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Social Science. The National Association for Egyptian Society..

1819 the

Promotion of Social Science originated in a meeting Cambridge Philosophical Society (charter 1832). at lord Brougham's in May, 1857. Its object is to pro- Medico-Botanical Society....



1821 mote improvements in the administration of law, in Hull Literary and Philosophical Society

1822 education, in public health, and in social economy.' It Yorkshire Philosophical Society holds annual meetings, and publishes its proceedings.

Sheffield Literary and Philosophical Society
Royal Society of Literature (charter 1826).

1823 Mr. Wm. Ellis and Mr. John Stuart Mill began to pro

Royal Asiatic Society (charter 1824). mote the study

.... about 1823 Bannatyne Club, Edinburgh.... Birmingham, meeting opened..

..12 Oct. 1857 Mechanics’ Institution, London.. Liverpool.

..11 Oct. 1858
Athenæum Club...

1824 Bradford .10 Oct. 1859 Western Literary Institution

1825 Glasgow

.24 Sept. 1860 Eastern Literary Institution. Dublin.. 14 Aug. 1861 Zoological Society.

1826 London. 6 June, 1862 Incorporated Law Society (charter 1831).

1827 Edinburgh.

7 Oct. 1863 Society for Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. York. .22 Sept. 1864 Ashmolean Society, Oxford.

1828 Sheffield..

.4 Oct. 1865

Maitland Club, Glasgow. Manchester .2 Oct. 1866 Royal Geographical Society

1830 Belfast..

18 Sept. 1867 Gaelic Society.. Birmingham. 30 Sept. 1868 Royal United Service Institution..

1831 Bristol

29 Sept. 1869 Royal Dublin Society. Newcastle-on-Tyne.

21 Sept. 1870 Harveian Society.. Leeds

..4 Oct. 1871 British Association. Plymouth.. 11 Sept. 1872 Marylebone Literary Institution.

1832 Norwich... 1 Oct. 1873 Entomological Society.

1833 Glasgow .30 Sept. 1874 Statistical Society

1834 Brighton

6 Oct. 1875 Westminster Literary Institution Liverpool..

11 Oct. 1876 Surtees Society, Durham.. Aberdeen.

19 Sept. 1877 Royal Institute of British Architects (charter 1837). Cheltenham. .23 Oct. 1878 Leicester Literary and Philosophical Society.

1835 Manchester. .1 Oct. 1879 Abbotsford Club, Edinburgh..

1835-7 Edinburgh. .5 Oct. 1880 Numismatic Society..

1836 Dublin .3 Oct. 1881 Ornithological Society

1837 Electrical Society

1837-8 Social Wars, see Athens and Marsi.

Etching Club..

1838 Socialism was warmly advocated in London, 24 Royal Agricultural Society

English Historical Society


1838 Jan. 1834, by the celebrated Robert Owen. He had, be- Camden Society.... ginning at New Lanark, in Scotland, about 1801, estab- Royal Botanical Society

1839 lished a settlement at New Harmony, Indiana, in Amer- Microscopical Society (Royal, 1866).

Ecclesiological Society. ica, in 1824. He died 17 Nov. 1858, aged 90. The Spalding Club, Aberdeen.. French socialists, termed Communists, became a power- Ro. Botanical Society of London.. ful political body in that country, were implicated in the

Parker Society.

1840-55 revolution of 1848, and made an insurrection at Paris, Irish Archæological Society, Dublin.

Percy Society.


1840 1871; see France, Positive Philosophy, and Workingmen London Library. (who, in Great Britain, have received by legislation Shakespeare Society.

Chemical Society.

18:41 nearly all they require).

Pharmaceutical Society
The Rev. Charles Kingsley, Mr. Thomas Hughes, and Wodrow Society, Edinburgh..

1841-7 others, endeavored to set up Christian Socialism, Philological Society

1812 about 1855-60 Ælfric Society..

1843-56 Communist manifesto issued by Carl Marx... 1848 Chetham Society, Manchester.

1843 Social democratic party organized by Ferdinand Lassalle, 1863 Spottiswoode Society, Edinburgh. International workmen's associatiou formed.

1864 Archæological Association “Gotha programme" (exalting labor)..

1875 Royal Archæological Institute.. A grand congress of socialists met at Ghent. .Sept. 1877 Sydenham Society... Socialism said to be increasing in Germany.

Ethnological Society.. Stringent bill to repress it passed in the parliament; so- Law Amendment Society. cialists expelled from Germany by decree, Nov. ; many

Handel Society...

1814 papers suppressed, Nov., Dec. 1878. Expulsions re- Syro-Egyptian Society.... newed..

