 or 12 Edw. I. 1282 or unconditional surrender; said to be 30,000 prisoners,
1281. 128 officers, 100 guns; great slaughter both sides. 10 Dec. Tho Servians declare war against Turkey, 12 Dec.; cross
Rye-house Plot, a plot (some think pretended) the frontier and capture villages.......15 Dec. et seq. to secure the succession of the duke of Monmouth to the Turkish circular note to the great powers, requesting throne in preference to the duke of York (afterwards
mediation, 12 Dec.; merely acknowledged, action de. clined.
. about 12 Dec.
James II.), a Roman Catholic. Some of the conspiraMontenegrins successful.
tors are said to have projected the assassination of the Suleiman made general of the army of Roumelia; and king, Charles II., and his brother. This design is said Todleben of that of Rustchuk
. about 19 Dec. Suleiman retires on the quadrilateral; visits Constanti.
to have been frustrated by the king's house at Newmarnople; armies concentraling near Adrianople,
ket accidentally taking fire, which hastened the royal about 20 Dec.
party away eight days before the plot was to take efServians said to have taken Ak Palanka after three hours'
fect, 22 March, 1683 ; see Newmarket.
The plot was fight..
.....24 Dec. Erzeroum, Armenia, nearly invested; brave resistance
discovered 12 June following. Lord William Russell on by Mukhtar Pacha
.. about 24 Dec. 21 July, and Algernon Sidney on 7 Dec. following, sufMany Turkish wounded prisoners perish from cold dur- fered death for being concerned in this conspiracy. The ing removal..
Dec. Turkish steamer with 875 men, said to be captured in
name was derived from the conspirators' place of meetBlack Sea .....
....about 25 Dec. ing, the Rye-house at Broxbourne, Hertfordshire.
Ryswick (Holland), where the celebrated peace | Holland, signed, by their representatives, 20 Sept., and was concluded between England, France, Spain, and by the emperor of Germany, 30 Oct. 1697.
Saalfield (Saxony, N. Germany). Here the Prus- | was founded by Ludwig Hacker between 1740 and 1747 sians, under prince Louis of Prussia, were defeated and at Ephrata, Lancaster county, Pa., among the German their leader slain by the French under Lannes, 10 Oct. Seventh-day Baptists there. The school-room was used 1806.
as a hospital after the battle of Brandywine, fought in Saarbrück, the Roman Augusti Muri, or Saræ 1777. This event occasioned the breaking-up of the pons, an open town on the left bank of the Saar, in schools, about five years before the first Sunday-school Rhenish Prussia, founded in the tenth century, long was instituted in England, at Gloucester, by Robert subject to the bishops of Metz; afterwards ruled by Raikes, about 1872; see Sunday-schools. counts (about 1237), and by the house of Nassau about Sabbatical Year: a Jewish institution, 1491 B.C., 1380. It was captured by the French and retaken by Exod. xxiii. During every seventh year the very the Germans 1676, reunited to France 1794–1814, and ground had rest, and was not tilled; and erery fortyceded to Prussia 1815. On 2 Aug. 1870, it was bom- ninth year all debts were forgiven, slaves set at liberty, barded by the French under Frossard (between 11 and and estates, etc., that were before sold or mortgaged, re1 in the daytime), and the Prussians in small force were turned to their original families, etc. dislodged, and the town occupied by the French general
Sabellianism, from Sabellius (of Ptolemais, in Bataille. The mitrailleuses were said to be very effec- Egypt), who flourished in the third century, and who tive. The emperor Napoleon, who was present with his taught that there was but one person in the Godhead, son, said in a telegram to the empress, “ Louis has gone the other persons of the Trinity being but different through his baptism of fire. He has not been in the names of the same person. This doctrine was conleast startled. We stood in the foremost rank, and the demned at a council at Rome, 260. rifle-balls were dropping at our feet, and Louis picked up one that fell near him. His bearing was such as to
Sabines, from whom the Romans, under Romulus, draw tears from the soldiers' eyes.” On 6 Aug. the took away their daughters by force, having invited them Prussian generals Goeben and von Steinmetz, with the to some public sports or shows on purpose. When the
Sabines determined to revenge this affront, the women first army, recaptured Saarbrück, after a sanguinary conflict at the village of Spicheren. The heights taken became mediators to their fathers in behalf of their husby the French on the 21 are in Germany, those taken bands, the Romans, and a lasting peace was made beby the Germans on the 6th are in France, and both bat became a part of the Roman people, about 266 B.C. One
tween them, 750 B.C. After many conflicts the Sabines tles were fought between Saarbrück and the town of Forbach, which was captured, and has given a name to of the ecclesiastical provinces is still called Terra Sabithe second conflict. The loss was great on both sides. na; chief town, Magliano. The French general François was killed, and the 2d Saccharimeter, an instrument for determining the corps under Frossard nearly destroyed. The French re- amount of sugar in solutions. Soleil, an optician of treated to Metz. They were greatly superior in num- Paris, in 1847 made use of rotary polarized light for this bers at the beginning of the fight, but were badly com- purpose in a saccharimeter, since improved by Dubosc. manded.
