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Establishment of autonomy for Hungary announced; Great international exhibition at Vienna; opening, 1 May, 1973

res guation of Belcredi, 4 Feb.; Von Beust made presi- Financial crisis through overtrading in 1872; panic in dent of the council... .7 Feb. 1867

May, Rescript restoring a separate ministry for Hungary, Visits to Vienna: the prince of Wales, 29 April; the czar count Andrassy president.

17 Feb.

of Russia, 1 June; the shal of Persia, 30 July; the Death of archduke Stephen (palatine of Hungary in 1848), king of Italy, 17 Sept. ; the emperor of Germany, Feb.

17 Oct. Commercial treaty with Italy signed... .23 April, Elections for the Reichsrath: 228 constitutionalists; 125 Reichsrath opened at Vienna.

20 May,

federals, 30 Oct.; the Reichsrath opened by the emThe Czecbs (of Bohemia and Moravja), Croats, Slavoni

peror, 5 Nov. ; 25th anniversary of the emperor's acans, Serbs, Roumans (of Transylvanit), and Russinians cession celebrated throughout the empire; amnesty for (of Galicia), protest against absorption, and demand

political offenders..

.2 Dec. national legislative powers . May and July, The emperor at St. Petersburg..

.13 Feb. 1874 Painful death of the archduchess Matilda through burns, Encyclical letter from the pope condemning the new cc

6 June,
clesiastical laws, dated.

.7 March, The emperor and empress crowned kiug and queen of Protest of the Austrian bishops; adoption by both parties Hungary at Buda ..

.8 June,

of Cavour's cry, "A free church in a free state, Von Beust made chancellor of the empire...... 23 June,

April, The sultan visits Vienna

..27 July-1 Aug. The empress at the Isle of Wight..... July-Aug The einperors of Austria and France meet at Salzburg, Ofenheim, railway financier connected with Messrs.

18-23 Aug

Brassey, after long trial for fraud, acquitted at Vienna, Arrangements for dividing the financial affairs of Aus

27 Feb. 1875 tria and Hungary, signed....

..13 Sept.

The emperor warmly received at Venice by the king of Changes (respecting marriage and education) in the con


.5 April, cordat proposed ..

...Sept. Inauguration of the new bed of the Danube by the em28 bishops demand the maintenance of the concordat,


30 May, 28 Sept. The czar meets the emperor at Eger.. .28 June, Letter from the emperor to cardinal Rauscher, declaring Death of the ex-emperor Ferdinand.. ..29 June

for complete liberty of conscience in opposition to the C. de Tisza, president of the Hungarian ministry..20 Oct. concordat; the concordat almost annulled by the lower Deficiency in the budget for 1876 ; revenue about house..

37,800,0001. ; expenditure, 40,300,0001..

Emperor of Austria and king of Prussia meet at Oos, near Death of cardinal Rauscher, prince-bishop of Vienna,
22 Oct.

24 Nov. Emperor arrives at Paris, 23 Oct. ; leaves .5 Nov. The czır and the emperor meet at Reichstadt; agree to Dualism accepted by the Reichsrath at Vienna. .... Nov. neutrality in the Servio-Turkish war.... ...8 July, 1876 New Austriun ministry under prince Auersperg consti. New treaty of commerce with Great Britain, signed tuted .30 Dec.

5 Dec. Civil marriages bill (annulling clerical jurisdiction over Declaration of neutrality in Russo-Turkish war by Aus.

them) passed by the upper house, after sharp resistance, trian and Hungarian ministers; foreign policy to be

21-23 March; received the emperor's assent..25 May, 1868 for “the interest of the monarchy, to the exclusion of German sharp-shooting match held at Vienna... 26 July, ali antipathies and sympathies,” M. de Tisza (HungaVon Beust justifies the maintenance of an army of 800,


. 26 June, 1877 000, 11 Oct. ; is made a count.....

Dec. Resignation of Austrian ministry, 26 Jan. ; withdrawn Continued opposition of the clergy to the government,

5 Feb. 1878 Jan. 1869 Prince Auersperg announces disagreement with the proThe frigite Radetsky blown up, about 310 lives lost,

posed Russ an conditions of peace............19 Feb.

20 Feb. Death of archduke Francis Charles, the emperor's father, The crown-prince of Pruss a visits Vienna .7 Oct.

8 March, The emperor visits the East; at Jerusalem, 10 Nov.; The Sphinx burned at sea, near cape St. Elie, 500 perish, present at the opening of the Sucz canal......17 Nov.

9 March, Successful insurrection aguinst the conscription in Dal. Resignation of ministry; withdrawn. .6, 7 July, mutia. Oct.; ceased ....

.. Nov. Count Andrassy at the Berlin conference. 13 Junc-13 July, The Reichsrath opened by the emperor at Vienna,

Austria to occupy and administer Bosnia and Herzego. 13 Dec. vina, by treaty of Berlin...