.autumn, 1880 Ray Society..
Caxton Society.

1841-54 Societies and Institutions, LITERARY AND Scr- Celtic Society, Dublin

1845-53 ENTIFIC, in Great Britain, Further details of many of Pathological Society,

1816 these will be found under their respective heads. All in

Sussex Archäological Society, Lewes. the list below are in London, except otherwise stated. Cavendish Society...

Cambrian Archæological Association An act was passed 11 Aug. 1854, "to afford facilities for Hakluyt Society... the establishment of institutions for the promotion of Palæontographical Society.

18+7 literature and science,” by grants of land, etc.; and for Institute of Actuaries...

Institute of Mechanical Engineers (Birmingham). their regulation. The Royal and Loudon Institutions Arundel Society.. were exempted from the operation of the act.

(British) Meteorological Society (charter 1866)


Epidemiological Society Royal Society, charter

1062 North of England Institute of Mining Engineers, NewChristian Knowledge Society 1698 castle....

1851 Society of Antiquaries (charter 1751).. 1717 Photographic Society

1852 Society of Dilettanti... 1734 Philobiblon Society.

1853 Society of Arts (charter 1847).. 1753 Juridical Society..

1855 Bath and West of England Society. 1777 Odontological Society.

1856 Marchester Literary and Philosophical Society 1781 Genealogical Society.

1857 Royal Society of Edinburgh (charter 1783).

1782 National Association for Social Science. Highland Society... 1785 Horological Institute....

1858 Royal Irish Academy, charter

1786 Society for the Encouragement of Fine Arts.. Linnæan Society (charter 1802). 1788 Institution of Naval Architecture..

1860 Newcastle Literary and Philosophical Society 1793 Anthropological Society.

1863 Royal Institution (act of parliament, 1810), charter. 1800 Early English Text Society; began to publish..

1864 Royal Horticultural Society (charter 1809)

1804 Victoria Institute..

24 May, 1855 Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society (charter 1834) 1805 London Mathematical Society. London Institution.

Aeronautical Society..

.12 Jan. 1866 Geological Society (charter 1826).

Dialectic Society..

1857 Russell Institution

1808 Chaucer Society. Swedenborg Society... 1810 Holbein Society.

1868 Liverpool Literary and Philosophical Society.

1812 Royal Historical Society Roxburghe Club...

Iron and Steel Institute.

1869 Institution of Civil Engineers (charter 1828).

1818 Amateur Mechanical Society. Leeds Literary and Philosophical Society..

Christian Evidence Society


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Biblical Archæology Society

1871 surrendered to the Germans under the grand-duke of Society of Telegraph Engineers.

Mecklenburg, 16 Oct. 1870. 99 officers, 4633 men, 128 Marine Engineers' Institution.. Society for Organization of Academical Study.

guns, etc., were said to be taken. The Germans thus London Anthropological Society (extinct)

1873–5 obtained a second line of railway from Châlons to Paris. Palæographical Society.. English Dialectic Society.

Solar System, nearly as now accepted, is said to (New) Shakespeare Society

have been taught by Pythagoras of Samos, about 529 Physical Society


He placed the sun in the centre, and all the planMusical Association. Public Analysts..

ets moving in elliptical orbits round it--a doctrine suPsychological Society.

1875 perseded by the Ptolemaic system (which see). The Education Society.

system of Pythagoras, revived by Copernicus (1543), is Royal Aquarium Society..

called the Copernican system. Its truth was demonMineralogical Society Library Association

1877 strated by sir Isaac Newton in 1687; see Planets. Index Society..

. Soldiers' Daughters' Home was established at Institute of Chemistry of Great Britain. Folk-lore Society..

1878 Hampstead, near London, in Aug. 1857, by the surplus Astrological Society..

1879 of the money collected by the central association in aid Society for promoting Hellenic Studies.

of the wives and families of soldiers in active service Rabelais Club.. Willoughby Society

during the Crimean war, and opened by the prince conBalloon Society

1880 sort, 18 June, 1858. It has been much indebted to the Aristotelian Society.

exertions of major Powys. Wordsworth Society Topographical Society of London..

Solebay, or Southwold BAY (Suffolk), where a Ascham Society...

fierce naval battle was fought between the fleets of Chemical Industry Society.

England and France on one side, and the Dutch on the Society Islands, in the Pacific ocean, discovered other; the former commanded by the duke of York, by De Quiros in 1606; rediscovered by capt. Wallis, 1767, afterwards James II., 28 May, 1672. The English lost who gave Otaheite or Tahiti the name of King George's four ships, and the Dutch three; but the enemy fled, island. Capt. Cook, who visited them in 1769 and 1777, and were pursued to their coasts. The earl of Sandwich named them Society islands in honor of the Royal So- was blown up, and thousands were killed and wounded. ciety; see Otaheite.

