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25 Aug

The crown of Navarre passes to the royal family of The cortes remore the king to Seville, and thence to
France..

1274
Cadiz....

.. March, 1823 200,000 Moors arrive to assist the king of Granada.. 1327 The French enter Spain, 7 April; and invest Cadiz, They are defeated at Tarifa by Alfonso XI. of Castile

25 June, with great slaughter. 1340 Battle of the Trocadero..

.31 Aug Reign of Pedro the Cruel..

1350 Despotism resumed; the cortes dissolved; executions of His alliance with Edward the Black Prince.. 1363 liberals. ...

.Oct. Defeated at Montiel and treacherously slain.

1369 Riego put to death

.7 Nov. Ferdinand II. of Aragon marries Isabella of Castile, 18 The French evacuate Cadiz..

21 Sept. 1828 Oct. 1469; and nearly the whole Christian dominions Cadiz made a free port.

.24 Feb. 1829 of Spain are united in one monarchy.

1479 Salique law abolished, 29 March; Carlist and Christina Establishment of the Inquisition.. 1480-4 parties formed...

1830 Persecution of the Jews...

1492-8 Queen of Spain appointed regent during the king's indis. Granada taken after a two years' siege; and the power position; change in the ministry..

25 Oct. 1832 of the Moors is fipally extirpated by Ferdinand... 1492 Don Carlos declares himself legitimate successor to the Jews expelled....

king....

29 April, 1833 Columbus is sent from Spain to explore the western Death of Ferdinand VII. ; his queen assumes the title of ocean...

..17 April,

governing queen until Isabella II., her infant daughter, Mahometans persecuted and expelled.. ......1499-1502 attains her majority....

.29 Sept. Death of Columbus..

.....20 May, 1506 Constitution termed * Estatuto Real" granted by advice Ferdinand conquers great part of Navarre..

1512 of Martinez de la Rosa... Accession of the house of Austria to the throne of The royalist volunteers disarmed with some bloodshed Spain; Charles I. of Spain... 1516 at Madrid..

.27 Oct. Able administration of Ximenes ; ungratefully used, Queen Christina marries Ferdinand Muños (afterwards 1516; his death. 1517 duke of Rianzarés)..

28 Dec. Charles elected emperor of Germany.

1519 The quadruple treaty establishes the right of Isabella to Insurrection in Castile.. .1520-21 the throne..

. 22 April, 1834 Philip of Spain marries Mary of England.. 25 July, 1554 Don Carlos suddenly appears in Spain. ..10 July, Charles abdicates and retires from the world.

1556 The peers vote his exclusion...

.30 Aug. War with France; victory at St. Quentin... .10 Aug. 1557 Mendizabal, prime-minister; Mina and Espartero com. Philip II. commences his bloody persecution of the manded the royalists; the rebel leader, ZumalacarProtestants. 1561 regui, killed near Bilbao...

..June, 1835 The Escurial begun building..

1563 Sir De Lacy Evans and others raise a British legion for Revolt of the Moriscoes, 1567; suppressed.

1570 the queen of Spain..... Naval victory of Lepanto over the Turks. .7 Oct. 1571 They defeat the Carlists at St. Sebastian

......1 Oct. 1836 Portugal united to Spain by conquest..

1580 Espartero gains the battle of Bilbao.

25 Dec, The Spanish armada destroyed (see Armada).

1588 Gen. Evans takes Irun.,

......17 May, 1837 Philip III. banishes the Moors (900,000).

1598-1610 Constituent cortes proclaimed.. Ministry of the duke of Lerma..

.1598-1618 Dissolution of the monasteries. Ministry of Olivarez....

.1621-43 The Carlists under Maroto desert Don Carlos and conPhilip IV loses Portugal..

1640 clude a treaty of peace with Espartero, at Vergara, Death of Charles II. , last of the house of Austria; ac

31 Aug. 1839 cession of Philip V. of the house of Bourbon... 1700 Don Carlos seeks refuge in France..

.13 Sept. War of the Succession... ........1702–13 Surrender of Morello...

28 May, 1840 Gibraltar taken by the English.

1704 Cabrera, the Carlist general, unable to maintain the war, Siege of Barcelona. ...

1713 enters France.

.......7 July Able government of cardinal Alberoni; he re-established The British auxiliaries evacuate St. Sebastian and Pas. the authority of the king, reformed many abuses, and

sages. raised Spain to the rank of a first power, 1715-20; or- Revolutionary movement at Madrid; the authorities tri. dered to quit Spain....

1720 umphant...

.......1 Sept. "6 Charles, son of Philip V., conquers Naples. .

1735 Dismissal of the ministry, and dissolution of the cortes, Charles III., king of the Two Sicilies, succeeds to the

9 Sept. crown of Spain....

1759 Espartero, minister, makes his triumphal entry into MaWar with England, 1762-3 and.

1796 drid..

... 3 Oct. Battle of Cape St. Vincent..

.14 Feb. 1797 The queen-regent appoints new ministry, who are Spanish treasure-ships, valued at $3,000,000, seized by nominated by Espartero, 5 Oct ; she abdicates and the English

.Oct. 1804 leaves the kingdom; visits France and Sicily; returns Battle of Trafalgar (see Trafalgar).. 21 Oct. 1805 to France....

..12 Oct. Sway of Godoy, prince of peace..

1806 Espartero, duke of Victory, expels the papal nuncio, The French enter Spain; a Spanish army sent to the

29 Dec. Baltic.....

1807 | The Spanish cortes declare Espartero regent during the Conspiracy of the prince of Asturias against his father, queen's minority...

.....12 April, 1841 25 July, Queen Christina's protest,

.........19 July, Treaty of Fontainebleau..

..27 Oct. Insurrection in favor of Christina commenced at Pampe. The French take Madrid..

..March, 1808 luna by gen. O'Donnell and Concha. .......2 Oct. The prince of peace dismissed..