.13 July, Ministeriul crisis, Jan. ; the Cis-Leithan ministry resigns; The Austrians enter, and war ensues (sec Bosnia)..29 July, cout l'otocki, prime minister...

.4 April, 1870 Resignation of Auersperg mustry announced to the Neutrality in the Franco-Prussian war announced,


22 Oct. 18 July, Bosnia occupied (except Novi-Bazar). The concordat with Rome declared to be suspended in Baron Depretis fails to form a ministry. .......30 Oct. consequence of the promulgation of the doctrine of New ministry under Dr. Stremayr.

15 Feb. 1879 papal infallibility...

.30 July, Silver wedding of the emperor and empress kept, 24 April, The Reichsrath opened by the emperor; no deputies from Liberal majority at elections...

..11 July, Bohemia

.17 Sept.

Resignation of count Andrassy, the premier; ministry Dissension between the federal and national parties,

formed by count Edw. Taafe, 12 Aug. ; baron von Hay. 29 Sept., Oct. merle foreign minister..

.22 Aug. The Reichsrath adjourned..

.22 Nov. Bismarck's visit to Vienna; warmly received, 21-24 Sept. The ministry support Great Britain in opposing the Rus. Reichsrath opened; the Czech deputies attend....8 Oct.

sian repudiation of the treaty of Paris (see Russia). Nov. Andrassy formally resigns; succeeded by baron Hay. Austrian army, 864,809 regulars; 187,527 landwehr (mili. merle as foreign minister and president of the council, tia)..

8 Oct.
The new German empire recognized by the emperor.Jan. 1871 Opening of all the diets of the empire... .8 June, 1880
Dismissal of Potocki; count Hohenwart minister.. Feb. Marriage of the archduke Rodolph and the princess Ste-
Meeting of the Reichsrath..

20 Feb).
phanic of Belgium....

.10 May, 1881 Death of admiral Tegethoff, much lamented.....7 April,

Sec Germany, Hungary, Vienna, etc
First meeting of "Old Catholics'' at Vienna.... 26 July,
An international exhibition at Vienna in 1873, proposed


Sept. Meeting of emperor with emperor William. ....6-8 Sept. Leopold I., 928; Albert I., 1018; Ernest, 1056; Leopold II., Meeting of 17 provincial diets; struggle between the 1075; Leopold II., 1096; Albert II., 1136; Leopold IV., 1136; (Slavonian) conservatives and the (German) constitu

Henry II., 1112 (mado a duko, 1156). tionalists renewed... Political crisis: dissension between German and Slavo.

DUKES. nian parties, Oct. ; resignation of the Hohenwart min- 1150. Henry II. istry.

25 Oct. 1177. Leopold V. He made prisoner Richard I. of England A ministry formed under baron Kellersperg. ....4 Nov.

when returning incognito from the crusade, and was Resignation of count Beust, the arch-chancellor; much

compelled to surrender him to the emperor Henry VI. excitement.....

6 Nov. 1194. Frederic I., the Catholic. Count Andrassy appointed minister of the imperial 1198. Leopold VI., the Glorious. Killed in battle.

household and of foreign affairs; Von Beust to be am- 1230. Frederic II., the Warlike. Killed in a battle with the bassador at London; Lonyay, premier of Hungarian

Hungarians, 15 June, 1246. ministry.

13-14 Nov.

Interregnum. New Austrian ministry formed by prince Auersperg, 1276. Rodolph I. about...

... 25 Nov. 1282. Albert I. and his brother, Rodolph II. Albert becomes The Reichsrath opened by the emperor with speech an.

emperor of Germany, 1298. nouncing political and educational reforms.....28 Dec. 1303. Frederic I. and Leopold I. New constitutional law promulgated, giving the emperor 1326. Frederic I.

power to order new elections ofthe chambers, 13 March, 1872 | 1330. Albert II. and Otho, his brother. Meeting of the emperor with the emperor of Germany 1339. Albert II.

and other sovereigns at Berlin.... ..6–12 Sept. 1358. Rodolph IV. Reform b ll passed changing the Reichsrath into a na- 135. Albert III and Leopold II. or. III. (killed at Sempach).

timaal representative assembly... .10 March, 1873 | 1395. William I. and brothers, and their cousin Albert IV.

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1411. The same. The provinces divided into the duchies of

Avein, or AVAINE (Luxemburg, Belgium). Here Austria and Carinthia, and the county of Tyrol. 1411. Albert V., duke of Austria; obtains Bohemia and Mora the French and Dutch defeated the Spaniards, 20 May, via; clected king of Hungary and emperor, 1437; dies,

1635. 1439; succeeded by h s posthumous son.