Sol-fa System, see Music. Socinians, persons who accept the opinions of Faus

Solferino (in Lombardy), the site of the chief strugtus Socinus (died 1562) and his nephew Lælius (died gle on the great battle of 24 June, 1859, between the 1604), Siennese noblemen. They held—1. That the Eter- allied French and Sardinian army, commanded by their nal Father was the one only God, and that Jesus Christ respective sovereigns, and the Austrians under gen. Hess; was no otherwise God than by his superiority to all the emperor being present. The Austrians, after their other creatures; 2. That Christ was not a mediator; 3. defeat at Magenta, gradually retreated across the Mincio, That hell will endure for a time, after which the soul and took up a position in the celebrated quadrilateral, and body will be destroyed; 4. That it is unlawful for and were expected there to await the attack. But the princes to make war.Hook. The Socinians established advance of Garibaldi on one side, and of prince Napoleon à church at Rakow, in Poland, and made proselytes in and the Tuscans on the other, induced them to recross Transylvania, 1563. They were expelled from Poland the Mincio and take the offensive on 23 June. The conin 1658. The Rakovian Catechism was established in flict began early on the 24th, and lasted fifteen hours. 1574; see Unitarians.

At first the Austrians had the advantage ; but the sucSocotra (Dioscoridis insula), an island in the In- cessful attack of the French on Cavriana and Solferino dian ocean, belonging to the imam of Muscat, 120 miles changed the fortune of the day, and the Austrians, after east of cape Guardafui, eastern Africa. In the summer desperate encounters, were compelled to retreat. The of 1878, it was said to have been given up to the British. French attribute the victory to the skill and bravery of

Sodium, a remarkable metal, first obtained in 1807 their emperor and the generals MacMahon and Niel; the by sir Humphry Davy, from soda (which was formerly Austrians, to the destruction of their reserve by the rifled confounded with potash, but proved to be a distinct sub cannon of their adversaries. The Sardinians maintained stance by Duhamel in 1736). This metal, like potas- a fearful contest of fifteen hours at San Martino, it is sium, was obtained by the agency of the electric battery. said against double their number. Loss of the Austrians, In consequence of Deville's improved processes, sodium 630 officers and 19,311 soldiers; of the allies, 8 generals, is now manufactured by Bell Brothers, of Newcastle, at 936 officers, and 17,305 soldiers killed and wounded. This 108. a pound (1868). Common salt (chloride of sodium) battle closed the war ; preliminaries of peace being signed is a compound of sodium and chlorine; see Alkalies.

at Villafranca, 12 July. On 24 June, 1870, on the site Sodom and Gomorrah (Palestine), with their in- thousands of the slain, were solemnly consecrated in the

of the battle, three ossuaries, containing the bones of habitants, were destroyed by fire from heaven 1898 B.C. presence of representatives of Austria, France, and Italy. (Gen. xix.).

Solicitor, see Attorney. By the Supreme JudicaSodor, said to be derived from Sodor-eys, or South ture act, attorneys in future are to be styled solicitors; isles (the Æbrides or Hebrides), in distinction from Ork- an act for regulating their examination was passed 23 ney's, the North isles. The southern or western isles were July, 1877. made an episcopal diocese by Magnus, king of Norway, 1098, and joined to the Isle of Man about 1113; see Man. and deputy to the attorney-general, whom he frequently

Solicitor-general, the legal officer next in rank Soffarides Dynasty reigned in Persia, 872–902. succeeds.

Softas, Mahometan students devoted to the Koran 1839. Sir Thomas Wilde (afterwards lord Truro), 5 Dec. only; see Turkey, May, 1876.

1841. Sir William Follett (second time), 6 Sept.

1844. Sir Frederick Thesiger (since lord Chelmsford), 17 April. Soho Bazaar And Theatre, see Bazaars and 1845. Sir Fitzroy Kelly, 17 July. Theatres.

1846. Sir John Jervis, 4 July.

Sir David Dundas, 18 July. Soissons (France), capital of the Gallic Suessiones, 1848. Sir John Romilly, 4 April. was subdued by Julius Cæsar, 57 B.C. It was held by 1850. Sir Alexander J. E. Cockburn, 11 July. Syagrius, after his father Ægidius, till his defeat by Clo-1862. Sir Fitzroy Kelly, Feb. vis, A.D. 486. Several councils have been held at Sois- Sir Richard Bethell, Dec. sons (in 744, 1092, 1122). Its academy was established 1856. Rt. hon. James Stuart Wortley, Nov. in 1674. During the Franco-Prussian war, Soissons, after 1868. Sir Hugh M. Cairns, 26 Feb. three weeks' investment and four days' bombardment, 1859. Sir Henry Keating, 18 June.