Sacheverel Riots, see Riots, 17/0. Sabbatarians. Traces exist of Sabbatarii, or Sab- Sackett's Harbor, DEFENCE OF. A British force batbaires, among the sects of the sixteenth century on attacked Sackett's Harbor, Lake Ontario, 29 May, 1813, the continent. Upon the publication of the “ Book of and were repulsed. Sports” in 1618, a violent controversy arose among Eng
Sacrament (from sacramentum, an oath, obligalish divines on two points: first, whether the Sabbath tion; also mystery). The Christian sacraments are of the fourth commandment was in force among Chris- baptism and the Lord's supper. The council of Trent, tians; and, secondly, whether, and on what ground, the in 1317, affirmed the doctrine of the schoolmen that there first day of the week was entitled to be distinguished
are seven sacraments: baptism, the Lord's supper, conand observed as “the Sabbath.” In 1628, Theophilus firmation, penance, holy orders, matrimony, and extreme Brabourne, a clergyman, published the first work in fa- unction. The name was given to the Lord's supper by vor of the seventh day, or Saturday, as the true Chris- the Latin fathers. The wine was laid aside, and comtian Sabbath. He and several others suffered great munion by the laity under one form alone, that of bread, persecution for this opinion; but after the restoration took its rise in the West, under pope Urban II., 1096.— there were three or four congregations observing the M. de Marca. Communion in one kind only was aulast day of the week for public worship in London, and thoritatively sanctioned by the council of Constance in seven or eight in the country parts of England. In 1851 1414.-Dr. Hook. Henry VII. of Germany was poisoned there were three Sabbatarian or Seventh-day Baptist by a priest in the consecrated wafer, 24 Aug. 1313. The congregations in England; but in America (especially sacramental wine was poisoned by the grave-digger of in the New England states) they are more numerous.
the church at Zurich, by which sacrilegious deed a Joseph Davis suffered imprisonment in 1670. He and number of persons lost their lives, 4 Sept. 1776. In 1614 his son bequeathed property to maintain the sect; and members of both houses of parliament were ordered to litigation respecting its disposal was settled by vice- take the sacrament, as a guard against the introduction chancellor Stuart in conformity with their intentions in of Roman Catholics. In 1673 the Test act was passed; June, 1870. Very few Sabbatarians then remained.
repealed in 1828; sce Transubstantiation, Sabbath: ordained by God, Gen. ii.; Exod. xx. 8; "Society of the Blessed Sacrament” (English churchmen), Isa. lviii. 13. Jews observe the seventh day in com- London, founded 1860; "Confraternity of the Blessed Sacramemoration of the creation of the world, and of their
ment,'' founded 1862; the two united, 1867. redemption from the bondage of the Egyptians; Chris- Sacramento, Sr., a Portuguese settlement in South tians observe the first day of the week in commemora- America, claimed by Spain in 1680, but relinquished in tion of the resurrection of Christ from the dead, and the 1713; several times seized; ceded in 1777 ; acquired by redemption of men; see Sunday.
Brazil in 1825.
Sacred Books of the East. The publication Sadowa, see Königgrutz.