“Ave Maria !" the salutation of the angel Gabriel 1439. Ladislaus, who dies childless, 1457. 1457. The emperor Frederic Ill. and Albert VI.

to the Virgin (Luke i. 28), was made a formula of devo1493. Maximilian I., son of Frederic III. (archduke), emperor; tion by pope John XXI. about 1326. In the beginning see Germany.

of the tifteenth century Vincentius Ferrerius used it be

fore his discourses.- Binghum. 1804. Francis I. (late Francis II. of Germany), styled emperor

Avignon, a city (S. E. France) ceded by Philip III. of Austria only, 11 Aug. 1801; resigned empire of Germany, 6 Aug. 1806; died 2 March, 1835.

to the pope in 1273. The papal seat was removed by 1835. Ferdinand, his son, 2 March; abdicated in favor of his Clement V. to Avignon in 1309. In 1348 Clement vi.

nephew (his brother Francis Charles having re purchased the sovereignty from Jane, countess of Pror

nounced his rights), 2 Dec. 1848; died 29 June, 1875. 1848. Francis Joseph (son of Francis Charles), born 18 Aug.ence and queen of Naples. In 1408, the French, wearied

1830; succeeded, 2 Dec. 1848; married 24 April, 1854, of the schism, expelled Benedict XIII., and Avignon to Elizabeth of Bavaria; crowned king of Hungary, 8 ceased to be the seat of the papacy. Here were held

June, 1867. (Heir: their son, the archduke Rodolph, born 21 Aug. 1858; nine councils (1080–1457). Avignon was seized and re

married to princess Stephanie Clotilde of Belgium, 10 stored several times by the French kings; the last time May, 1881.]

restored, 1773. It was claimed by the national assembly, Authors. For the law securing copyright, see Copy- sovereigns in 1815. In Oct. 1791, horrible massacres

1791, and was confirmed to France by the congress of rights.

took place here; see Popes, 1309-94. Auto da Fé (Act of Faith), the terın given to the punishment of a heretic, generally burning alive, inflict

Axe, Wedge, Lever, and various tools in comed by the Inquisition (which see).

mon use, are said to have been invented by Dædalus, an

artiticer of Athens; to whom also is ascribed the invenAutomaton Figures (or ANDROIDES), made to tion of masts and sails for ships, 1240 B.C. Many tools imitate living actions, are of early invention. Archy- are represented on the Egyptian monuments. tas's flying dove was formed about 400 B.C. Friar Bacon is said to have made a brazen head which spoke,

Axum, or AUXUME, a town in Abyssinia said to have A.D. 1264. Albertus Magnus Qent thirty years in mak- been the capital of a kingdom whose people were coning another. A coach and two horses, with a footman, a verted to Christianity by Frumentius about 330, and page, a lady inside, were made by Camus for Louis XIV. were allies of Justinian, 533. when a child, 1649; the horses and figures moved natu- Ayacucho (Peru). Here the Peruvians finally rally, variously, and perfectly. Vaucanson, in 1738, made achieved their independence by defeating the Spaniards, an artiticial duck, which performed many functions of a 9 Dec. 1824. real one-eating, drinking, and quacking; and he also

Ayde, or Aide, the tax paid by the vassal to the made a flute-player. The writing automaton, exhibited chief lord upon urgent occasions. In France and Engin 1769, was a pentagraph worked by a confederate out land an uide was due for knighting the king's eldest son. of sight. The automaton chess-plaver, exhibited the One was demanded by Philip the Fair, 1313. The aide same year, was also worked by a hidden person; so was due upon the birth of a prince, ordained by the statute the "invisible girl," 1800. Maelzel made a trumpeter of Westminster (Edward I.), 1285, was not to be levied about 1809. Early in this century an automaton was until he was fifteen years of age, for the ease of the subexhibited in London which pronounced several sentences ject. The aide for the marriage of the king's eldest with tolerable distinctness. The “anthropoglossus," an daughter could not be demanded in this country until alleged talking-machine, exhibited at St. James's Hall, her seventh year. In feudal tenures there was an aide London, July, 1861, was proved to be a gross imposition. for ransoming the chief lord; so when our Richard I. The exhibition of the talking-machine of professor Fa

was kept a prisoner by the emperor of Germany, an aide ber, of Vienna, in London, began 27 Aug. 1870, at the of 20s, to redeem him was enforced upon every knight's Palais Royal, Argyll street, W. The automatic chess- fec; see Benevolence. player at the Crystal Palace, 1873. Psycho, an automaton card-player, invented by J. N. Maskelyne and John

Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire, was reduced by the

West Saxons in 571. Algernon Clarke, exhibited in London, Jan. 1875. An

St. O'Syth, beheaded by the automaton hare was hunted at Hendon, near London, 9 pagans in Essex, was buried there, 600. William the Sept. 1876.

Conqueror invested his favorites with some of its lands,

under the tenure of providing straw for his bedchamAutotypography, a process of producing a metal bers; three eels for his use in winter; and in summer, plate from drawings, made known by Mr. Wallis in straw, rushes, and two green geese thrice every year." April, 1863 ; it resembled Nature-printing (which see).

