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Silesia, formerly a province of Poland, was invaded | ernment encouragement was given to the industry in by John of Bohemia, 1325, and ceded to him, 1355. It Georgia. Artisans were sent to Georgia to carry on silk was taken by the king of Hungary, 1478, and added to industries in 1732. The first export of raw silk (eight the Austrian dominion, 1526. It was conquered and lost pounds) was made in 1734. In 1749 the production at several times during the Seven Years' war by Frederick Ebenezer, on the Savannah river, amounted to 1000 lbs. of Prussia, but was retained by him at the peace in 1763. A public filature was set up in Savannah in 1751. From The emperor William was most enthusiastically received 1751 to 1754 the exports amounted to $8880, and for the during his visit, Sept. 1875.

next eighteen years there was an annual export averSilicon, or SILICIUM (from silex, flint), a non-me

aging 546 lbs. In 1760, 15,000 lbs. of cocoons were detallic element, next to oxygen the most abundant sub- livered at the filature. The production rapidly declined stance in the earth, as it enters into the constitution of under British taxation, and was destroyed entirely by

the Revolutionary war. many earths, metallic oxides, and a great number of

The history of silk culture in minerals. The mode of procuring pure silicon was dis- South Carolina was almost identical with that in Georcwered by Berzelius in 1823.Gmelin. See Water-glas: gia. In Connecticut 200 lbs. of raw silk were made in and Ransome's Stone.

1789. In 1790, fifty families in New Haven and thirty

in Norfolk were engaged in the business. In 1839 the Silistria, a strong military town in Bulgaria, Eu- product of Mansfield, Connecticut, was about 5 tons. A ropean Turkey. It was taken by the Russians, 30 June, filature was established in Philadelphia in 1770. In 1829, and held some years by them as a pledge for the 1875, one cocoonery in San José, California, had 1,000,000 payment of a large sum by the Porte; but was eventual- silk-worins. There are now nearly 200 silk factories in ly returned. In 1854 it was again besieged by the Rus- the United States, and the cultivation of native silk sians, 30,000 strong, under prince Paskiewitch, and many seems to be reviving. The Women's Silk-culture Asassaults were made. The Russian general was com- sociation held an exhibition in Philadelphia, 1881-2. pelled to retire in consequence of a dangerous contusion. Silk-WORM DISEASE. In 1853 the annual produce of sericultOn 2 June, Mussa Pacha, the brave and skilful com- ure in South France was estimated at about 4,680,0001. mander of the garrison, was killed. On 9 June, the

Soon after a disease broke out in the worms, which reduced Russians stormed two forts, which were retaken. A

the value of the silk crop to about one third that amount.

In 1858 a commission was appointed to inquire into the natgrand assault took place on 13 June, under prince Gort- ure of the disease, then termed pébrine; and M. Quatre. schakoff and gen. Schilders, which was vigorously re- fages, in 1869, proved that it is hereditary, contagious, and pelled. On the 15th, the garrison assumed the offensive,

infectious. M. Filippi discovered in the blood of the de

ceased worms a multitude of cylindrical corpuscles, since crossed the river, defeated the Russians, and destroyed named panhistophyton, which Pasteur, who took up the the siege works. The siege was thus raised, and the study in 1865, has demonstrated to be parasitical, and th“ Russians commenced their retreat as Omar Pacha was

cause of the disease. He has since devised a way by which, drawing near. The garrison was ably assisted by two

it is hoped, the organic germs may be got rid of, and the

disease extirpated. British officers, capt. Butler and lieut. Nasmyth, the former of whom, after being wounded, died of exhaustion.

Silures, a British tribe, occupying the counties of They were highly praised by Omar Pacha and lord Monmouth and Hereford, was subdued by the Roman Hardinge, and lieut. Nasmyth was made a major.

general Ostorius Scapula, 50; see Shropshire. From

this tribe is derived the geological term “ Silurian strata," Silk. Wrought silk was brought from Persia to Greece, among the lowest of the palæozoic, or primary series, from 3:25 B.C. Known at Rome in Tiberius's time, when a their occurrence in the above-mentioned counties. Murlaw passed in the senate prohibiting the use of plate of chison’s “ Siluria” was published 1849. massive gold, and also forbidding men to debase themselves by wearing silk, fit only for women. Heliogaba

Silver exists in most parts of the world, and is lus first wore a garment of silk, A.D. 220. Silk was at found mixed with other ores in various mines in Great first of the same value with gold, weight for weight, and Britain. The silver mines of South America are far the

richest. A mine was discovered in the district of La was thought to grow in the same manner as cotton on Silk-worms were brought from India to Europe