1859. Sir William Atherton, Dec.

of Ghuznee in 1025. The priests wished to preserve the 1861. Sir Roundell Palmer, 27 June.

idol, but Mahmoud broke it to pieces, and found it filled 1863. Sir Robert Porrett Collier, 2 Oct. 1866. Sir William Bovill, 13 July.

with diamonds, etc. He carried the gates to Ghuznee. Sir John Burgess Karslake, 29 Nov.

Wher that city was taken by gen. Nott, 6 Sept. 1812, 1867. Sir Charles Jasper Selwyn, July.

lord Ellenborough ordered the gates to be restored, after 1868. Sir William Baliol Brett, Feb. (made judge, Sept.). Sir Richard Baggallay, 14 Sept.

an exile of 800 years, and issued a proclamation much Sir John Duke Coleridge, 12 Dec.

censured at the time. The gates are made of sandal1871. Sir George Jessel, Nov.

wood, and are described and figured in the “ Archæolo1873. Sir Henry James, 26 Sept. Sir William Vernon Harcourt, Nov.

gia" of the Society of Antiquaries, vol. xxx. 1874. Sir Richard Baggallay, Feb,

Somorrostro, see Spain, 1874. Sir John Holker, 22 April. 1875. Sir Hardinge Stanley Giflard, 25 Nov.

Sonderbund, see Switzerland, 1846. 1880. Sir Farrer Herschell, 3 May.

Sonnet, a poem in fourteen lines, with rhymes adSolifidians (from solus, only, and fides, faith), a justed by rules, was invented, it is said, by Guido name given to the Antinomians (which see).

d'Arezzo about 1024. The most celebrated sonnets are Solomon's Temple, see Temple.

those by Petrarch (about 1327), Shakespeare (1609).

Milton (about 1650), and Wordsworth (1820). Solway Moss (Cumberland, bordering on Scotland). On 13 Nov. 1771, it swelled, owing to heavy

Sonnites, the orthodox Mahometans who now posrains. Upwards of 400 acres rose to such a height above sess the Turkish empire; see Mahometanism. the level of the ground that at last it rolled forward like Sons of the Clergy, see Clergy. a torrent above a mile, sweeping along with it houses, trees, etc. It covered 600 acres at Netherby, and de- about 1830, where they prospered till

, partly from the

Sonthals, a tribe of N. India, brought to Bengal stroyed about 30 small villages. Near Solway Moss the instigation of a fanatic, and partly from the exactions Scots were defeated by the English, 25 Nov. 1542.

of money-lenders, they broke out into rebellion in July, Somaj, see Deism.

1855, and committed fearsul outrages. They were quite Sombrero (West Indies). On this desert isle Rob- subdued early in 1856, and many were removed to the ert Jeffery, a British man-of-war's man, was put ashore newly conquered province of Pegu. by his commander, the hon, capt. W. Lake, for having Sophia, St. (in Constantinople). The first church tapped a barrel of beer when the ship was on short al- was dedicated to St. Sophia (holy wisdom) by Constanlowance. After sustaining life for eight days on a few tius II., 360; this having been destroyed, the second, the limpets and rain-water, he was saved by an American present edifice, was founded by Justinian, 531, and dedi. vessel, 13 Dec. 1807, and returned to England. Sir Fran- cated 537. Since the Mahometan conquest, in 1453, it cis Burdett advocated his cause in parliament, and he has been used as an imperial mosque. Its length is 269 received 6001. as a compensation from capt. Lake, who feet, and its breadth 243 feet. Six of its pillars are of was tried by a court-martial, and dismissed the service, green jasper, from the temple of Diana at Ephesus, and 10 Feb. 1810.

of porphyry, from the temple of the Sun at Rome. Four Somerset House (London), formerly a palace, minarets were added by Selim II., who reigned in 1566. founded on the site of several churches and other build- | The interior of the dome is beautifully ornamented with ings levelled in 1549, by the protector Somerset, whose mosaic work. residence fell to the crown after his execution, 22 Jan. Sophists, teachers of youth in Athens, who were 1552. Here resided at times queen Elizabeth, Anne of censured by Socrates, and consequently were instrumenDenmark, and Catherine, queen of Charles II. Old tal in causing his judicial murder, 399 B.C. The conSomerset house, a mixture of Grecian and Gothic, was troversy against them was carried on by Plato and his demolished in 1775, and the present edifice, from a de- disciples. sign by Sir William Chambers, was erected for public offices. The Royal Academy of Arts first assembled in ed by Robert de Sorbonne in 1252. The members lived