Incorporated by charter in 1554. Auxerre Declaration, see France, May, 1866, Aylesford (Kent). Here, it is said, the Britons Ava in 1822 became the capital of the Burmese em

were victorious over the Saxon invaders, 455, and Horsa pire, it is said, for the third time. A British embassy was killed. was received here in Sept. 1855.

Ayr, capital of Ayrshire (S.W. Scotland); chartered Avars, barbarians who ravaged Pannonia, and an- and endowed by William the Lion, twelfth century; for. noyed the Eastern empire in the sixth and seventh cen- titied by Oliver Cromwell.— By a sudden fire at Templeturies; subdued by Charlemagne about 799, after an ton's carpet-works, 29 persons perished, 16 June, 1876. eight years' war.

Azincour, see A gincourt. Avebury, or ABURY (Wiltshire). llere are the re- Azof, SEA OF, the Palus Mæotis of the ancients, mains of the largest so-called Druidical work in this communicates by the strait of Yenikalé (the Bosporus country. They have been surveyed by Aubrey, 1648; Cimmerius) with the Black Sea, and is entirely surDr. Stukeley, 1720; and sir R. C. Hoare in 1812, and by rounded by Russian territory, Taganrog and Kertch beothers. Much information may be obtained from Stuke- ing the principal places. An expedition, composed of ley's “ Abury” (1743), and Hoare’s “ Ancient Wiltshire" British, French, avıl Turkish troops, commanded by sir (1812-21). Many theories have been put forth, but the G. Brown, arrived at Kertch, 24 May, 1855, when the object of these remains is still unknown. They are con- Russians retired, after blowing up the fortifications. On sidered to have been set up during the “stone age,” i.e. the 25th the allies marched upon Yenikale, which also when weapons and implements were mainly formed of offered no resistance. On the same evening the allied that material.

fleet entered the Sea of Azof, and in a few days completed their occupation of it, after capturing a largement was established at the capital Angra, 1830-3. A number of merchant vessels, etc. An immense amount volcano at St. George's destroyed the town of Ursulina, of stores was destroyed by the Russians to prevent them May, 1808; and in 1811 a volcano appeared near St. falling into the hands of the allies.

Michael's, in the sea, where the water was eighty fath

oms deep; an island then formed gradually disappeared. Azores, or WESTERN ISLES (N. Atlantic), belonging A destructive earthquake, lasting 12 days, happened in to Portugal, the supposed site of the ancient Atlantis, St. Michael's, 1591. are said to have been discovered in the 15th century by

Azote, the name given by French chemists to niVanderberg of Bruges, who was driven on their coasts by the weather. Cabral, sent by the Portuguese court,

trogen (which see). fell in with St. Mary's in 1432, and in 1457 they were

Azotus, see Ashdod, all discovered and named Azores from the number of Aztecs, the ruling tribe in Mexico at the time of goshawks found on them. They were given by Alfonso the Spanish invasion (1519). In June, 1853, two preV. to the duchess of Burgundy in 1466, and colonized tended Aztec children were exhibited in London. They by Flemings. They were subject to Spain 1580-1640. were considered by professor Owen to be merely South The isle of Terceira, during the usurpation of dom American dwarss. They were married in London, 1 Miguel, declared for donna Maria, 1829, and a govern- | April, 1867, and exhibited for some time after.

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561 559 539


518 323

Baal (Lord), the male deity of the Phænician na- | Lenglet.t Ninus of Assyria seized on Babylon, and estions, frequently worshipped by the Israelites, especially tablished what was properly the Assyrian empire, by by Ahab, 918 B.C. His priests and votaries were mas- uniting the two sovereignties, 2059 B.C.; 2233 Cl. The sacred by Jehu, and his temple defiled, 884 B.C.

second empire of Babylon commenced about 747 B.C. Baalbec, Heliopolis (both meaning “City of the Earliest astronomical observations at Babylon, Sun"), an ancient city of Syria, of which magnificent Nabonassar gorerns....

2234 B.C. (2230, H.; 2233, Cl.) ruins remain, visited by Wood (in 1751), and others. Merodach Baladan king, 721; his embassy to Hezekiah Its origin is lost in antiqnity. Here Septimius Severus

of Judah about..

712 built a temple to the sun, 200. The city was sacked by Nebuchadnezzar invades Syria, 606; Judea, 605; defents

Pharaoh Necho, and annihilates the Egyptian power the Moslems, 748, and by Timour Beg, 1400.

in Asia.

Ho returns to Babylon with the spoils of Jerusalem.
Baba Wali. See Afghanistan, 1 Sept. 1880; and Blair; Lenglet..

Daniel interprets the king's dream of the golden-headed
image. Dan. ii...