.18 March, Don Diego Leon attacks the palace at Madrid; his fol. Abdication of Charles IV. in favor of Ferdinand, 19 lowers repulsed, and numbers slain by the queen's

March; and at Bayonne, in favor of his " friend and guards, 7 Oct.; he is shot at Madrid... .15 Oct. ally," Napoleon, when Ferdinand relinquished the Zurbano captures Bilbao....

..21 Oct. crown....

.1 May,

Rodil, constitutional general, enters Vittoria.....21 Oct. Revolution; the French massacred at Madrid....2 May, Montes de Oca shot.

.21 Oct. The province of Asturias rises en masse..........3 May, Gen. O'Donnell takes refuge in the French territory, Napoleon assembles the notables at Bayonne....25 May,

21 Oct, Joseph Bonaparte enters Madrid as king of Spain, 12 Espartero decrees the suspension of queen Christina's July; retires.... 29 July, pension.....

....26 Oct. Battle of Vimiera; French defeated.

............21 Aug Fueros of the Basque provinces abolished. ...29 Oct. Supreme Junta installed..

..Sept. Borio and Gobernado, implicated in the Christina plot, Madrid taken by the French, and Joseph restored. 2 Dec.

put to death at Madrid...

.9 Nov. Napoleon enters Madrid... .4 Dec. Espartero enters Madrid..

.23 Nov. The royal family of Spain imprisoned in the palace of General pardon of all persons not yet tried concerned in Chambéry, in Savoy...

, .5 Dec.
the events of October..

13 Dec. The French defeated at Corunna, 16 Jan. ; take Ferrol, The effective strength of the army fixed at 130,000 men, 27 Jan. ; Saragossa, 21 Feb.; Oporto, 29 Feb. ; Cordova

28 June, 1842 and Seville, Nov ; Gerona..

.12 Dec. 1809 An insurrection at Barcelona; the national guard joins Ney takes Ciudad Rodrigo...

.10 July, 1810 the populace, 13 Nov ; battle in the streets between The Spanish cortes meet..

.24 Sept.

the national guard and the troops: the latter lose 500 Wellington defeats Massena at Fuentes de Onoro.5 May, 1811 in killed and wounded, and retreat to the citadel, Soult defeated at Albuera... .....16 May,

16 Nov. Constitution of the cortes (democratic) ..........8 May, 1812 Barcelona blockaded, 26 Nov.; Espartero arrives before Wellington takes Ciudad Rodrigo, 19 Jan.; storms Bada- it, 29 Nov.; its bombardment and surrender..3, 4 Dec. joz, 6 April; defeats Marmont at Salamanca.. 22 July, The disturbances at Malaga....

....25 May, 1843 He occupies Madrid, and totally defeats the French at The revolutionary junta is re-established at Barcelona, Vittoria, 21 June; defeats Soult in the Pyrenees, 28

11 June, July; takes St. Sebastian, 31 Aug; and enters France,

(Corunna, Seville, Burgos, Santiago, and numerous

8 Oct. 1813 other towns shortly afterwards “pronounce" against Ferdinand VII. restored (constitution set aside)..14 May, 1814 the regent Espartero.) Slave trade abolished for a compensation...

1817 Arrival of gen. Narvaez at Madrid, which surrenders, Insurrection at Valencia repressed

1819

16 July, Spanish revolution begun by Riego........ ..Jan. 1820 Espartero bombards Seville....

.21 July, Ferdinand swears to the constitution of the cortes,

The siege is raised. ...

.... 27 July, 8 March,

[The revolution is completely successful, and Espar.

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20 Feb.

tero flees to Cadiz, and embarks on board her majes. An ineffectual truce.

. 16-23 Feb. 1800 ty's ship Malabar.)

The Moors defeated at Guad-el-ras.. .... 23 March, The new government deprives Espartero of his titles and Treaty of peace signed; 400,000,000 reals to be paid by

rank, 16 Aug; he arrives in London.......... 23 Aug. 1843 Moors, and Tetuan to be held till paid . .26 March, Reaction suppressed at Madrid...

.... Aug. Gen. Ortega, governor of the Balearic isles, lands near Isabella II., 13 years old, is declared by the cortes to be

Tortosa, in Valencia, with 3000 men, and proclaims the of age; Narvaez (friend of the queen-mother), lieut. - comte de Montemolin king, as Charles VI.; his troops gen

..8 Nov.

resist, and he is compelled to flee, with the comte and The queen-mother returns to Spain... 23 March, 1844 others, 3 April; Ortega shot...

..19 April, Zurbano's insurrection, 12 Nov. 1844; be is shot.. 21 Jan. 1845 The comte de Montemolin and his brother Ferdinand arDon Carlos relinquishes his right to the crown in favor rested at Tortosa, 21 April; renounce their claim to of his son.

......18 May,
the throne.

23 April, Reactionary constitution..

An amnesty proclaimed..

....2 May, Narvaez and his ministry resign, 12 Feb.; return to pow- Their brother Juan asserts his right, 5 June; and they, er, 17 March; again resign..

28 March, 1846 when at Cologne, annul their renunciation ... 28 June, Escape of Don Carlos from France..

.14 Sept. The emperor Napoleon's proposal to admit Spain as a Marriage of the queen to her cousin, Don Francisco first-class power is opposed by England, and given up, d'Assissi, duke of Cadiz, and marriage also of the in

Aug fanta Louisa to the duc de Montpensier .......10 Oct. The comte de Montemolin and his wife die at Trieste, [The Spanish marriages disturb the friendly rela

14 Jan. 1851 tions of the French and English governments.)

The annexation of St. Domingo to Spain ratified; slarery Amnesty grunted to political offenders... .18 Oct.

not to be re-established..