Sorbonne, a society of ecclesiastics at Paris, foundthe apartments given to the members by the king, 17 in common, and devoted themselves to study and gratuJan. 1771. The Royal Society met here, 1780-1857; itous teaching. They soon attained a European repuand apartments here were also held by the Society of tation as a faculty of theology, their judgment being Antiquaries and the Geological Society—all three now frequently appealed to, from the fourteenth to the sevenat Burlington house. Large suites of government build- teenth century. The influence of the Sorbonne was deings were erected in 1774. The Navy office, Pipe office, clining when the society was broken up in 1789. The Victualling, and other offices, were removed here in 1788, buildings are now devoted to education. and various government departments since. The east wing, forming the King's College (see King's College),

Sorcerers and Magicians. A law was enacted was completed in 1833. By an act passed in 1854, the against their seductions, 33 Hen. VIII. 1541; and another offices of the duchy of Cornwall were transferred to l'im- statute, equally severe, was passed, 5 Eliz. 1563. The lico.

pretension to sorcery was made capital, 1 James I. 1603;

see Witchcraft Probate and Divorce Division Stamp offices, etc.

Soudan, or SOUJAH, the title of the lieutenant-genof high court of justice and Excise and Tax offices. Registry offices.

Legacies and Succession Duty erals of the caliphs, which they bore in their provinces Appeals Registry office.

and armies. The officers afterwards made themselves Register of Births, Deaths, Inland Revenue Offices. sovereigns. Saladin, general of the forces of Noureddin, and Marriages, Bank Returns office.

king of Damascus, was the first that took upon him this Exchequer and Audit depart. Laboratory department. Solicitors' offices.

title in Egypt, 1165, after having killed the caliph Caym. Property and Income Tax of Companies' Register offices,

Soudan, or NIGRITIA, a region of Central Africa, fices.

partly subjected to the khedive of Egypt since 1874. It Somerset the Black, see Slavery in England, was well governed by col. Gordon till 1879.

Somers-town, a populons district in St. Pancras Soulages Collection. About 1827 M. Soulages parish, N. London, named after earl Somers, whose fam- of Toulouse collected 790 specimens of Italian art and ily acquired the property about 1695. The building be workmanship, etc. These were bought for 11,0007, by gan about 1786, and many French refugees settled in it. 73 English gentlemen, with the view of first exhibiting Much of the district has been occupied by the railway them to the public and afterwards selling them to the companies.

government (who gradually purchased them between Somnath Gates, the gates of an ancient Ilinduo 1858 and 1865). They formed part of the "Art Treastemple at Guzerat, which was destroyed by Mahmoud / ures” exhibited at Manchester in 1857.







Sound, see Acoustics.

19 Feb. 1868; succeeded by sir James Fergusson, Dec. Sound Duties. Till the year 1857 no merchant 1868; by Anthony Musgrave, Jan. 1873; by William ship was allowed to pass the Sound (a narrow channel Wellington Cairns, Jan. 1877; sir W.F. D. Jervois, June, separating Zealand from Sweden) without clearing at 1877. Population in 1855, 85,821; in 1865, 156,605; in Elsinore and paying toll. These duties had their origin 1871, 185,626; in 1877, 225,677. in an agreement between the king of Denmark and the South Kensington Museum, near Brompton Hanse towns (1348), by which the former undertook to old church (containing the pictures presented by Mr. maintain light-houses, etc., along the Cattegat, and the Vernon, Mr. Sheepshanks, Mrs. Ellison, and those belatter to pay duty for the same. The tirst treaty with queathed by Turner, the great painter, as well as speciEngland in relation to this was in 1450; other countries mens of sculpture and art, educational collections, prodfollowed. In 1855 the United States determined to pay ucts of the animal, vegetable, and mineral kingdoms, the dues no more; and in the same year the Danish gov- etc.), was opened on 24 June, 1857. A special exhibiernment proposed that these dues should be capitalized, tion of works of art, of immense value, lent for the occawhich was eventually agreed to, the sum being 30,476,- sion, was opened here in the summer of 1862, and closed 325 rix-dollars. In Aug. 1857, the British government in November. In July, 1873, a testimonial to Mr. Henry paid 10,126,855 rix-dollars (1,125,2061.) to the Danes as Cole, C.B., was proposed for his exertions in organizing their proportion.—The passage of the Sound was effect- this museum, and in promoting its objects. ed, in defiance of strong fortresses, by sir Hyde Parker Mr. John Forster, biographer of Dickens, bequeathed his and lord Nelson, 31 March, 1801; see Baltic Expedition. library of books, MSS., paintings, and drawings to this

He died 1 Feb.. Soundings at Sea. Capt. Ross, of H.M.S. Edi- Scientific Apparatus Loan Exhibition (which see) opened pus, in 1840, took extraordinary soundings at sea. One 13 May, closed...