002 Babbage, see Calculating Machines.

Nebuchadnezzar goes a third time against Jerusalem.

takes it and destroys the temple.-BlairUsher, 589 Babel, Tower of, built by Noah's posterity, 2247 10 587; captures Tyre... BC. (Genesis xi.). The magnificent temple of Belus, The golden image set up, and Shadrach, Meshach, and asserted to have been originally this tower, is said to

Abednego thrown into the furnace for refusing to

worship it. Dan. iii.. have had lofty spires, and many statues of gold, one of Daniel interprets the king's second dream, and Nebuthem forty feet high. In the upper part of this temple chadnezzar is driven from among men. Dan. iv... 509 was the tomb of the founder, Belus (the Nimrod of the The king recovers his reason and his throno, 562; dics.. sacred scriptures), who was deified after death.-Bluir. Labynetus, 556; Nabonadius, 551; Belshazzar king.

Evil Merodach, 561; Neriglissar, king. The Birs Nimroud, examined by Rich, Layard, and oth- Babylon taken by the Medes and Persians, under (yrus, ers, is considered by some persons to be the remains of and Belshazzar slain..

Daniel thrown into the ons' den. Dan. vi... the tower of Babel.

Babylon revolts, and is taken by Darius.. Babeuf's Conspiracy, see Agrarian Law.

Taken by Alexander, 331; he dies here...

Seleucus Nicator, who died 280 B.C., transfers the seat of Baby-Farming, see Infanticide.

government to Seleucia, and Babylon is deserted. Babylonia,* an Asiatic empire (see Assyria), found

Babyngton's Conspiracy, to assassinate qneen ed by Belus, supposed to be the Ninrod of the Holy vised by John Savage. a soldier of Philip of Spain, and

Elizabeth, and make Mary of Scotland queen, was deWrit, the son of Chus, and grandson of Ham, 2245 B.C.

approved by Wm. Gifford and John Ballard, catholic

priests. Anthony Babyngton and others joined in the * The city of Babylon was at one time the most magnifi. scheme. They were betrayed by Pooley Aspy, and cent in the world. The Hanging Gardens are described as baving been of a square form, and in terraces one above an- fourteen were executed, 20, 21 Sept. 1586. other until they rose as high as the walls of the city, the as.

Babysm, a new sect in Persia, founded in 1843 cent being from terrace to terrace by steps. The whole pile was sustained by rast arches raised on other arches; and on by Mirza Ali Mahomed, an enthusiast, at Shiraz. He the top were flat stones closely cemented together with plas. termed himself the “ Bàb," or "gate," of knowledge, and, ter of hitumen, and that covered with sheets of lead, upon giving a new exposition of the Koran, claimed to be the which lay the mould of the garden, where there were large incarnate lIoly Spirit. The destruction of himself and trees, shrubs, and flowers, with various sorts of vegetables. There were five of these gardens, each containing about four the greater number of his followers was due to Hossein, English acres, and disposed in the form of an amphitheatre. one of his disciples, combining political and warlike -Strabo ; Diodorus. Pliny said that in his time it was but principles with their spiritual dogmas. The sect was a desolute wilderness. Mr. Rich visited the ruins in 1811, and sir R. Ker Porter in 1818. The laborious researches of Mr. tolerated by the shah Mahomet, but nearly extermiLayard, sir H. Rawlinson, M. Botta, and others, and the in nated by his successor in 1848–9. The Bab himself was teresting relics excavated and brought to this country between executed 15 July, 1849. The present head of the sect, the years 1819 and 1855, have caused very much attention to be given to the history of Babylon. Many of the inscriptions still numerous, Beheyah Allah, imprisoned in a Turkish in the cuneiform or wedge like character have been translated, fortress, is said to be well conversant with the Bible, principally by col. (now sir Henry) Rawlinson, and published and to propound a doctrine based on it, termed “ Bâb el in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. 1855 be returned to England, bringing with him many valu. Huk," gate of truth. able relics, drawings, etc., which are now in the British Museum He gave discourses on the subject at the Royal † According to the earliest existing bistory the country was Institntion. London, in 1851, 1855, and 1865. The Rev. A. divided between two races, the Sumir (Turanian), the probable Sayce lectured on Babylonian literature at the same place in inventors of cuneiform writing ; and the Accad (Semitic), 1877.

which became predominant.


.29 Oct 1869


Bacchanalia (games in honor of Bacchus) arose Charles William, margrave of Baden-Dourlach, born 1679, in Egypt, and were brought into Greece by Melampos, Charles Frederic, born 1728; margrave of Baden-Dour.

dical 1746; succeeded by his son. and called Dionysia, about 1415 B.C. - Diodorus. In

lach, 1738; acquired Baden-Baden, 1771; made grandRome the Bacchanalia were suppressed, 186 B.C. The duke by Napoleon, 1806. priests of Bacchus were called Bacchanals.