19 May, Two shots fired at the queen by an assassin, La Riva,

Insurrection at Loja suppressed

...July, 4 May, 1847 The queen said to be governed by the nun Patrocinio. He suffers “death by the cord”. .23 June,

Dec. Espartero restored... .3 Sept. Intervention in Mexico (see Mexico)...

8 Dec. Sir Henry Lytton Bulwer, British envoy, ordered to quit Much church property in course of sale..... . April, 1862 Spain in 48 hours....

.17 May, 1848 José Alhama and Manuel Matamoras, Protestant propaNarvaez dismissed and recalled.

1849 gandists, sentenced to 10 years' imprisonment..14 Oct. Diplomatic relations with England restored....18 April, 1850 Don Juan de Bourbon renounces his right to the throne, The queen of Spain delivered of a male child, which

8 Jan. 1883 lives but ten minutes...

12 July, Resignation of the premier, marshal O'Donnell, 26 Feb.; The American expedition under Lopez against Cuba (see marques de Miraflores minister.

.4 March, Cuba and the United States).

.1850, 1851 Insurrection in St. Domingo; war ensues (see Domingo), Resignation of Narvaez... 10 Jan.

1 Sept The jnfante don Henrique permitted to return to Spain, Empress of France visits the queen....

...Oct. 2 Feb. Rupture with Peru (which see)...

. April, 1834 Madrid- Aranjuez railway opened... ..9 Feb. Gen. Prim exiled for conspiracy..

13 Aug Law respecting the public debt (which has since ex. Arrazola ministry, Jan. ; Mon forms a ministry, 1 March; cluded Spain from the European money-markets),

resigns, 13 Sept. ; Narvaez forms a cabinet...... Sept. 1 Aug. Queen Christina returns to Spain. ...

.26 Sept. Death of Godoy, prince of peace..

.4 Oct. English government recognizes the insurrection at St. The queen pardons the prisoners taken in the attempt Domingo; Narvaez advises abandonment of the conupon Cuba.....

...11 Dec.

test; the queen refuses; the ministry resign, but reHer majesty gives birth to a princess.

...20 Dec.
sume office....

..14-18 Dec. Attempt made on the life of the queen; she is slightly Peace with Peru, which has to pay a beavy indemnity, wounded by the dayger of Merino, a Franciscan,

27 Jan. 1865 2 Feb. 1852 The queen orders the sale of crown lands, giving up Gen. Castaños, duke of Baylen, renowned in the French three fourths to the nation... war, dies, aged 95. ...

23 Sept. Student riots at Madrid; several persons killed. . 10 April, Narvaez exiled to Vienna...

Jan. 1853 [Bravo Murillo accused of cruelty on this occasion.) Ministerial changes: Lersundi forms a cabinet, 11 April; Decree relinquishing St. Domingo....

.5 May, resigns; Sartorius's cabinet.

.Sept. Suppression of a conspiracy at Valencia to reunite Spain Birth and death of a princess. .5 Jan. 1854 and Portugal....

10 June Gen. O'Donnell, Concha, and others banished....17 Jan. Resignation of Narvaez, 19 June; O'Donnell forms a libDisturbances at Saragossa, etc...

Feb.
eral cabinet..

22 June, Don Francisco (father of the king-consort) marries an Kingdom of Italy recognized by Spain. .26 June, "unfortunate" woman .. . March, Father Claret dismissed from court

.20 July, Military insurrection, under O'Donnell, near Madrid, Dispute with Chili; M. Tavira's settlement (20 May) dis

28 June,
avowed by the government...

..25 July, The morement headed by Espartero; Barcelona and Ma- Emperor Napoleon visits the queen at St. Sebastian, 9 drid pronounce against the government; barricades in Sept. ; she visits him at Biarritz..

.11 Sept. Madrid.. .1-17 July, Disturbances at Saragossa suppressed.

..3 Oct. Triumph of the insurrection; resignation of the minis. Admiral Pareja, at Valparaiso, insults the Chilian gov

try; the queen sends for Espartero.. ....19 July, ernment, 18 Sept. ; which declares war, 25 Sept. ; PaPeace restored; the degraded generals reinstated, etc.; reja declares a blockade....

..Oct. Espartero forms an administration.. ..31 July, The Chilian captain Williams captures the Spanish vessel The queen mother impeached; she quits Spain.,28 Aug. Covadonga (Pareja commits suicide).... 26 Nov. Ministerial crisis; Espartero resigns, but resumes office, Intervention fruitless.. 21-30 Nov. Claret returns to court.

25 Dec. New constitution of the cortes..

...13 Jan. 1855 New cortes elected; the great Progresista party still ab. The cortes vote that all power proceeds from the people;

stains from action in public affairs; queen opens they permit liberty of belief, but not of worship..Feb.

cortes...

27 Dec. Don Carlos dies..

10 March, Military insurrection at Aranjuez, headed by gen. Prim, Insurrection of Valencia.

....6 April, 1856 3 Jan.; martial law in Madrid, 4 Jan. ; Concha and Resignation of Espartero; new cabinet formed, headed Zabala march against rebels, 4 Jan., etc.; riots at Bar

by marshal O'Donnell; insurrection in Madrid, 14 July; celona, 9, 10 Jan.; state of siege in New Castile, CataO'Donnell and the government troops subdue the in

lonia, and Aragon.

.6-12 Jan. 1866 surgents; the national guard suppressed...15, 16 July, Prim enters Portugal and lays down arms; the insurrec. Insurrection at Barcelona and Saragossa quelled by tion ends.

..20 Jan. O'Donnell, as dictator ......

15-23 July,

Queen Victoria, British sloop, seized by a guardacosta, O'Donnell compelled to resign; Narvaez becomes minis.