.....30 Dec. taken 900 miles west of St. Helena extended to the South Mountain (Maryland), BATTLE OF, fought depth of 5000 fathoms. In the latitude 33° S. and lon- 14 Sept. 1862, three days before the drawn battle at gitude 90 W., about 300 miles from the cape of Good Antietam. South Mountain is the name given to a Hope, 2266 fathoms were sounded; the weight employed prolongation of a range of the Blue Ridge north of the amounted to 450 pounds. On 13 July, 1857, lieut. Jo. Potomac from Harper's Ferry. Turner's Gap affords a seph Dayman, in the North Atlantic ocean, lat. 51° 9' passage from Frederick City to Williamsport; CrampN., long. 40° 2' W., in sounding, found a bottom at 2424 ton's Gap gives a similar opening towards Harper's Ferfathoms. The deepest sounding known (3875 fathoms) ry. Lee, after crossing the Potomac, had divided his was taken by the Challenger, capt. Nares, 24 March, army, so that an opportunity was given McClellan to 1873, in the North Atlantic, north of St. Thomas. cut in between apd attack each portion. Franklin was

South African Confederation: to comprise ordered through Crampton's Gap to cut off M‘Laws and the three British colonies-Cape Town, Natal, and West relieve Harper's Ferry. The remainder of the army Griqua Land (1873)—and the two Dutch republics—Or- was to move by way of Turner's Gap upon the rear of ange River free state and the South African or Trans-Lee's main column. The confederate general D. H. Hill vaal republic (1852). The formation was proposed by succeeded in reaching the summit of Turner's Gap before the earl of Carnarvon, colonial secretary, in a despatch the arrival of the Union force. The battle of the 14th to sir Henry Barkly, governor of Cape Town, 4 May, consisted of an attempt to wrest this position from the 1875, and advocated by the historian, J. A. Froude, on a confederates, soon reinforced by Longstreet's corps. The visit. It was much opposed at the Cape; see Cape. A national troops were successful. 30,000 Union troops conference of delegates in London was opened 5 Aug. were engaged and 17,000 confederates. National loss, 1876.

312 killed and 1234 wounded; confederate, 2000. This The South Africa act," for the union under one gorernment battle was really the decisive one of the campaign, and of such of the South African colonies and states as may forced Lee to fight the battle of Antietam.

At Crampagree thereto," was passed 10 Aug. 1877.

ton's Gap, six miles south, an action was at the same South African Republic, name assumed by the time going on between Franklin and M-Laws, in which Boers in the Transvaal (which see) in 1880-1.

the latter was driven from his position. South America, see America.

Southampton, a seaport (S. England), a county

of itself, near the Roman Clausentum and the Saxon South Australia was visited by capt. Sturt in 1830, Hamtune. It frequently suffered by Danish incursions; and explored shortly after by capt. Parker and Mr. Canute, when king, occasionally resided here. The charKent, the former of whom was killed by the natives. ter was granted by Henry I. and confirmed by Richard The boundaries of the province were fixed by 4 & 5 Will. I. and John; and the free grammar-school was founded IV. c. 95 (1834); and it was occupied 26 Dec. 1836, by by Edward VI. On 17 July, 1861, a monument to Dr. capt. Hindmarsh, the first governor. It was colonized Isaac Watts, a native, was inaugurated, and on 15 Oct. according to Mr. E. Gibbon Wakefield's scheme, which 1862, the Hartley institution was opened by lord Palwas carried out by the South Australian Colonization merston. The prince of Wales laid the foundation of the Association. The colouy for several years underwent parish church of St. Mary, built as a memorial of Samuel severe trials through the great influx of emigrants, Wilberforce, bishop of Winchester, 12 Aug. 1878; conseland-jobbing, building speculations, etc., which produced crated 19 June, 1879. almost universal bankruptcy in 1839. In five years Southcott, Joanna, a fanatic, born in 1750, came after, the energy of the colonists had overcome their from Exeter to London, where her followers at one period difficulties, and the prosperity of the colony appeared amounted to many thousands, the low and ignorant befully established. In 1842 the highly productive Burra-ing her principal dupes. In 1792 she announced herself Burra copper-mines were discovered, and large fortunes as the woman spoken of in Rev.chap. xii.; and a disease were suddenly realized; but in 1851 the discovery of favored the delusion that she would be the mother of gold in New South Wales and Victoria almost paralyzed the promised Shiloh. She died 27 Dec. 1814. In 1851 this province by drawing off a large part of the laboring there existed in England four congregations, professing population. Very little gold was found in South Aus- to expect her return. tralia ; but a reaction took place in favor of the copper- March, 1875, aged 103 (?).