Treaty of Baden : Landau ceded to France....... 7 Sept. 1714

Badeu made a grand-duchy, with enlarged territories... 1803 Baccon or Bacon, see Orleans.

A representative constitution granted by charter.18 Aug. 1818
Republican agitation.

..during 1818 Bach Society, instituted in London in 1819, for Insurrection; joined by the free city Rastatt; the grandthe collection of the works of J. S. Bach, and the promo

duke flees..

..May, 1849 tion of their public performance. The original com

The Prussians enter Baden, 15 June; defeat the insur.

gents commanded by Mierolawski; Rastatt surrenders, mittee included W. Sterndale Bennett, sir G. Smart, J.

23 July; the grand duke re-enters Carlsruhe..18 Aug. Hullah, C. Potter, and other eminent musicians. The Arrests for political offences..,

..9 Juiy, 1857 society was dissolved 21 March, 1870, and the music Concordat with the pope signed..

...28 June, 1839

Greatly opposed by the chambers; annulled by the grandgiven up to the Royal Academy of Music.

duke by a manifesto, securing autonomy to the CathBachelors. The Roman censors frequently imposed olic and Protestant churches; signed.........7 April, 1860 fines on unmarried men, and men of full age were obliged Interview at Baden Baden of the emperor Napoleon III.

the prince-regent of Prussia, and the German kings to marry. The Spartan women at certain games laid

and princes...

16 June, hold of old bachelors, dragged them round their altars, The new ecclesiastical law (adopted by the chambers) and intlicted on them various marks of infamy and dis- opposition of the archbishop of Friburg and the clerical


16 Oct. grace.- Vossius. A tax laid upon bachelors in England,


.......1860-65 twenty-five years of age (varying from 121. 10s. for a Disputes in the Gerinan diet; the grand-duke rainly enduke to 18. for a common person), lasted from 1695 to

deavors to obtain a reconciliation; and remains neu

tral... 1706. Bachelors (Romanist priests excepted) were sub- Baden joins the Zollverein (which spp)...

... June, 1866

July, 1867 jected to an extra tax on their male and female servants Meeting of the chambers; liberal measures promised, 24 in 1785. A grand ball given by 84 bachelors at Ken- Sept. ; universal suffrage adopted by the second chamsington House, the prince and princess of Wales present, Civil marriage made obligatory.

.17 Xov. 22 July, 1880.

Baden joins Prussia in the war with France, Backgammon. Palamedes of Greece is the re

about 20 July, 1870 puted inventor of this game, about 1224 B.C.

It is said Gambling houses suppressed; finally closed......31 oci. 1872 to have been invented in Wales before its conquest.- 1906. Charles Frederic; dies 1811; succeeded by his Henry.

grandson, Baconian Philosophy, propounded by Francis 1811. Charles Louis Frederic, who died without issue in Bacon specially in lois “ Novum Organon,” published in 1818. Louis William, died without issue in 1830; suc

1818; succeeded by his uncle, 1620. Its principles are utility and progress, and its ob

ceeded by bis brother, jects the alleviation of the sufferings and promotion of 1830. Leopold, died in 1852; succeeded by his second son the comforts of mankind.-- Jucaulay, 1837.

(the first being imbecile),

1852. Frederic (born 9 Sept. 1826), regent 24 April, 1852; Bacon's Rebellion. A movement made by a

declared grand duke, 5 Sept. 1856. Virginian, Nathaniel Bacon, and a strong party, against Heir: his son Frederic William, born 9 July, 1857. Berkeley, the tyrannical royalist gorernor, in 1676. Ba- Badge of Military Merit, established Aug. 1781, con was successful for a time, drore Berkeley out of by Washington. It was conferred upon non-commissionJamestown, burned it (Sept. 9), but died of a fever in ed officers and soldiers for three years' good conduct, or Oct. The rebellion came to nothing, being put down for specially meritorious service, and entitled the person during the beginning of 1077, and several persons were receiving it “to pass and repass all guards and military hanged, tined, etc., for being concerned in it. It is wor- posts as fully and amply as any commissioned officer thy of note that this first serious revolt against the abuse whatever.” of British authority in America occurred precisely 100 Baffin's Bay (N. America), discovered by William years before the Declaration of Independence was signed. Baftin, an Englishman, 1616. The extent of this dis

Bactriana, a province in Asia, was subjugated by covery was much doubted, until the expeditions of Ross Cyrus and formed part of the Persian empire, when con- and Parry proved that Baffin was substantially accurate quered by Alexander, 330 B.C. About 251 B.C., The- in his statement. Parry entered Lancaster Sound, and odotus or Diodotus, a Greek, threw off the yoke of the discovered the islarids known by his name, 1818; see Seleucidæ, and became king. Eucratides I. reigned Northwest Passuge. prosperously about 181 B.C., and Menander about 126

Bagdad, in Asiatic Turkey, built by Al Mansonr, B.C. The Greek kingilom appears to have been broken and made the seat of the Saracen empire, about 762. up by the irruption of the Scythians shortly after. Taken by the Tartars, and a period put to the Saracen

Badajoz (S.W. Spain), an important barrier fort- rule, 1258. Often taken by the Persians, and retaken by ress, surrendered to the French, under Soult, 11 March, the Turks, with great slaughter: the latter have held it 1811; invested by the British, under lord Wellington, on since 1638. 16 March, 1812, and stormed and taken on 6 April fol- Bagpipe, an ancient Greek and Roman instrument, lowing. The French retreated in haste.