15 Jan. ter...

12 Oct. Admiral Mendez bombards Valparaiso, destroying much Amnesty granted to political offenders.

.19 Oct.

property, 31 March; he is repulsed at Callao with loss, Espartero resigns as senator... .1 Feb. 1857

2 May, Insurrection in Andalusia; quickly suppressed; cruel The queen declares the campaign in the Pacific ended, military executions; 98 insurgents shot (24 at Seville),

15 June, June and July,

Great military revolt in favor of Prim at Madrid; about Ministerial changes; Armero minister.. ....26 Oct.

1200 men, headed by non-commissioned officers, with Birth of the prince-royal..

..28 Nov.

cannon, quelled summarily by marshals O'Donnell and Isturitz, minister, 14 Jan.; O'Donnell

, minister..1 July, Narvaez, with much bloodshed; 200 prisoners shot, 22 Cessation of state of siege at Barcelona, etc.....20 Sept. 1858 June; 21 sergeants shot....

...26 June, Joint French and Spanish expedition against Cochin Military revolts at Barcelona and at various other places, China announced... .....1 Dec.

23 June, War with Morocco (which see).

...Nov.-Dec. 1859 Resignation of O'Donnell as minister, succeeded by Nar. An association for reforming the tariff, etc., formed..

vaez and Bravo, who adopt serere measures against the O'Donnell commands the army in Africa; indecisive

liberals.

..July, conflicts reported; battle at Castillejos; a Spanish The queen said to be subject to the intluence of the "Balaklara" charge..

1 Jan. 1800 " bleeding nun,” Patrocinio, and the priests. ...July, The Moors defcated near Tetuan, which surrenders,

Freedom of the press abolished, and writers transported 4 Feb.

to the colonies; a "reign of terror?'. ... Aug.-Sept.

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British screw steamer Tornado. com. E. Collier, seized Insurrection against the provisional government breaks

by Spaniards (charged with aiding Chili), and carried out at Cadiz, 5 Dec. ; murderous conflicts, 6 Dec.; the to Cadiz.

. 21, 22 Aug. 1866 city invested; surrenders; entry of gen. Caballero de 33 persons condemned to death, many of whom had fled, Roda, general of the army of Andalusia .......12 Dec. 1868

23 Sept.

Peaceful elections for constituent cortes.....19, 20 Dec. Re-establishment of tranquillity declared at Madrid. 3 Oct. Manifesto of the duc de Montpensier, justifying his Public instruction placed under the clergy.........Oct. recent entry into Spain...

dated 19 Dec. Reform of the municipal institutions decreed on account Violent insurrection at Malaga suppressed with much of revolutionary proceedings..

...Oct.
slaughter. .

....31 Dec. Crew of Tornado detained as prisoners, 31 Oct.; the case Election of members for the cortes...

17 Jan. 1869 referred to law..

.. Nov. The Spanish envoy at Rome not received... ..23 Jan. King and queen visit Lisbon.

11 Dec. Gutierez de Castro, civil governor of Burgos, murdered Taxes for 1867 received in advance.

in the presence of priests while taking an inventory The queen dismissed the cortes (and imprisoned many of the artistic treasures of the cathedral....... 24 Jan. eminent deputies for petitioning against it)...30 Dec. Insurrection in Cuba increasing...

Feb. O'Donnell and his colleagues residing in Paris......Jan. 1867 Meeting of the cortes, 11 Feb. ; Rivero elected president, Decision in Tornado case-the ship a prize and the crew

13 Feb. prisoners of war, 18 Dec. 1866; lord Stanley protests The provisional government resign; Serrano reappointed against the proceedings..

.8 Feb.

head of the government with same ministry. 25, 26 Feb. Decree for making secret publication of journals and Riots at Xeres on account of conscription. ....16 March, pamphlets penal....

..16 Feb. Spanish Protestant religious service at Madrid. 28 March, The Tornado prisoners released.

..Feb. Insurrection in Cuba fomented by Americans..... April, State of siege raised..

.7 March, 61st anniversary of the Madrid revolution and massacre Queen Victoria sloop declared by Spain to have been of the French (1808)...

.2 May, wrongfully seized and reparation to be made. 21 April, The cortes vote for a monarchy (214 to 71).. ...21 May, Amnesty to revolters of June, 1866............25 April, The new constitution promulgated...

..6 June, Son of duchess of Montpensier born.. ........1 May, Marshal Serrano elected regent by the cortes, 15 June; Attempted insurrection in different parts (attributed to

18 June, Prim) failed through want of organization,

New ministry under Prim...

.. about 18 June, about 15 Aug. Carlist risings in La Mancha and at Ciudad Real, supInsurrectionary movements reported in Catalonia and pressed....

....July-Aug Aragon...

July-Aug. United States overtures respecting Cuba indignantly State of siege proclaimed.

.17 Aug.
rejected...

about 18 Sept. Insurrection suppressed; amnesty

..Sept. Candidature of the duike of Genoa discussed..Sept.-Oct. Death of marshal O'Donnell, duke of Tetuan.....5 Nos. Republican risings at Tarragona, Barcelona, and other Martial law annulled..

...16 Nov.

places, suppressed with bloodshed, Sept. ; republicans Parliament opened by the queen in person...... 27 Dec. defeated near Reus, 4 Oct.; Saragossa cannonaded, 8 An armament bill adopted by the chamber of deputies, Oct.; Valencia surrendered, 16 Oct.; tranquillity gen22 Jan. 1868 erally restored..

20 Oct. Proposed settlement with national creditors at 20 per Warm discussions respecting the election of a king; To. cent. of the debt.....

..Jan.
pete, minister of marine, resigns..

.2 Noy. General amnesty proclaimed. .23 Jan. General Dulce dies...

.23 Nov. Death of marshal Narvaez, duke of Valencia (aged 67), Powerful republican speech of Castelar in the cortes, 23 April,

about 18 Dec New ministry formed by Gonzalez Bravo Murillo,

Resignation of Prim and the ministry on the Italian goy. 24 April,

ernment opposing the nomination of the duke of Genoa Marriage of princess Isabella, the queen's eldest daughter, as king of Spain..