Paz in 1660, which was so rich that the silver of it was in the sixth century. Charlemagne sent Offa, king of often cut out with a chisel. In 1749, one mass of silver Mercia, a present of two silken vests, 780. The manu- weighing 370 lbs. was sent to Spain. From a mine in facture was encouraged by Roger, king of Sicily, at Pa- Norway, a piece of silver was dug, and sent to the Royal lermo, 1146, when the Sicilians not only bred the silk- Museum at Copenhagen, weighing 560 lbs., and worth worms, but spun and wove the silk. The manufacture 1680l. In England silver plate and vessels were first spread into Italy and Spain, and also into the south of used by Wilfrid, a Northumbrian bishop, a lofty and amFrance, a little before the reign of Francis I. about 1510;

bitious man, 709.-Tyrrell. Silver knives, spoons, and and Henry IV. propagated mulberry-trees and silk-worms cups were great luxuries in 1300; see Mirrors. In 1855, throughout the kingdom about 1600. In England, silk 561,906 oz.; in 1857, 532,866 oz.; in 1865, 724,856 oz. ; in mantles were worn by some noblemen's ladies at a ball 1870, 784,562 oz.; in 1876, 483,422 oz. were obtained at Kenilworth castle, 1286. Silk was worn by the Eng- from mines in Britain. Pattinson's process for obtainlish clergy in 1534. Manufactured in England in 1604; ing silver from lead ore was introduced in 1829. The and broad silk wove from raw silk in 1620. Brought to production of silver in the United States during the perfection by the French refugees in London at Spital- tiscal year 1880, amounted to $39,200,000 ; see Coins, fields, 1688. A silk-throwing mill was made in England, Goldsmiths, Mirrors, Plate ; India, 1876; United States


1878. and fixed up at Derby, by sir Thomas Lombe, merchant of London, modelled from the original mill then in the Fall in price of silver through introduction of gold coin

ago in Germany, and increased produce from Ameri. king of Sardinia's dominions, about 1714. He obtained can mines....

... spring, 1876 a patent in 1718, and died 3 Jan. 1739. Six new species. The report of a commission on the subject was issued in of silk-worm were rearing in France, 1861.* James I. sought to introduce silk culture into the American colo- Average price in London, 1845–9,59d, and a fraction perox';

1950–72, 61d.; Dec. 1874, 59d. ; June, 1875-June, 1876, nies, and himself forwarded eggs to Virginia, and offered about 52d. ; Jan. 1877, 581d. ; March, 512d. ; 1878, 54d. bounties on silk grown there, but the superior profit of Feb. ; 527 d. 21 Aug. ; 49fd. 31 Dec. 1879; 524d. 5 tobacco culture brought the experiment to naught. Silk June and 20 Nov. 1880; 52122. 30 June; 513d. 31 Dec.; culture was introduced in Louisiana in 1718, and gov


.18 July, 1881

Silver Book (Codex Argenteus), see under Bible. * In 1858, M. Guérin - Meneville introduced into France a Simancas (Castile, Spain). Near it Ramirez II. Chinese worm termed the Cynthia bombyr, which feeds on of Leon, and Fernando of Castile, gained a great victory the Ailanthus glandulosa, a hardy tree of the oak kind. The cynthia yields a substance termed Ailantine. It was

over Abderahman, the Moorish king of Cordova, 6 Aug. brought to Turin by Fantoni in 1856.



Simla Case, see India, 1866.

this act (considered treacherous) the Anglo-French fleet Simnel Conspiracy, see Rebellions, 1486. entered the Black Sea, 3 Jan. 1854. Simonasaki, see Japan, 1864.

Sion College and Hospital, situated on the site Simonians, a sect named from the founder, Simon chased by William Elsynge, a citizen and mercer, and

of a nunnery, which, having fallen to decay, was purMagus, the first heretic, about 41. A sect of social re- converted into a college and hospital, called from his formers called Sr. SIMONIANS sprang up in France in 1819, and attracted considerable attention; the doctrines Austin priory, which was afterwards granted by Henry

name Elsynge Spital. In 1340 he changed it to an were advocated in England, particularly by Dr. Prati, VIII. to sir John Williams, master of the jewel-office, who lectured upon them in London, 24 Jan. 1834. St. who, with sir Roland Hayward, inhabited it till its deSimon died in 1825, and his follower, Père Enfantin, struction by fire. In 1623, Dr. Thomas White having died 1 Sept. 1864.

bequeathed 30001. towards purchasing and building a Simony (trading in church offices), derives its name college and almshouse on the ancient site, his executors from Simon desiring to purchase the gift of the Holy erected the present college. It is held by two charters Spirit (Acts viii. 18, 19). It is forbidden in England by of incorporation, 6 Chas. I. 1630 and 16 Chas. II. 1664. the canon law, and by statute 31 Eliz. c. 6, " for the It contains a valuable library (easily accessible to the avoiding of simony and corruption in presentations, col- public), and an almshouse for ten men and women. lations, and donations of and to benefices,” etc., 1588–9; and by statute of 12 Anne 2, stat, 12 (1713). The rer.