Her successor, Mrs. Peacock, died mines, agriculture, etc. Before the discovery of gold, little trade existed between Adelaide (the capital of

Southeastern Railway, from London to FolkeSouth Australia) and Melbourne; but in 1852 gold was stone, opened 28 June, 1843 ; to Dover, 7 Feb. 1814. transmitted from the latter to the former to the amount

Southern Confederate States, see Confederof 2,215,1671., principally for breadstuffs, farm produce,

ates, etc. The bishopric of Adelaide was founded in 1847. Southern Continent. The Southern ocean was Sir Dominic Daly, appointed governor in Nov. 1861, died I first traversed by Magellan in 1520; and explored by

..B.C. 360



Wallis and Carteret in 1766, and by Cook in 1773 and Coinage act, 1870, the weight of the sovereign is fixed
1774. Of the southern continent little more is known at 123.27447 grains troy; specific gravity, 17.57 (916.67,
than that it is icebound, and contains active volcanoes. gold being 1000); half-sovereigns, 61.63723 grains. The
It was discovered in the first instance by capt. John dragon sovereigns were reissued in 1871.
Biscoe, on 27 Feb. 1831, in lat. 65° 57' S., long. 47° 20' E.,

Spa-fields (N. London). Here about 30,000 per-
extending east and west 200 miles—this he named En- sons assembled to vote an address from the distressed
derby Land, after the gentleman who had equipped him manufacturers to the prince regent, 15 Nov. 1816. A
for the voyage. Capt. Biscoe also discovered Graham's second meeting, 2 Dec. following, terminated in an alarm-
Land on 15 Feb. 1832, situated in lat 67° 1' S., long. 71° ing riot; the shops of several gunsmiths were attacked
48' W. The Messrs. Enderby equipped three other ex- for arms by the rioters; and in the shop of Mr. Beck-
peditions in search of the southern continent, the last with, on Snow hill, Mr. Platt was wounded, and much
(in connection with some other gentlemen) in 1838, injury was done before the tumult was suppressed. For
when capt. Balleny had command, who, on 9 Feb. 1839, this riot, Cashman, a seaman, was hanged, 12 March, 1817.
discovered the Balleny islands, in lat. 67° S., long. 165° E., Watson, the ringleader, escaped to America.
and in March, 1839, Sabrina Land, in lat. 65° 10' S., long.
118° 30' E. In 1840, a French expedition under the this name, were incorporated by the French in Algeria

Spahis, Turkish cavalry. African horsemen, under
command of admiral D'Urville

, and an American expe- in 1834; three regiments of them came to France in
dition under the command of commodore Wilkes, great-

ly added to our knowledge in respect to the existence
of a southern continent, and this was again increased

Spain (the ancient Iberia and Hispania). The
by the expedition which sailed from England in 1839, first settlers are supposed to have been the progeny of
under the command of capt. sir James Clark Ross, whó Tubal, fifth son of Japhet. The Phænicians and Car-
discovered Victoria Land in 1841, and subsequently thaginians (360 B.C.) successively planted colonies on
penetrated as far south as 78° 11'.

the coasts; and the Romans conquered the whole coun-

try, 206 B.C. Population of Spain in 1857, 15,464,078;
South-sea Bubble commenced with the estab- of the colonies, 6,333,887. In 1867, 16,090,546; colonies,
lishment of the South-sea Company in 1710, which was 6,384,131; Balearic Isles and Canaries, 551,434. In 1870,
at first unwisely and afterwards dishonestly managed. Spain, 16,262,422 ; isles, 573,084. Madrid, 1870, 332,024.
It exploded in 1720, ruining thousands of families; and Revenue: 1822, 'about 6,000,000l. ; 1850, 12,722,2001. ;
the directors' estates, to the value of 2,014,0001., were 1860, 18,921,0001. ; 1871, about 26,000,0001.
seized in 1721 and sold. Mr. Knight, the cashier, ab- The Carthaginians, enriched by the mines of Spain (480
sconded with 100,000l.; but he compounded the fraud

B.C. et seq.) form settlements..
for 10,0001., and returned to England in 1743. Almost New Carthage (Carthagena) founded by Hasdrubal.
all the wealthy persons in the kingdom had become Hamilcar extends their dominions in Spain..
speculators; the artifices of the directors having raised At his death, Hannibal, his son, takes the command,

221; prepares for war, 220; takes Saguntum, 219;
the shares, originally 1001., to the price of 1000l. A par- crosses the Alps, and enters Italy....
liamentary inquiry took place in Nov. 1720, and Aisla- The Romans carry the war into Spain; two Scipios de-

bie, chancellor of the exchequer, and several members of

feated and slain by Hasdrubal..