On a piece of ancient Grecian sculpture, now in Rome, a Baddesdown Hill, or Mount Badon, near Bath, bagpiper is represented diressed like a modern Highlandwhere Bede says the Britons defeated the Saxons in 493; er. Nero is said to have played upon a bagpipe, 51. others say in 511 or 520.

Our Highland regiments retain their pipers. Baden (S.W. Germany). The house of Baden is Bahama Isles (N. America) were the first points descended from Hermann, regarded as the first margrave of discovery by Columbus. San Salvador was seen by (1052), son of Berthold I., duke of Zähringen; but Her- him on the night of 11 Oct. 1492. New Providence was mann II. assumed the title, Feb. 1130. From Christo- settled by the English in 1629. They were expelled by pher, who died 1527, proceeded the branches Baden- the Spaniards, 16+1; returned, 1666; again expelled in Baden and Baden-Dourlach, united in 1771. Baden is a 1703. In 1776, commodore Hopkins, of the U.S. Nary, hereditary constitutional monarchy by charter, 26 May, stripped New Providence of its artillery and stores, and 1818; it joined the German empire by treaty, 15 Nov. took the governor and other persons as prisoners. The 1870. Population, 1 Dec. 1871, 1,461,562; Dec. 1875, isles were formally ceded to the English in 1783. Popu1,507,179.

lation in 1861, 55,287; in 1867, about 38,000; in 1871,

39,162. The Bahamas profited by blockade-running Louis William, margrare of Baden-Baden, a great gen.

during the American Civil War, 1862-5. Governors : eral, born 1665; sallied out from Vienna and defeated the Turks, 1683

died 1707 William Rawson, 1861; sir James Walker, 1868; John


Pope Hennessy, 1871; William Robinson, 1874; Thomas Balance of Power to assure the independency F. Callaghan, 1879.

and integrity of states and control the ambition of soyBahar (N. India), a province (conquered by Baber ereigns, a principle said to have been first laid down by in 1530), with Bengal and Orissa, à princely dominion, the Italian politicians of the fifteenth century on the inbecame subject to the English East India Company invasion of Charles VIII. of France, 1494.- Robertson. It 1765 by the treaty of Allahabad for a quit-rent of about was recognized by the treaty of Münster, 24 Oct. 1648. 300,0001.

The arrangements for the balance of power in Europe Bail. By ancient common-law, before and since the made in 1815, without the consent of the people of the conquest, all felonies were bailable, till murder was ex- countries concerned, have been nearly all set aside since

1830. cepted by statute; and by the 3 Edw. I. (1275), the power of bailing in treason, and in divers instances of Balāwat, see Nineveh. felony, was taken away. Bail was further regulated in Baldachin, or BALDACHINO, more properly cibolater reigns. It is now accepted in all cases, except fel- rium (which see), a canopy placed over the altar in some ony; and where a magistrate refuses bail, it may be ancient churches; the practice, beginning about 1130, granted by a judge. Acts respecting bail passed 1826. was introduced into England, 1279. The proposal to and 1852. Excessive bail is forbidden by the constitu- erect one in St. Barnabas Church, Pimlico, was opposed tion of the United States, and also by the organic laws in the consistory court, Aug. 1873. The trial took place of most of the states.

23, 24 Oct. Dr. Tristram decided against the erection Bailiff

, or SHERIFF, said to be of Saxon origin. of the baldachin, 15 Dec. 1873. London had its shire-reve prior to the conquest, and this Balearic Islands, in the Mediterranean, called by officer was generally appointed for counties in England the Greeks Balearides and by the Romans Baleares, from in 1079. Henry Cornehill and Richard Reynere were the dexterity of the inhabitants at slinging: they include appointed bailiffs or sheriffs in London in 1189.Stou. Majorca, Minorca, Ivica, Formentera, Cabrera, Conejera, Sheriff's were appointed in Dublin under the name of and other islets. They were conquered by the Romans, bailiffs in 1308, and the name was changed to sheriff in 123 B.C.; by the Vandals, about A.D. 426; and formed 1548. There are still places where the chief magistrate part of Charlemagne's empire in 799. Conquered by the is called bailiff, as the high-bailiff of Westminster. Bum- Moors about 1005, and held by them till about 1286, when bailiff is a corruption of bound-bailiff, every bailiff being they were annexed by Aragon; see Majorca and Miobliged to enter into bonds of security for his good behavior.- Blackstone.