Sirene, an instrument for determining the velocity James John Merest was convicted of simony, 26-29 Nov. of aerial vibrations corresponding to the different pitches 1869, and deprived.

of musical sounds, was invented by baron Cagniard de

la Tour of Paris in 1819. The principle was shown in The bishop of Peterborough (Dr. Magee) moved for a committee on the laws relating to simony; appointed,

an apparatus exhibited by Robert Hooke before the Royal

21 April, 1874 Society, 27 July, 1681. Simplon, a mountain road leading from Switzer- Sisterhoods in the English church were begun by land into Italy, constructed by Napoleon in 1801-7. It Lydia Priscilla Sellon about 1846, in Devonshire; she winds up passes, crosses cataracts, and passes by galleries died Nov. 1876. through solid rock, and has eight principal bridges. The Sisters of Charity, an order for the service of the number of workmen employed at one time varied from sick poor, was founded by Vincent de Paul, in 1634. 30,000 to 40,000.

Their establishment in London began in 1834. Sinai, Mount. Here the ten commandments were Six Acts, a term given to certain acts, also named promulgated, 1491 B.C. (Exod. xx.) After much investi- “Gagging Acts," 60 Geo. III. and 1 Geo. IV. cc, 1, 2, 4, gation and discussion by many persons, Dr. Beke stated 6, 8, 9, passed in 1819 to suppress seditious meetings and that he had discovered the true Sinai, Feb. 1874. publications.

Sinalunga, or AsinaLUNGA (near Sienna, Italy). Six Articles, see Articles. Here Garibaldi, when about to enter the papal territory, Six Clerks, officers of the Court of Chancery, who was seized and conreyed to Alessandria, 23 Sept. 1867; were anciently clerici or clergy. They were to conform see Italy.

to the laws of celibacy, and forfeit their places if they Sinde (N.W. India), was traversed by the Greeks married; but when the constitution of the court began under Alexander, about 326 B.C.; conquered by the Per- to alter, a law was made to permit them to marry; sian Mahometans in the eighth century A.D.; tributary statute 24 & 25 Hen. VIII. 1533. The six clerks conto the Ghaznevide dynasty in the eleventh century; tinued for many years officers of the Chancery Court, conquered by Nadir Shah, 1739; reverted to the empire and held their offices in Chancery lane, London, where of Delhi after his death, 1747 ; after various changes of proceedings by bill and answer were transacted and filed, rulers, Sinde was conquered by the English, and an- and certain patents issued.—Law Dict. The six clerks nexed, March, 1843.

were discontinued by 5 & 6 Vict. c. 103, 1841. Singapore, see Strait Settlements.

Sixteen (seize), a large French political club, in the Singing, see Music and Hymns.

reigns of Henry III. and IV., sixteen members of which

took charge of the sixteen quarters of Paris. They at Sinking Fund. First projected by sir Robert Wal- first supported the Catholic League, and attempted to pole to redeem the debt to the Bank of England; act overthrow Henry III. in 1587, but vacillating in their passed in 1716. The act establishing the sinking fund policy, and committing many crimes, their power was of Mr. Pitt, devised by Dr. Price, was passed in March, annihilated by Mayenne in 1591, and several of them 1786. A then estimated surplus of 900,0001, in the rev- were executed. enue was augmented by new taxes to make up the sum

Skalitz (Bohemia) was stormed by the Prussian of 1,000,0001., which was to be invariably applied to the general Steinmetz, 28 June, 1866; whereby the junction reduction of the national debt. The fallacy of the of the divisions of the Prussians was greatly facilitated. scheme was shown by Dr. Hamilton in 1813. In July, 1828, the sinking fund was limited to one fourth of the Skating (with blunt skates) is said to hare been actual surplus of revenue. A new sinking fund was practised in prehistoric times by northern nations. established by act passed 2 Aug. 1875. The annual Mentioned by the Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus, charge of the national debt of the year ending 31

about 1134 March, 1877, to be 27,700,0001. ; subsequent years to be William Fitz-Stephens speaks of it in London .... about 1180

Figures of skates in Olaus Magnus's history..... printed 1555 28,000,0001.

Blade-skates, probably introduced from Holland, about Sinope, an important Greek colony on the Euxine,

1660, were seen in St. James's Park by Evelyn and

Pepys. .. after resisting several attacks was conquered by Mithri- Robert Jones's " Art of Skating" published.. dates IV., king of Pontus, and made his capital. It was An Edinburgh club established.

1838 the birthplace of Diogenes, the cynic philosopher. On London Skating Club, 1830; Oxford club.

Severe frost, much skating...

.Jan. 1880 30 Nov, 1853, a Turkish fleet of seven frigates, three corvettes, and two smaller vessels was attacked by a Skins. The raw skins of cattle were usually susRussian fleet of six sail of the line, two sailing-vessels, pended on stakes, and made use of instead of kettles to and three steamers, under admiral Nachimoff, and totally boil meat, in the north of England and in Scotland, 1 destroyed, except one vessel, which conveyed the tidings Edw. III. 1327.-Leland. In 1857, 4,489,163 skins of to Constantinople. Four thousand lives were lost by oxen, lambs, kid, etc., dressed and undressed; in 1867, fire or drowning, and Osman Pacha, the Turkish admiral, 9,593,798; in 1875, 19,479,490; in 1877, 21,892,847; in died at Sebastopol of his wounds. In consequence of 1879, 19,491,388, were imported into Great Britain,