......4 Jan. 1870 to the count of Girgenti, brother of ex-king of Naples, Prim resumes office with Topete and Rivero.....10 Jan,

13 May, Majority in the assembly for Prim against the combined Law enacted abolishing normal schools and subjecting unionists and liberals.

.3 April, education to the priests.

.2 June,

Conscription riots at Barcelona; soon suppressed, Ministerial changes... .16 June,

7, 8 April, Duke and duchess of Montpensier arrested and exiled, The duc de Montpensier, after great provocation, kills

6 July, don Enrique de Bourbon, brother of the ex-king, in a Marshal Serrano, gen. Dolce, and others exiled,

duel, 12 March; tried, condemned, and fined, 12 April,

about 10 July, The offered crown declined by Espartero.......... May, Insurrection begins in the fleet, 18 Sept ; joined by the Bill for gradual abolition of slavery in the colonies pregarrison and city of Cadiz, 19 Sept. ; accepted by nearly

sented to the cortes

. 28 May, all Spain.....

...19-30 Sept. Two Englishmen of Gibraltar seized by brigands; ranPrim arrives at Cadiz, 17 Sept. ; announces a provisional somed for 52001. ; brigands afterwards attacked by the government.

19 Sept.

Spanish civil guard; several of them killed, and part The ministers resign, 19, 20 Sept. ; José Concha becomes of the ransom recovered......

...June, president of the council, 22 Sept. ; Bravo Murillo and Rojo Arias carries a resolution requiring an absolute his colleagues flee to Bayonne..

........23 Sept. majority in the cortes for any proposed sovereign (179 (Royalist leaders : José Concha, marques de Havana, out of 356); this excludes all present candidates. June, Manuel Concha, marques de Duero, at Madrid; the Isabella II. abdicates in favor of her son, Alfonso. 25 June, marques de Pezuela at Barcelona; Eusebio de Calonge Prince Leopold of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen nominated in the north; Pavia y Lacy, marques de Novaliches, in king, accepted by the regent and ministry, 6 July; this Andalusia.]

justified by the government in a circular, 7 July; on Novaliches, the royalist general, defeated at Alcolea, by the strong opposition of France he resigns....12 July, Serrano, 27 Sept. ; surrenders... .28 Sept. Neutrality in the war announced..

.,27 July, The queen flies to Bayonne and thence to Pau, and pro- Renewed agitation for a republic... ... about 9 Aug. tests. ...

.29, 30 Sept. Amnesty for all political offences since 29 Sept. 1868, The deposition of the queen declared at Madrid. 29 Sept. published. ...

10 Aug A national guard organized...

.30 Sept. Irruption of Carlists into Navarre, 27 Aug. ; defeated, Don Juan, son of Don Carlos, renounces his hereditary

28 Aug rights in favor of his son, Carlos..

The Basque provinces put into a state of siege..28 Aug. Serrano enters Madrid, 3 Oct.; Serrano, Prim, and Olo. The French republic warmly recognized... .Sept. zaga constitute a provisional government. .5 Oct. Ministerial crisis...

15 Sept. Prim enthusiastically received at Madrid.. 7 Oct. Claret, the ex-queen's confessor, dies..

.4 Oct. The education law of 2 June annulled; the Jesuits and Amadeus, duke of Aosta (boru 30 May, 1845), accepts the other religious orders suppressed; the laws expelling

candidature for the crown....

.20 Oct. the Jews abrogated; freedom of religious worship de- Elected by the cortes by 191 votes (63 for a republic; creed...

about 12, 13 Oct.
27 for the duc de Montpensier).

16 Nov. All the local juntas dissolved by manifesto of the pro- Proclaimed king....

17 Nov. visional government...

..20 Oct. The ex.queen, on behalf of her son Alfonso, protests The provisional government recognized by the United against the election..

..21 Nov. States, 13 Oct. ; by England, France, and Prussia, 25 The duke accepts the crown from a deputation of the Oct.; by Austria, Sweden, and Belgium,about 31 Oct. cortes at Florence, and says "that his honesty should Manifesto of the government declaring for universal rise above the struggle of parties, and that he had no suffrage, and free press and education... .26 Oct

other object than the peace and prosperity of the naPrim created a marshal..

.about 6 Nov
tion ".

.4 Dec. The queen arrives at Paris..

.6 Nov

Stormy session in the cortes respecting arrangements for The joint electoral committee at Madrid declare in favor the new king, 19 Dec.; Rivero, the president, resigns, of a limited monarchy.. .14 Nov.

25 Dec. Decree for formation of a citizen force of the Volunteers Prim fired at and wounded in his carriage by six men, of Freedom..

18 Nov

who escaped; great indignation at Madrid, 27 Dec.; Loan of 20,000,0001. proposed by Figueroa, minister of Topete rejoins the ministry; vote of confidence in it, finance: 4,000,0001, said to be undertaken by Roths

28 Dec. childs; about 2,000,000l. subscribed in Spain,

Prim dies in the evening (aged 56); the king received by about 25 Nov. Topete at Cartagena..

.30 Dec.

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Funeral of Prim.

31 Dec. 1870 The king enters Madrid, visits the body of Prim, and takes the oath,

. 2 Jan. 1871 New ministry under Serrano.

...5 Jan. Warm reception of the queen at Madrid......19 March, New cortes opened; the king's speech much applauded,

3 April, Del Castillo and other Alfonsists recognize the king,

April, Olozaga elected president of the cortes.. ..4 April, The Tornado difficulty settled (Aug.-Nov. 1866); compen

sation to be paid by the Spanish government.... May, Ministerial crisis through financial affairs; settled by the king.

..June, Marshal Serrano fails in forming a cabinet, 23 July; a ministry formed by Zorrilla..