Balham Mystery, see Braro. Bairam, or BEIRAM, Mahometan festivals. In 1865 the Little Bairam, following the fast of Ramadan (which

Balize, see Hondurus. see), fell on 28 Feb., 1 and 2 March; in 1868, on 26, 27, Balkans, the ancient Hæmus, a range of mountains 28 Jan.; the Great Bairam in 1865, began on 10 May; extending from the Adriatic to the Euxine. The pasin 1868, on 10 April.

sage, deemed impracticable, was completed by the RusBaize, a species of coarse woollen manufacture, was

sians under Diebitsch, during the Russian and Turkish brought into England by some Flemish or Dutch emi- war, 26 July, 1829. An armistice was the consequence; grants who settled at Colchester, in Essex, and had priv- and a treaty of peace was signed at Adrianople, 14 Sept. ileges granted them by parliament in 1660. The trade following. The Balkans were crossed by the Russians, was under the control of a corporation called the govern- II. By the treaty of Berlin, 13 July, 1878, the Balkans

under Gourko, 13 July, 1877; see Russo-Turkish War ors of the Dutch baize-hall, who examined the cloth pre- became the frontiers of the sultan's European dominions. vious to sale.- Anderson, Baker AND BAKEHOUSES, see Bread.

Ballads may be traced in the British history to the Bakerian Lectures, Royal Society, originated in mentioned as the first who introduced ballads into Eng

Anglo-Saxons. Turner. Adhelme, who died 709, is a bequest of 1001. by Henry Baker, F.R.S., the interest

land. of which was to be given to one of the fellows for a who could." -Bede. Alfred sung ballads.--- Malmesbury.

“ The harp was sent round, and those might sing scientific discourse to be delivered annually, Peter Canute composed one.— Turner. Minstrels were protectWoulle gave the first lecture in 1765. Latterly it has ed by a charter of Edward IV.; but by a statute of Elizbeen the custom to nominate as the lecture a paper writ. abeth they were made punishable among rogues and ten by one of the fellows. Davy, Faraday, Tyndall, and

vagabonds and sturdy beggars.- Viner. “Give me the other eminent men have given the lecture.

writing of the ballads, and you may make the laws."Balaklava, a small town in the Crimea, with a fine Fletcher of Saltoun. The sea-ballads of Dibdin were harbor, 10 miles S.E. from Sebastopol. After the battle very popular in the French war; he died 20 Jan. 1833. of the Alma, the allies advanced upon this place, 26 Sept. Mr. John Boosey's “ Ballad Concerts," St. James's Hall, 1854.

began 1866. Battle of Balaklava: About 12,000 Russians, commanded Ballarat, see Australia, 1851.

by gen. Liprandi, attacked and took some redoubts in the vicinity, which had been intrusted to about 250

Ballets began through the meretricious taste of the Turks. They next assaulted the English, by whom

Italian courts. One performed at the interview between they were compelled to retire, mainly through the our Henry VIII. and Francis I. of France in the field of charge of the heavy cavalry, led by brigadier Scarlett, under the orders of lord Lucan. After this, from an

the Cloth of Gold, at Ardres, 1520.-Guicciardini. Balunfortunato misconception of lord Raglan's order, lord

lets became popular in France, and Louis XIV. bore a Lucan ordered lord Cardigan, with the light cavalry, to part in one, 1664. They were introduced here with charge the Russian army, which had reformed on its

operas carly in the eighteenth century. own ground with its artillery in front. The order was most gallantly obeyed, and great havoc was made on Ballinamuck (Longford). Here, on 8 Sept. 1798, the enemy: but, of 670 British horsemen, only 198 re. turned. (Termed by Tennyson - The Charge of the

the Irish rebels and their French ausiliaries were deSix Hundred."'). The infantry engaged were termed a

feated and captured. "thin red line

25 Oct. 1854

Balloons.* A just idea of the principle of the conA banquet was given to the survivors at the Alexandra Palace.

.25 Oct. 1875 struction of balloons was formed by Albert of Saxony, A sortie from the garrison of Sebastopol led to a desper- an Augustine monk in the 14th century, and adopted ate engagement here, in which the Russians were v g

by a Portuguese Jesuit, Francesco Mendoza, who died at orously repulsed, with the loss of 2000 men killed and

wounded; the allies losing about 600... .22 March, 1855 Lyons in 1626. The idea is also attributed to BartoloThe electric telegraph between London and Balaklava completed..

.. April,

* " Astra Castra; Experiments and Adventures in the At. A railway between Balaklava and the trenches com: mosphere; by Hation Turnor,” a copious work, appeared in pleted.....

...June, 1865.


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