1 Dec. 1662

1772 1744

Skuptschina, the Servian legislative assembly. the Court of King's Bench in favor of Somerset, that
Slade Professorship of FINE ART, Cambridge, Act for the abolition of slavery throughout the British

slavery could not exist in Great Britain.... . 22 June, 1772 established in pursuance of the will of Felix Slade, 24 colonies, and for the promotion of industry among the June, 1869; sir Matthew Digby Myall, the first pro

manumitted slaves, and for compensation to the per

sons hitherto entitled to the services of such slaves by fessor, 1869-73; Sidney Colvin, 1873; re-elected since.

the grant from parliament of 20,000,0001. sterling, Slate. Fifteen persons were killed by the fall of a


28 Aug. 1833 mass of rock and rubble at the Delaboll slate quarries, Slavery terminated in the British possessions; 770,280

.1 Aug. 1834 Cornwall, 21 April, 1869.

Slavery was abolished in the East Indies. .1 Aug. 1838

In 1853, John Anderson, a runaway slave, killed Septi. Great strike at lord Penrhyn's slate quarries, Bethesda,

mus Digges, a planter of Missouri, who attempted to Wales, in Sept. -Oct.; end.

...... Nov. 1874

arrest him, and escaped to Canada. The American Slaughter-houses Act for the metropolis, passed

government claimed him as a murderer. The Cana.

dian judges deciding that the law required his surren7 Aug. 1874.

der, Mr. Edwin James, Q. C. (15 Jan.), obtained a writ Slavery. The traffic in men came from Chaldæa of habeas corpus for his appearance before the Court

of Queen's Bench. Anderson was discharged on techinto Egypt, Arabia, and all over the East. In Greece,

nical grounds.

16 Feb. 1861 in the time of Homer, all prisoners of war were treated Circular from the Admiralty concerning the surrenderas slaves. The Lacedæmonian youths, trained up in ing fugitive slaves on board British ships to their the practice of deceiving and butchering slaves, were

owners, dated 31 July; much censured by the public, Sept., Oct. ; withdrawn.

Nov. 1875 from time to time let loose upon them to show their A revised circular issued near end of Dec., 1875; met proficiency; and once, for amusement only, murdered, it with much adverse criticism..

.Jan. 1876 is said, 3000 in one night; see Helots. Alexander, when Government commission appointed (the duke of Somer

set, chief-justice Cockburn, sir Henry S. Maine, and he razed Thebes, sold the whole people for slaves, 335

others), Feb.; report unfavorable to the circulars; pub. B.C. There were 400,000 slaves in Attica, 317 B.C. In lished

.13 June, Rome slaves were often chained to the gate of a great New admiralty instructions: fugitive slaves to be re

ceived and not given up; action left to captain's disman's house, to give admittance to the guests invited to

cretion; breach of international faith and comity to the feast. By one of the laws of the XII. Tables, credit- be avoided; issued ........

.....10 Aug. ors could seize their insolvent debtors, and keep them in their houses, till by their services or labor they had

Slavery in UNITED STATES. Before the war of discharged the sum they owed. C. Pollio threw such independence all the states contained slaves. In 1783, slaves as gave him the slightest offence into his fish- the statement in the Massachusetts Bill of Rights, “ All ponds, to fatten his lampreys, 42 B.C. Cæcilius Isidorus men are born free and equal,” was declared in the Suleft to his heir 4116 slaves, 12 B.C. The first Janissaries preme Court, at Boston, to bar slaveholcing in that state. were Christian slaves, 1329.

Slaves in the United States in 1790, 697,897; in 1810,

1,191,364; in 1820, 2,009,031; in 1860, 3,204,313; in Serfdom was abolished by Frederick I. of Prussia in 1702; by Christian VII. of Denmark in 1766; by Joseph

1860, 4,002,996. In 1870, 4,889,193 free colored persons ; II., emperor of Germany, in his hereditary states, in in 1880, 6,577,151. 1781; by Nicholas I. of Russia, in the imperial do.

Congress passes unanimously the celebrated ordinance mains, in 1842; and by his successor, Alexander II.,

"for the government of the territory to the N.W. of throughout his empire...

..3 March, 1861 the Ohio," which contained an “unalterable" article, Slavery ceased in the Dutch West Indies on......1 July, 1863

forbidding slavery or involuntary servitude in the said It was decreed in Brazil, in 1867, that all children born

territory, 13 July, 1787; after 1800, several of the northto slaves henceforth were to be free, and all slaves

western territories prayed, without effect, to be rewere to be free in twenty years from that time. In

lieved from this prohibition. Nov. slaves of the state became free when made sol. Louisiana purchased, which was considered by many as diers. Slavery was ordered to be abolished gradually,

fatal to the constitution ...

1803 27 Sept. 1871 The enormous increase in the growth of cotton in the Slavery abolished in Porto Rico....