.24 July, The king visits the provinces; warmly received, 1 Sept.

et seq. ; welcomed by Espartero at Logroño.. 30 Sept. Cortes opened, 1 Oct.; Sagasta elected president in oppo

sition to Rivero (123–113), 3 Oct.; the Zorrilla ministry

resigns, 4 Oct.; Malcampo forms a ministry....5 Oct. Republican meeting at Madrid; strong resolutions passed,

15 Oct. Defeat of the ministry in the cortes; dissolution,

24, 25 Nov. Angulo, the finance minister, proposes to tax the foreign national creditors 18 per cent..

27 Nov. Suicide of the count of Girgenti.

.27 Nov, Ministry formed under Sagasta..

21 Dec. Espartero, duke of Victory, made prince of Vergara,

Jan. 1872 Resignation of Sagasta and the ministry for a trifling

defeat; refused by the king; dissolution of the cortes; much excitement; troops under arms..... 25, 26 Jan. Ministry reconstituted by Sagasta and Topete... 20 Feb. Union of the opposition against the ministry, who de

termine to support the throne.........about 8 March, Elections; majority of about 100 for ministers; Madrid elects for the opposition..

.4-6 April, Insurrection of Carlists incited by priests in Navarre,

Leon, etc.; manifesto of don Carlos, duke of Madrid;
Diaz de Rada, his general..

.. about 20 April, The new cortes opened; the king says, “I will never

impose myself on the Spanish people, but neither will I allow myself to be accused of deserting the post which I occupy by their will”.

.24 April, Navarre, etc., in state of siege.

... 25 April, Marshal Serrano enters Navarre with 600,000 men; don

Carlos, calling himself Carlos VII., crosses the frontiers near Véra, and takes the command, Rada retiring, 2

May; totally defeated at Oroquieta (which see). 4 May, The Carlists surrender by hundreds, or disperse,

8, 9, 20, 21 May, Reported small defeats at Onate, etc........13, 20 May, Resignation of the Sagasta ministry. ...22 May, Band of Carlists defeated near Gerona.... about 22 May, New ministry (supported by Serrano), admiral Topete president..

.25 May, Serrano offers amnesty to Carlists who surrender, 25

May; it is accepted, 27 May; he is censured, but exonerated by the cortes, 8 June; he assumes the presidency of the ministry.

.4 June, Carlism increases; the ministry propose martial law;

the king opposes it; the ministry resign. ....12 June, Ruiz Zorrilla (who had just retired from political life)

becomes president of a new ministry... 14 June, Letter of the duc de Montpensier advocating the rights

of prince Alfonso, 17 April; published...... ....June, Dissolution of the cortes..

..29 June, Attempted assassination of the king and queen by about

15 men; one assassin killed, two taken; a little after midnight of...

.18, 19 July, Don Carlos calls on Catalonia, Aragon, and Valencia, to rise, promising to restore their ancient liberties,

16 July, The king's popular visit to the provinces, travelling nearly 2000 miles.....

... 26 July-24 Aug. Elections for the cortes; highly favorable to the Zorrilla ministry..

..25 Aug. et seq. The cortes opened by the king with a fine speech. 15 Sept. Republican rising at Ferrol; red flag displayed; 1500

men under Montojo and Bozas, 11 Oct.; town captured by the captain-general of Galicia...

..13 Oct. The insurgents disperse or surrender; about 500 pris. oners...

.17 Oct Impeachment of the Sagasta ministry for financial corruption proposed in the cortes; much agitation,

end of Oct. The country disturbed by Carlists and republicans,

Nov - Dec. Gen. Hidalgo appointed to a military command; the artillery officers resign: punished.

Nov. Outbreak in Madrid suppressed .

..11 Dec. Changes in the ministry announced

....20 Dec. Bill for abolition of slavery in Porto Rico, for compensation, brought into congress.

.24 Dec. Carlist bands defeated, and several generals killed..Jan. 1873 King Amadeus's message to the cortes, announcing his

abdication; he states that he sees Spain in a continual struggle, the era of peace more distant; he sought for remedies within the law, and did not ind them; his

efforts were sterile. The two chambers combine as the sovereign cortes of Spain, and vote for a republic (126–32)...

.11 Feb. 1873 Reported success of the Carlists; agitation for the duc de Montpensier among the Orleanists in France,

12 Feb. New ministry under Figueras...

.12 Feb. King Amadeus arrives at Lisbon...

...13 Feb. Irruption of Carlists; they hold part of Catalonia; de.

monstrations in favor of a federal republic, 22, 23 Feb. Ministry reconstituted; Figueras chief.. .....24, 25 Feb. Powerful circular to European powers from Castelar, foreign minister

.27 Feb Appointment of a permanent committee of the cortes,

22 March, Great dissensions between the radicals and republicans;

fighting with Carlists in the provinces, early in March, Slavery in Porto Rico abolished.

.23 March, Proclamation of the government, calling for volunteers against the Carlists.

25 March, Mutinous spirit in the army ..

.. April The Carlists beaten in several encounters; don Alfonso de Bourbon re-enters France.

.23 April, The old “monarchical volunteers" take possession of the

bull-ring at Madrid; are disarmed and dispersed by the government troops; the “permanent committee dissolved by the government, which assumes supreme power...

.26 April, Serrano and Sagasta have left Spain. . 29 April, More defeats of the Carlists; Madrid tranquil

,

29, 30 April-4 May, Elections for the cortes commence; monarchists abstain from voting...

.10 May, Mr. Bradlaugh, the English republican, entertained at Madrid..

.24 May, More Carlist defeats reported; their alleged cruelties denied by the Carlist committee.

May-June, The Intransigentes, or Irreconcilables (extreme republicans) very powerful...