Safety-lamp. One was invented in 1815 by sir fessor Max Müller, began in 1879. Eight volumes have Humphry Davy, to prevent accidents which happen in been published, 1881.
coal and other mines. The safety-lamp is founded on Sacred Harmonic Society, see Music. the principle that flame, in passing through iron-wire Sacred Heart of Jesus, a form of devotion said meshes, loses so much of its heat as to be incapable of to have been instituted in England in the seventeenth igniting inflammable gases. The father of all safety. century, and much promoted by Marguerite Marie Ala- lamps was Dr. Reid Clanny, of Sunderland, whose invercoque, an enthusiastic French nun, who asserted that tion and improvements are authenticated in the TransChrist had appeared to her, and taken out her heart, actions of the Society of Arts for 1817. The "Geordy," placed it in his own, glowing in flame, and then returned constructed by George Stephenson, the engineer, in 1815, it. She died in 1690.
is said to be the safest. A miner's electric light, by MM. Her book, " Dévotion au Cour de Jésus," published in Dumas and Benoit, was exhibited in Paris on 8 Sept. 1698, much advocated by father Joseph Gallifet about
1862. On 14 Aug. 1867, safety-lamps were rigidly test1726; and introduced into France by request. ... 1765 A pilgrimage from England, specially blessed by the
ed by several mining engineers, and serious doubts thrown pope, and headed by the duke of Norfolk, went to the upon their complete efficacy. Col. Shakespear's safetyshrine of Marguerite at Paray-le-Monial, and returned lamp (light extinguished by opening) exhibited at Royal
1-6 Sept. 1873 Institution, etc., May, 1879. The R. C. diocese of Salford dedicated to the Sacred
Heart, 4 Sept. 1873; and a church at Montmartre, near Saffron (saffran, French; saffrano, Italian), the
Paris, founded for the same purpose .........16 June, 1875 flower of crocus, was first brought to England in the
reign of Edward III, by a pilgrim, about 1339; proba
15 June, Heart" Sacred Wars. I. Declared by the Amphictyons --Miller. It was cultivated in England in 1582.
bly from Arabia, as the word is from the Arabic sapher. against Cirrha, near Delphi, for robbery and outrage to the visitors to the oracle, 595 B.C. Cirrha was razed to Sage (sauge, French, salvia, Latin), a wholesome the ground, 586. II. Between the Phocians and Delphi- herb, comfortable to the brain and nerves.— Mortimer. ans for the possession of the temple at Delphi, 448, 447. A species of this garden plant grew early in England, III. The Phocians, on being fined for cultivating the and some varieties were imported. The Mexican sage, sacred lands, seized the temple, 357. They were con- Salvia Mexicana, was brought from Mexico, 1724. The quered by Philip of Macedon, and their cities depopu- blue African sage, Salvia Africana, and the golden Afrilated, 346; see Crusades.
can sage, Salvia aurea, were brought to England from Sacrifice was offered to God by Abel, 3875 B.c. the Cape of Good Hope in 1731. Sacrifices to the gods were introduced into Greece by Saguntum, or ZACYNTHUS, now Murviedro, in VaPhoroneus, king of Argos, 1773 B.C. Human sacrifices lentia, E. Spain, renowned for the dreadsul siege it susseem to have originated with the Chaldæans, from whom tained, 219 B.C. The citizens, after performing incredthe custom passed into other Eastern nations. All sac-ible acts of valor for eight months, chose to be buried rifices to the true God were to cease with the sacrifice in the ruins of their city rather than surrender to Hanof Christ, 33 A.D. (Heb. x. 12-14). Pagan sacrifices were nibal. They burned themselves, with their houses, forbidden by the emperor Constantius II., 341.
and the conqueror became master of a pile of ashes, Sacrilege. In 1835, the punishment (formerly 218 B.C. death) was made transportation for life. By 23 & 24 Saigon, French colony in Cochin China, founded in Vict. c. 96, s. 50 (1861), breaking into a place of worship 1860, after a defeat of the Chinese, 17 Feb. 1859. and stealing therefrom was made punishable with penal Sailors' Home, in Wells street, London Docks; servitude for life.
established by Mr. George Green, 1830; opened 1835; Sacriportus (Latium, Italy). Here Sylla defeated enlarged 1865. In one year it admitted 5444 boarders, the younger Marius and Papirus Carbo with great who, besides home, had evening instruction, the use of a slaughter, B.C. 82, and became dictator, 81.
savings-bank, etc. The establishment is self-supportSaddles. In the earlier ages the Romans used nei- ing, aided by subscriptions. Similar institutions have ther saddles nor stirrups. Saddles were in use in the since been established. Sailors' Orphan Girls' School third century, and are mentioned as made of leather in and Home, Hampstead, established 1829. 304, and were known in England about 600. Side-sad- Saint. For names with this prefix, see the names dles for ladies were introduced by Anne, queen of Rich- themselves throughout the book. aru II., in 1388.-Slow.