23 March, 1873 southern states (see Cotton) led to a corresponding inImmediate suppression of slavery in the colonies of St.

crease in the demand for slave labor. The Missouri Thomas, etc., by Portugal, announced

..Feb. 1876

Compromise (drawn up by Henry Clay, by which slavGradual emancipation in Cuba; bill passed in Spanish ery was permitted in that state, but was prohibited in senate, 24 Dec. 1879; by deputies, 21 Jan.; promul

all states thereafter to be created west of the Missisgated...

.18 Feb. 1880

sippi and north of 36° 30' N. lat ) carried.....3 March, 1820 Slavery to be abolished in Egypt..

...........end of July, 1881

Another compromise effected; California admitted as a Slavery in ExGLAND. Laws respecting the sale of The Missouri compromise was abrogated by the passage

free state; but the fugitive slave act passed (which see), 1850 slaves were made by Alfred. The English peasantry of the Kansas- Nebraska bill, which left to the people were commonly sold for slaves in Saxon and Norman of those territories the question whether or not they times; children were sold in Bristol market like cattle

should be organized as slave states; civil war ensued (see Kansas).

1854 for exportation. Many were sent to Ireland and to pred Scott's case (see United States).

1867 Scotland. Under the Normans, the vassals (termed vil- John Brown's attempt to create a slave rebellion in Vir: leins, of and pertaining to the vill) were devisable as ginia failed (see United States).

Oct. 1859 chattels during the feudal times.

Abraham Lincoln, the Republican candidate, elected president of the United States

4 Nov. 1860 Severe statutes were passed in the reign of Richard II.,

Secession of South Carolina (see United States)..... Dec. 1377 and 1385; the rebellion of Wat Tyler, 1381, arose

Slavery abolished in the District of Columbia .. 16 April, 1862 partly out of the evils of serfdom.

President Lincoln proclaims the abolition slavery in A statute was enacted by Edward VI., that a runaway, the southern states, if they have not returned to the or any one who lived idly for three days, should be

Union on 1 Jan. 1863..

.22 Sept. " brought before two justices of the peace, and marked Slavery practically abolished by the submission of the V with a hot iron on the breast, and adjudged the slave

southern armies

.... April, 1865 of him who bought him for two years. He was to take The total abolition of slavery in the United States omthe slave and give him bread, water, or small drink, cially announced..

.18 Dec. and refuse meat, and cause him to work by beating, Mr. William Lloyd Garrison, a fervent champion for chaining, or otherwise; and if, within that space, he emancipation, entertained at St. James Hall, London absented himself fourteen days, he was to be marked on (he started the Liberator in 1831, and had suffered much the forehead or cheek by a hot iron, with an S, and be for his zeal)...

.29 June, 1867 his master's slave forever; second desertion was made A negro judge present in a court at New Orleans, 18 Sept. felony. It was lawful to put a ring of iron round his

(See United States, 1860-5.) neck, arm, or leg. A child might be put apprentice, and, on running away, become a slave to his master.. 1647

Slave-trade. The slave-trade from Congou and Queen Elizabeth ordered her bondsmen in the western Angola was begun by the Portuguese in 1481. The counties to be made free at easy rates

1574 Serfdom was finally extinguished in 1660, when tenures

commerce in man has brutalized a tract fifteen degrees in capite, knights' service, etc., were abolished.

on each side of the equator, and forty degrees wide, or A slave named Somerset, brought to England, was, be- of 4,000,000 square miles; and men and women have

cause of his ill state, turned adrift by his master. By been bred for sale to the Christian nations during the the charity of Mr. Granville Sharp, he was restored to health, when his master again claimed him.

last 250 years, and war carried on to make prisoners for

A suit was the consequence, which established, by decision of the Christian market. The Abbé Raynal computed

(1777) that, at the time of his writing, 9,000,000 of Hungary in 1699, at the peace of Carlowitz. Deputies slaves had been consumed by the Europeans. The slave from the Slavonian provinces of Austria were entertaintrade is now approaching extinction.

ed at Moscow and St. Petersburg, May, 1867. The CroaIn 1768 the slaves taken from Africa amounted to 104,100. In tian-Slavonian diet at Agram was dissolved, May, 1867. 1786 the annual nunber was about 100,000.

It protested against incorporation with Hungary. The In 1807 it was shown by documents, produced by government, Slavonian family of languages includes Russian, Polish,

that since 1792 upwards of 3,500,000 Africans had been torn Servian, Bohemian, Bulgarian, Wendic, Slovak, and Pofrom their

country, and had either perished on the passage labic. For the war, see Turkey, 1875-6. or been sold in the West Indies. Slave-trade abolished in the United States, 1808.

Estimated number of Slavs in Europe in 1875, 90,365,630 : SLAVE-TRADE OF ENGLAND: begun by sír John Hawkins. His

Russians and Ruthenians, 66,129,590; Serbo-Croats, 5,940,first expedition, with the object of procuring negroes on the

539; Bulgarians, 5, 123,952; Slovenes, 1,260,000; Slovaks, coast of Africa, and conveying them for sale at the West

2,223,830; Czechs, 4,815,154; Poles, 9,492.162. Indies, took place in Oct. 1562; see Guinea and Assiento.