...June, The new cortes opened; a speech by Figueras...1 June, The federal republic voted by the cortes (210-2), and pro

claimed, 8 June; Pi y Margall, president of a new ministry, rejected; Figueras and his ministry resume office

.9 June Carlists besieging Irun.

..7 June, Ministerial crisis renewed, 10 June; Pi y Margall be

comes minister; Figueras quits Spain........11 June, Carlists defeat Castañon near Murieta .......26 June, Cadiz, Seville, Malaga, and Valencia very insubordinate,

29 June The Intransigentes withdraw from the cortes....1 July, Defeat and death of Calvinety by Carlists; insurrection

at Alcoy, promoted by Internationalists; the mayor and others killed; announced. .

...11 July, Don Carlos (as Carlos VII.) enters Spain, "to save the country

.13 July, Desperate fighting at Igualada, Catalonia....17, 18 July, Four prevailing parties: 1. The government, highly

democratic; 2. The Intransigentes, or Irreconcilables, extremely democratic; 3. The International, or communists; 4. The Legitimists, Carlists. Murcia and Valencia proclaim themselves federal cantons,

18 July, Pi y Margall compelled to resign; Salmeron forms a

ministry opposed to the Intransigentes...... 18 July, Igualada taken by the Carlists under Don Alfonso,

19 July, The government determine to put down insurrection,

24 July, Don Carlos enters Biscay.....

31 July, Carlists hold chief of N. Spain..

.. Aug. Insurgents repulsed in their attack on Almeria, beaten

in fights at Seville, 28-30 July; gen. Pavia warmly received

.31 July, Troops attack Valencia, 26 July; it surrenders...8 Aug. New constitution printed, 27 July; discussed...... , Aug.

(118 Articles; includes separation of church and state; free religious worship; nobility abolished; 15 states in and near peninsula; 2 in the Antilles; cortes (senate and congress) to have legislative power; one deputy to 50,000 souls: cortes to be renewed in two years; members to be paid; executive, president and

ministry; president elected for four years.) Bombardment of Malaga stopped by the British and German admirals...

1 Aug. Cadiz surrenders to gen. Pavia.

.4 Aug. Alleged Carlist victories at Elgueta, etc. ......5–10 Aug. Reported total defeat of the insurgents at Chinchilla,

while marching on Madrid... Cartagena, held by Intransigentes, besieged.....22 Aug. The Deerhound, English yacht, conveying stores to Car.

lists, seized by the Spaniards, 114 miles ofr Biarritz;

crew imprisoned, and captain sent to Ferrol...13 Aug Capt. Werner, of German ship Friedrich Carl, captures

Almanza and Vittoria, Spanish iron-clads, held by rebels; gives them up to admiral Yelverton, who prepares for action against Intransigentes claiming them,

and sends them to Gibraltar unmolested.......1 Sept. Carlists defeat republicans at Arrichulegui, near Renteria; many killed....

21 Aug. They take Estella after a conflict at Dicastillo ... 25 Aug.

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Castelar elected president of the cortes .26 Aug. 1873 Carlists accused of butchering prisoners, June and July, 1874 The ministry propose abolition of capital punishment in Alleged Carlist victories at Peña Mura (or Plata), near the army; defeated in the cortes; resign.......5 Sept.

Abarzuza ....

.... 25-27 June, Castelar heads a ministry; proposés calling out 150,000 Schmidt, a German correspondent, shot as a spy by Car: men, to end the war.

.7, 8 Sept.
lists.

...about 28 June, Carlists successful; yet do not advance... ..5-8 Sept. German intervention for killing of capt. Schmidt by Car. Salmeron elected president of the cortes... ....9 Sept.

...July, Castelar made virtually dictator ..

,15 Sept. Carlists hold Navarre, Guipuscoa, Biscay, and Alara.July, “ Ferdinand Muñoz, duke of Rianzarès, husband of queen The Carlists capture Cuenca (about 80 miles from MaChristina, dies at Havre.....

....12 Sept.
drid).

.......13 July, The Deerhound and crew given up; announced,

Don Carlos's manifesto, promising constitutional governabout 18 Sept. ment...

.16 July, Reported victories of Loma over Carlists. ....18 Sept. Massacre of 86 republican prisoners by Carlists under Speech of Castelar; the cortes to be closed 2 Jan. 1874,

Saballo, at Valfogona...

.17 July, 18 Sept. All Spain placed under martial law; levy of 125,000 men, Carlist attack on Tolosa repulsed by Loma......19 Sept.

about 18 July, “ The cortes prorogued..

.21 Sept. Government circular to foreign courts respecting Carlist The Carlist Merendon killed and his band dispersed,

atrocities.....

.29 July, about 26 Sept. The government appeals to the French government reThe Vittoria and Almanza given up to the Spanish specting French assistance to Carlists; justificatory government.... ...26 Sept. reply.

..3 Aug. The Intransigentes’ ironclads, Mendez Nuñez and Nu- The British Mediterranean squadron, under admiral

mancia, bombarding Alicante, repulsed.......28 Sept. Drummond, sails from Malta for Barcelona. ....4 Aug. Carlists in Navarre defeated by Moriones.......27 Sept. Don Carlos appeals to the chief powers not to intervene; Combination of parties to support Castelar, about 6 Oct. justifies Dorregaray's severities, and the execution of Battle at Maneru, near Puenta de la Reyna, in Navarre, Schmidt...

..6 Aug. between republicans under Moriones, and Carlists Moriones's alleged defeat of Mendiri and Carlists at Oteiza, under Ollo; both claim a victory; advantage with Car

12 Aug. lists...

.6 Oct. Duty of bd. a ton on imported iron granted to Bilbao for Carlists said to be repulsed at La Junquera, in Catalonia, repairs .....