St. James's Gazette, independent evening paper, Sadducees, a Jewish sect, said to have been found- edited by Fred. Greenwood, formerly editor of Pall Mall ed by Sadoc, a scholar of Antigonus, about 200 B.C., who, Gazette, first appeared 31 May, 1880. misinterpreting his master's doctrine, taught that there
Sakya Muni, see Buddhism.
Salado, a river, S. Spain ; see Tarifa.
Salads are stated to have been in use in the middle oral law, maintained by the Pharisees; see Matt. xxii. ages, lettuces are said to have been introduced into 23; Acts xxiii. 8.
England from the Low Countries, 1520-47.
Salamanca (W. Spain), taken from the Saracens
Persia, which cousisted of 2000 sail.-Near Salamis, in
Cyprus, the Greeks defeated the Persian fleet, 449 B.C.; Salmon Fisheries. The laws relating to them and Demetrius Poliorcetes defeated the fleet of Ptolemy were consolidated and amended in 1861, and the report and his allies, 306 B.C.
of a commission of inquiry (including sir Wm. Jardine) Salassi, a turbulent Alpine tribe, were thoroughly was published, in Feb. 1862. An act restricting the captsubdued by Terentius Varro, 25 B.C., and a Roman col- ure of salmon at certain times, passed in 1863, was ony established in their territories (now Aosta). amended in 1869-70 and 1873. During the “salmon
Saldanha Bay, S. Atlantic ocean, northward of fence,” 14 Sept. to 1 Feb., it is unlawful to catch fish of the Cape of Good Hope. Here, on 17 Aug. 1796, a Dutch the salmon kind. A salmon-fishery congress opened at admiral sir George Keith Elphinstone without resistance; all the New England rivers at the time of the first setsquadron, under admiral Lucas, was captured by vice- South Kensington, 7 June, 1867. Salmon eggs sent to
New Zealand, Jan. 1878. Salmon were very abundant in sir George was created lord Keith. Sale of Food and Drugs Act, passed 11 Aug.
tlement of the country, but the many dams built upon
some of these rivers — notably the Merrimac – have 1875; repeals all adulteration acts, and makes new ar
excluded the fish. The chief supply for American marrangements.
kets comes now from the Kennebec river in Maine, and Salenckemen, on the Danube. Here a victory from Canadian streams. Considerable attention has was gained by the imperialists, under prince Louis of been given to the restocking of American streams with Baden, over the Turks, commanded by the grand-vizier salmon by the United States Fish Commission. In Mustapha Kiuprigli, 19 Aug. 1691.
Nov. 1871, the Russian method of artificial propagation Salerno (Salernum, S. Italy), an ancient Roman col- was tried in the Penobscot region with remarkable sucony. Its university, with a celebrated school of medi- cess. Since that time the work of hatching the eggs cine, reputed to be the oldest in Europe, was founded by and stocking rivers with salmon has been steadily prosRobert Guiscard the Norman, who seized Salerno in 1077. ecuted with good results. Salerno suffered much in the wars of the middle ages. Salmon Ova, packed in boxes with moss, charcoal, and Salford, near Manchester.
ice, to retard development - a plan suggested and
proved practicable by Mr. E.H. Moscrop in 1863; adopt. An incendiary explosion at the barracks caused one ed successfully by Mr. J. A. Youl, who sent ora to Ausdeath; Fenians suspected.....
.14 Jan. 1881 tralia in the Norfolk Salique (or Salic) Law, by which females are
Salmon discase, in rivers, announced 1879; commission
of inquiry appointed, Mr. F Buckland and others, Jan. 1880 excluded from inheriting the crown of France, is said to have been instituted by Pharamond, 424, and ratified in
Salonica, see Thessalonica. a council of state by Clovis I., the real founder of the Salt (chloride of sodium, a compound of the gas French monarchy, in 511.-Hénault. This law, intro- chlorine and the metal sodium) is procured from the duced into Spain by the Bourbons, 1700, was formally rocks in the earth, from salt-springs, and from sea-waabolished by decree, 29 March, 1830; and on the death ter. The famous salt-mines of Wielitzka, near Cracow of Ferdinand VII. his daughter succeeded as Isabella II., in Poland, have been worked 600 years. The salt-works 29 Sept. 1833, see Spain. By this law also Hanover was in Cheshire, called the Wiches (Nantwich, Northwich, separated from England, when queen Victoria ascended and Middlewich), were of great importance in the time the English throne, 1837.