Lord Ilchester's bequest to promote the study of Slavonian England employed 130 ships, and carried off 42,000 slaves,

literature at Oxford; lectures first given, May, 1876. 1786. Thomas Clarkson, at a spot in Wadesmill, Hertford, devotes Sleswig, see Holstein,

his life to the abolition of the slave-trade, June, 1785. The “Society for the Suppression of the Slave-trade," founded

Sliding-scale, see Corn Laws. by Clarkson, Wilberforce, and Dillwyn, 1787.

Sling. In Judg. xx. 16 is mentioned the skill of the Slave-trade question debated in parliament, 1787. The debate for its abolition; two days, April, 1791.

Benjamite slingers (about 1406 B.C.), and with a sling Mr. Wilberforce's motion lost by a majority of 89 to 82, 3 David slew Goliath, 1063 B.C. (1 Sam. xvii.). The naApril, 1798.

tives of the Balearic isles (Majorca, Minorca, and Ivica) The question introduced under the auspices of lord Grenville

were celebrated slingers, and served as mercenaries in and Mr. Fox, then ministers, 31 March, 1806. The trade abolished by parliament, 25 March, 1807.

the Carthaginian and Roman armies. Slings are said Thomas Clarkson died, aged 85, Sept. 1846.

to have been used by the Huguenots at the siege of SanAn obelisk, as a memorial to Thomas Clarkson, erected by cerre, in 1672, to economize their powder.

Mr. Arthur Giles Puller, at Wadesmill; inaugurated 9 Oct. 1879.

Sloane's Museum, see British Museum. FOREIGN COUNTRIES: the trade was abolished by Austria in 1782; by the French convention in 1794; by the United

Slough, near Eton, Bucks. Mrs. Ann Reville, a States in 1808.

butcher's wife, was barbarously murdered here early in The allies at Vienna declared against it, Feb. 1815. Napoleon, in the Hundred Days, abolished the trade, 29 March, the evening, 11 April, 1881. Alfred Payne, a lad, was 1815.

tried and acquitted, same month. Treaty for its repression with Spain, 1817; with the Nether- Sluys (Holland), near which Edward III. gained a

lands, May, 1818; with Brazil, Nov. 1826. Its revival was proposed in the congress of the United States signal naval victory over the French. The English lad

of America, 14 Dec. 1856, and negatived by 183 votes to 58. the wind of the enemy, and the sun at their backs, and In June, 1857, the French government gave permission to M. began this sanguinary action. Two hundred and thirty Regis to convey free negroes from Africa to Guadeloupe and French ships were taken ; thousands of Frenchmen were Martinique, French colonies. This having led to abuses and consequent troubles (see Charles killed, with two of their admirals; the loss of the Enget Georges), was eventually given up in Jan. 1859.

lish was inconsiderable; 24 June, 1340. It is said that about 40,000 slaves were landed at Cuba in 1860.

Smalcald (Hesse), TREATY OF, entered into be, A treaty between Great Britain and the United States, for the tween the elector of Brandenburg and the other princes

abõl ciou of the slave-trade, was sigued 7 April; ratified, 20 of Germany in favor of Protestantism, 31 Dec. 1530; see
May, 1862
The Spanish government denounce the slave-trade as piracy, Protestants. The emperor, apprehensive that the kings
Nov. 1865.

of France and England would join this league, signed Sir Samuel Baker headed an expedition to put down slave. the treaty of Passau, 31 July, 1532, allowing liberty of trading on the Nile (see Egypt), Jan. 1870; reported to be

conscience. partially successful, 30 June, 1873. He published “Ismailia,” a history of the expedition, 1874. He estimates Small Tenements Acts (59 Geo. III. c. 12, that at least 50,000 are captured and sold as slaves, Nov. 1819), 1850 (13 & 14 Vict. c. 99), provided for owners

1874. A species of slave trade has lately risen in the South Seas; paying rates of houses instead of the occupiers. This

the natives being enticed on board certain British vessels was annulled by the new Reform act, 30 & 31 Vict. c. and shipped to Queensland, Australia, and the Fiji isles: 102, s. 7 (1867). the subject was brought before parliament (see Melanesia), 1871-2.

Sinall-pox, variola (diminutive of rarus, a pimple), The ship Carl (owner, Dr. James P. Murray; master, Joseph a highly contagious disease, supposed to have been in

Armstrong) left Melbourne for South Sea isles; it anchored
off Malokolo, Solomon's, and Bougainville isles, and kid troduced into Europe from the East by the Saracens.
napped many natives as laborers for the Fiji isles; while Rhazes, an Arabian, described it accurately about 900.
about 20 miles from land, the prisoners rose and attempted From Europe it was carried to America, soon after its
to set fire to the ship; were tired on; abolito bonke Wed may discovery, and raged there with great severity, destroy:
gave evidence, and Armstrong was committed for trial, 16 ing the Indians by thousands. In 1694, queen Mary of