Pub. Cornelius Scipio Africanus takes New Carthage,
parliament were expelled the house in 1721; see Law's

210; drives the Carthaginians out of Spain, 207; and

Celtiberian and Numantine war.
Southwark (S. London) was governed by its own Viriathus, general of the Celtiberians and Lusitanians,
bailiffs till 1327. The city, however, found great incon- subdued all west Spain, 145; makes peace with the
venience from the number of malefactors who escaped

consul Fabius Servilianus, 142; assassinated by order
of the Romans..

thither, in order to be out of the reach and cognizance Insurrection of Sertorius, 78; subdued by Pompey, and
of the city magistrates; and a grant was made of South- assassinated..
wark to the city of London by the crown for a small an-

Julius Cæsar quells an insurrection in Spain..
nuity. In Edward VI.'s reign it was formed into a city Revolt through the rapacity of Crassus..

Pompey governs Spain. ...
ward, and was named Bridge Ward Without, 1550.- Era of Spain; conquest by Augustus begun.......1 Jan.
Southwark bridge was designed by John Rennie, and The Vandals, Alani, and Suevi wrest Spain from the
built by a company, 1815-19, at an expense of 800,0001. Adolphus founds the kingdom of the Visigoths.
It consists of three great cast - iron arches, resting on The Vandals pass over to Africa.,
massive stone piers and abutments; the distance between Theodoric I. vanquishes the Suevi..
the abutments is 708 feet; the centre arch is 240 feet Assassinated by his brother Euric, who becomes master
span, the two others 210 feet each ; and the total weight Recared I. expels the Franks...
of iron 5308 tons. The bridge was freed from toll on 8 He abjures Arianism, and rules ably...

till 601
Nov. 1864, the company receiving a compensation from Wamba's wise administration; he prepared a fleet for

the city. "An act for the payment of dividends to share. The Arabs invited into Spain against king Roderic....
holders was passed in 1872.- Southwark park was opened His defeat and death at Xeres...
19 June, 1869.

Establishment of the Saracens at Cordova.

Victorious progress of Musa and Tarik.
Southwell (Nottinghamshire), an ancient Saxon Emirs rule at Cordova; Pelayo, of Gothic blood, rules

in Asturias and Leon..
town, where a church was founded by Paulinus, arch-
bishop of York, 627; made collegiate before the Con- The Saracens defeated at Tours by Charles Martel..732 or 733

Abdcrahman the first king at Cordova.
quest, refounded by Henry VIII., and made a bishopric Invasion of Charlemagne.

by Henry VIII., 1541; dissolved by Edward VI. Col. Sancho Inigo, count of Navarre, etc.
legiate church restored by Elizabeth, 1586. Near here Sancho of Navarre becomes king of Castile..

The kingdom of Aragon commenced under Ratnirez I... 1035
Charles I. surrendered himself to the Scotch army in Leon and Asturias united to Castile..
1646. The Bishoprics act, authorizing the establish- Portugal taken from the Saracens by Henry of Besaucon
ment of a see at Southwell, was passed 16 Aug. 1878.

(see Portugal)......


The Saracens, beset on all sides by the Christians, call
Southwold, see Solebay.

in the aid of the Moors from Africa, who seize the

dominions they came to protect, and subdue the Sar.
Sovereign, an ancient and modern British gold coin.

...1091 et seq.
In 1489 22) pieces, in value 20s., "to be called the sov- Exploits of the Cid Rodrigo; dies.
ereign,” were ordered to be coined out of a pound of Pynasty of the Almoravides at Cordora.

The Moors defeated in several battles by Alfonso of
gold.-Ruding. In 1542 sovereigns were coined in value
20s., which afterwards, in 1550 and 1552 (4 & 6 Edw. VI.), Dynasty of the Almohades at Cordova.

passed for 24s, and 30s. “Sovereigns" of the new coin- Cordova, Toledo, Seville, etc., taken by Ferdinand of Cas-

age were directed to pass for 20s. 1 July, and half-sover- The kingdom of Granada begun by the Moors, last refugo
eigns for 108. 10 Oct. 1817; see Coin and Gold. By the from the power of the Christians..


annexes it.....















about 1099




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