of the Saxon heptarchy. The salt-mines of StaffordSalisbury (Wilts), founded in the beginning of the shire were discovered about 1670. Salt-duties were first thirteenth century, on the removal of the cathedral exacted in 1702; they were renewed in 1732; reduced hither from Old Sarum. National councils or parlia- in 1823, and in that year were ordered to cease in 1825. ments were repeatedly held at Salisbury, particularly in During the French war the duty reached to 301. per ton. 1296, by Edward I.; in 1328, by Edward III.; and in For the salt-tax in France, see Gabelle. The govern1384. Henry Stafford, duke of Buckingham, was exe
ment salt monopoly in India was abolished in May, 1863, cuted here, by order of Richard III., in 1483.-On SALIS. by sir C. Trevelyan. Since 1810, twenty-three states of BURY Plain is Stonehenge (which see). This plain was the United States have produced salt for market. Virestimated at 500,000 acres. On it were so many cross- ginia salt-works were in operation before 1620. Salt roads, and so few houses to take directions from, that was made in South Carolina in 1689, and acts to encourThomas, earl of Pembroke, planted a tree at each mile- age the manufacture were passed in 1725. The Ononstone from Salisbury to Shaftesbury, for the traveller's daga salt-springs, in N. Y., were worked by the Indians. guide. The autumn military maneuvres took place on Salt was first made near Syracuse by white men in 1788. Salisbury Plain, Aug., Sept. 1872; see under Army.-The The state of New York owns the salines, and, until 1846, first seat of the BiSHoPric was at Sherborne, St. Äldhelm charged a royalty of six cents a bushel for salt made being prelate, 705. Herman removed the seat to Old from the water. In that year the royalty was reduced Sarum, about 1072; and the see was removed to Salis- to one cent a bushel. Salt was first made in Ohio in bury by a papal bull in 1217. It has yielded to the 1798; in Michigan about 1859. Since 1797 salt has been Church of Rome one saint and two cardinals. The largely employed in the manufacture of chloride of so. building of the cathedral commenced 28 April, 1220, dium or bleaching powder (by obtaining its chlorine), and was completed in 1258. This editice is reckoned and soap (by obtaining its soda). On this are based the one of our finest ecclesiastical erections. Its spire, the chemical works of Cheshire, Lancashire, and other places; loftiest in the kingdom, was considered in danger in see under Alkalies. April, 1864, and subscriptions were begun for its imme- Salt Lake, see Mormons. diate repair. The choir was reopened, after restoration Saltaire, see Alpaca. by sir G. G. Scott, 1 Nov. 1876. The bishopric is valued Saltpetre (from sal petræ, salt of the rocks), or Niin the king's books at 13671. 118. 8d. Present income rre, is a compound of nitric acid and potash (nitrogen, 50001.
oxygen, and potassium), and hence is called nitrate of 1797. John Fisher; died 2 July, 1825.
potash. It is the explosive ingredient in gunpowder, 1825. Thomas Burgess; died 19 Feb. 1837.
many detonating powders, and lucifer-matches. Boyle 1837. Edmund Denison; died 6 March, 1854.
in the seventeenth century demonstrated that saltpetre 1854. Walter Kerr Hamilton; died 1869. 1869. George Moberly; elected 9 Sept.
was composed of aquafortis (nitric acid) and potash;
the discoveries of Lavoisier (1777) and Davy (1807) Sallee, a port of Morocco, long a haunt for pirates, showed its real composition. Its manufacture in Eng. destroyed by the British in 1632, and about 300 captives land began about 1625. During the French revolutionreleased.
ary war the manufacture was greatly increased by the Sallentini, allies of the Samnites, the only Italian researches of Berthollet. tribe not subject to Rome, were overcome in war in 267 Salute at Sea. It is a received maxim at sea and 266 B.C., and Brundisium, their port, taken. that he who returns the salute always fires fewer guns