Aug. ; the master and mate sentenced to death, Nov. 1872.
Sir Bartle Frere went to Zanzibar on a mission to suppress emperor of Germany, the dauphin and dauphiness of

England died of small-pox, as did in 1711 and 1712 the the East African slave-trade; see Zanzibar, 1872–3. An act of parliament, for consolidating with amendments the France and their son, in 1730 the emperor of Russia, in

acts for carrying into effect treaties for the more effectual 1741 the queen of Sweden, and in 1774 Louis XV. of suppression of the slave trade (36 & 37 Vict. c. 88), was France. It is stated that in the middle of the last cen

passed, 5 Aug. 1873. Several Áfrican kings and chiefs, at Cape Coast Castle, agreed tury two millions perished by it in Russia. In London, to give up slave-trade, at an interview with governor Stra. in 1723, one out of fourteen deaths was caused by small

han, 3 Nov. 1874. The slave-trade on the Gold Coast abolished, by proclamation pox, and in France, in 1754, the rate was one in ten. of governor Strahan, 17 Dec. 1874.

For the attempts to alleviate this scourge, see InoculaConvention with Egypt forbidding the traffic, 4 Aug. 1877; tion, introduced into England in 1722, and Vaccination,

col. Gordon's cfforts in the Soudan reported successful, announced by Dr. Jenner in 1798. Small-pox Hospital, 1879.

established 1746. Small-pox raged in parts of London, Slavonia, or Sclavonia, a province of Austria, de- and thousands died, 1870-1; a temporary hospital was rives its name from the Slavs, a Sarmatian people who established at Hampstead (which see). The Anti-vaccireplaced the Avars in Pannonia early in the ninth cen- nation Society has been active, and many parents have tury. In 864, Cyril and Methodius, Greek mission- been fined for opposing the vaccination of their children, aries, preached here, and adapted the Greek alphabet to 1870-6. In Sept. and Oct. 1862, a great many sheep the Slavonian language, the letters of which have since died of small-pox in the west of England, till successful been a little altered. The country, after baving been preventive measures were resorted to. Many cases in held at times by the Greeks, Turks, and Hungarians, and London, 1876-8; deaths principally of unvaccinated perthe cause of sanguinary conflicts, was ceded finally to | sons.

ket). .....:

Small-pox prevalent in London: 88 deaths, 1-7 May; 103 and steamers above London Bridge. In 1856 another deaths, 15-21 May; diminish ng, July, 1881.

act, obtained for its further application to steamers below Deaths, June, 1880-June, 1881, 1532; 637 not vaccinated. Small-pox declated epidemic in the United States by the Na- London Bridge, and to potteries and glass-houses pretional Board of Health, Dec. 1881.

viously exempted, came into operation, 1 Jan, 1858; en(See Vaccination.)

actments have been made for all the kingdom. Smectymnus, the initials of certain nonconform- Meeting at Mansion House for the abatement of smoke in ist writers against episcopacy in the seventeenth cen- London, 7 Jan. 1881. tury — Stephen Marshall, Edmund Calamy, Thomas

Smolensko (Russia). The French in most sanYoung, Matthew Newcomen, William Spurston. They guinary engagements here were three times repulsed, were answered by bishop Hall in his “ Divine Right of but ultimately succeeded in entering Smolensko, and Episcopacy,” 1640.

found the city, which had been bombarded, burning and Smithfield, West, in the heart of London, was partly in ruins, 16, 17 Aug. 1812. Barclay de Tolly, the once a favorite walk of the London citizens, outside the Russian commander-in-chief, incurred the displeasure of city walls. Sir W. Wallace was executed here, 23 Aug. the emperor Alexander because he retreated after the 1305. On 15 June, 1381, Wat Tyler was met by Rich- battle, and Kutusoff succeeded to the command. ard II. at this place, and was stabbed by Walworth the mayor. Many tournaments were also held here. In enable the king to afford protection to trade against

Smugglers. The customs duties, instituted to the reign of Mary (1553-8), many persons perished by pirates, afterwards became a branch of public revenue, fire; and Bartholomew Leggatt, an Arian, was burned and gave rise to much smuggling. The Smugglers' act here, 18 March, 1612.-Bartholomew fair was held here till 1853.—This place is mentioned as the site of a cattle- 1781 and 1784. A revision of these statutes took place,

was passed in 1736, and its severity was mitigated in market as far back as 1150. The space devoted to this

1826 and 1835. purpose was enlarged from about three acres to four and a half, and in 1834 to six and a quarter. The ancient

Smyrna, see Seren Churches. regulations were called the “ statutes of Smithfield.” In Sneezing. The custom of saying “God bless you" one day there were sometimes assembled 4000 beasts to the sneezer originated, according to Strada, among the and 30,000 sheep. The annual amount of the sales was ancients, who, through an opinion of the danger attendabout 7,000,0001.

ing it, after sneezing made a short prayer to the gods, as Sold here 226,132 beasts, 1,593,270 sheep and lambs, 26,

“ Jupiter, help me.” The custom is mentioned by Homer, 356 calves, 33,631 pigs (about 160 salesmen).. 1846 the Jewish rabbis, and others, and is found among sarThe contracted space of the market, the slaughtering

ages. Polydore Vergil says it took its rise at the time places adjoining, and many other nuisances, gave ground to much dissatisfaction, and, after investiga

of the plague, 558, when the infected fell down dead tion, an act was passed appointing metropolitan mar- sneezing, though seemingly in good health. ket commissioners with powers to provide a new mar.

Snider Gun, see under Fire-arms. ket, slaughtering places, etc., and to close the market at Smithfield.

.1 Aug. 1851 Snuff-taking took its rise in England from the Smithfield was used as a cattle-market for the last time on 11 June; and the new market in Copenhagen

captures made of vast quantities of snuff by sir George Fields was opened on 13 June (see Metropolitan Mar. Rooke's expedition to Vigo in 1702, and the practice soon

1855 became general. In 1839 there were imported 1,622,A dead-meat and poultry market ordered to be erected

493 lbs. of snuff, of which 196,305 lbs. were entered in Smithfield, and Newgate market to cease..

1861 A tender for its erection, from designs by Horace Jones,

for home consumption; the duty was 88,2631., see Toaccepted from Messrs. Browne and Robinson for 134,- bacco, In 1858, 2,573,925 lbs. of snuff and cigars, 1861, 4601...

Nov. 1866

2,110,430 lbs. ; 1871, 3,852,236 lbs.; 1877, 3,762,831 lbs. The market inaugurated by the lord mayor Lawrence, 24 Nov.; opened to the public.

1 Dec. 1868

were imported. New poultry-market, inaugurated by lord mayor Cotton,

Soane Museum, etc., No. 13 Lincoln's-inn fields,

30 Nov. 1875 New central fruit and vegetable market determined on,

was gradually formed by sir John Soane, the architect,

14 July, 1879 who died in 1837, after making arrangements for its beThe Smithfield Club, to promote improvements in the breed ing open to the public by an act passed in 1833. It con

cis, duke of Bedford; first secretary, Arthur Young The tains Egyptian and other antiquities, valuable paintings, members established an annual cattle-show, held first in rare books, etc. 150l, are distributed annually to disDolphin Yard, Smithfield, Dec. 1799; next in Barbican, tressed architects or their widows and children. 1805; in Goswell street, 1803; removed to Baker street, 1839; and to the new Agricultural Hall, Liverpool road, Soap is a salt, a compound of a fatty acid with an Islington, 1862

alkali, soda or potash. The Hebrew bôrith, translated The show, suspended in Dec. 1866 on account of the plague, soap, is merely a general term for cleansing substances was partially resumed Dec. 1867; wholly, Dec. 1868.

(Job ix. 30; Jer. ii. 22). Pliny declares soap to be an Smith's Charity (FOR POOR KIN). Alderman invention of the Gauls, though he prefers the German Henry Smith, by will dated 26 April, 1647, left 1000l, to the Gallic soap. Nausicaa and her attendants, Homer for relief of captives held by Turkish pirates, and 1000l. tells us, washed clothes by treading upon them with their for his poor kinsmen.

feet in pits of water.-Odyssey, book vi. The Romans The former object having become obsolete, an act was passed used fuller's earth. Savon, the French word for soap, is in 1772 to divert all the property to the poor kinsmen.

ascribed to its having been manufactured at Savona, near 1868 these were 412 in number. The value of the property Genoa. The manufacture of soap began in London in is now about 11,0001, a year, and still increasing. The mas. ter of the rolls' decided in Dec. 1877 that the funds should 1524, before which time it was supplied by Bristol at one be applied to general charitable purposes. On appeal, the

penny per pound. The duty upon soap, imposed in 1711, decision was in favor of the “poor Smiths," 12 Feb. 1878.

after several reductions from 3d. per pound, was totally Smithsonian Institution, "for the increase and repealed in 1853. It then produced, according to the diffusion of knowledge among men,” a handsome build-chancellor of the exchequer, Mr. Gladstone, about 1,126,ing at Washington, U.S., was founded in 1846 by means 0001. annually. of a legacy of above 100,0001. bequeathed for the purpose Sobraon (N.W. India). The British army, 35,000 to the United States government by James Smithson, strong, under sir Hugh (afterwards viscount) Gough, atillegitimate son of sir Hugh Smithson, who became duke tacked the Sikh force on the Sutlej, 10 Feb. 1846. The of Northumberland in 1766. It publishes and freely dis- enemy was dislodged after a dreadful contest, and all tributes scientitic memoirs and reports. The library was their batteries taken; and in attempting the passage of burned on 25 Jan. 1865. Prof. Joseph IIenry, the first the river by a floating bridge in their rear, the weight secretary, died 13 May, 1878; succeeded by Mr. Baird.

of the masses that crowded upon it caused it to break Smoke Nuisance. An act was passed in 1853 down, and thousands of Sikhs were killed, wounded, or to abate this nuisance, proceeding from chimney-shafts | drowned. The British loss was 2338 men.


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