13 Aug. about 8 Oct. Serrano's government recognized by Great Britain, Ger. Battle of Escombrera bay; the Intransigentes' ships many, France, and other powers (not by Russia), attempt to break blockade of Cartagena; repulsed by

about 14 Aug. admiral Lobo

.11 Oct. Letter of sympathy and encouragement from the comte Many Carlists escape into France

.about Oct.
de Chambord to don Carlos...

. Aug. Lobo declines to fight, and retires, pursued by the Intran- 185 prisoners of war at Olot said to be shot by Carlists,

sigentes, 13 Oct.; justifies himself at Madrid... 22 Oct. Collision of the Intransigentes' vessels Numancia and Puycerda vigorously besieged by Carlists ....Aug.-Sept. Fernando del Catolico; the latter sunk and 66 drowned, Zabala resigns; ministry formed under Sagasta..

4 Sept. 18 Oct. Carlists fire on German gunboats Nautilus and Albatross, Unsuccessful sortie at Cartagena .....

21 Oct.

near San Sebastian; the Germans fire shells into the Tristany, with 2500 Carlists, defeated by Salamanca,

town..

.about 5 Sept. 25 Oct. Lopez Dominguez said to have defeated Carlists five Death of Rios Rosas, statesman

.3 Nov.

times, and relieved Puycerda ... ... about 6 Sept. The Murillo (see Wrecks, 1873) captured; condemned to Carlists fire on German and Austrian ambassadors on be sold by the British Court of Admiralty .......Nov. the road to Madrid..

..6 Sept. Indecisive conflicts at Monte Jurre and Monjardin; vic- Carlists defeated by Lopez Pinto near Mora, about 9 tories claimed by Carlists.....

.7, 8, 9 Nov. Sept.; by Moriones at Barasoam, near Tafalla, Cartagena bombarded........... .26 Nov. et seq.

about 25 Sept. Reported victory of Moriones near Tolosa... 7 Dec. The ruthless Carlist general Dorregaray retires to BaLopez Dominguez becomes commander before Carta

yonne; said to have been superseded by Mendiri.. Oct. gena...

13 Dec. Pavia superseded by Jovellar in Valencia... early in Oct. Tetuan, insurgent vessel, at Cartagena, blew up (? pur- Note sent to French government, complaining of neglect posely). .

.30 Dec.

respecting the Carlists on the frontiers...early in Oct. Pronunciamento : Meeting of the cortes; speech of Cas- Carlists said to have been defeated at Fortuna, in Mur.

telar; vote of confidence in him lost by twenty; he cia, 11 Oct.; and at Villa Fortuna....... ....30 Oct. resigns; Salmeron attempts to form a ministry, 2, 3 Carlists begin to bombard Irun, 4 Nov.; repulsed, Jan.; Pavia, captain-general of Madrid, forcibly dis

10 Nov. solves the cortes...

.3 Jan. 1874 Serrano commander of the army in the north......Nov. Marshal Serrano made president of a new ministry, in- Prince Alfonso issues a manifesto in reply to address, decluding Topete; the national guard of disarm

claring himself to be “a true Spaniard, Catholic, and ing.

4 Jan.
liberal”

1 Dec. Insurrection at Saragossa, suppressed with bloodshed, The army at Murviedro pronounces in favor of Alfonso;

4 Jan.

he is proclaimed king by gen. Martinez Campos, 29 The new government issue a moderate manifesto,

Dec. ; recognized by the other armies and the navy,

9, 10 Jan. 30 Dec. ; proclaimed by gen. Primo da Rivera at Ma. Cartagena captured by Lopez Dominguez........ 12 Jan. drid; Antonio Canovas del Castillo, head of a royal Insurrection at Barcelona quelled... .12, 13 Jan.

ministry

.31 Dec. Numancia ironclad, with Intransigentes leaders and con- The president, marshal Serrano, withdraws to France, victs, escapes; they land at Mers el Kebir, near Oran,

1 Jan. 1875 on the African coast; are interned by the French,

Alfonso XII. recognized throughout Spain; well received 12 Jan.

at Barcelona, 9 Jan.; enters Madrid. ..........14 Jan. Blockade of the coast of Spain announced.......31 Jan. Proclamation of Carlos against Alfonso. ........6 Jan. The Carlists besiege Bilbao; Moriones defeated at So- Orders of knighthood re-established; payments to clergy morrostro..

25 Feb.
to be renewed.

Jan. Marshal Serrano resigns presidency of the ministry, and Increased barbarities of the Carlists reported..., .Jan.

becomes chief of the executive, succeeded by Zabala; Alfonso reviews 30,000 troops near Tafalla, 22 Jan.; Serrano proceeds to Bilbao

.28 Feb. et seq.

issues proclamation to northern provinces, promising Serrano assumes command. .about 8 March, amnesty and respect to local rights..

.22 Jan. Tho blockade of the coast (31 Jan.) raised......2 March, Serrano returns to Madrid., Asserted victory of the Carlists at San Felice Burgos, Carlists surprise and defeat royalists at Lucar....3 Feb.

15 March, Carlists retreat from Pampeluna; entered by the king, 6 Three days' conflict at Somorrostro, near Bilbao; the Feb.; he exchanges decorations with Espartero at LoCarlists defeated, but retain their positions (about groño...

.9 Feb. 2000 killed and wounded on both sides),

Resignation of gens. Moriones, Loma, and Blanco; Con25, 26, 27 March, cha sent for from Cuba..

Feb. Armistice for three days.....

28 March,
Serrano received by the king...

..8 March, Gen. Manuel da Concha joins Serrano at Santander,

Cabrera, an old Carlist general (see 1840), publishes an

about 8 April, address, declaring for Alfonso XII. .11 March, Great national effort to relieve Bilbao; union of parties Several professors seized and exiled for liberal opinions, hostilities resumed.... ...20 April,

March-April, After several days' conflict, Carlists retreat; marshal Eight prisoners shot by Carlist general Mendiri, in reConcha enters Bilbao, which is much injured by long prisal...

Í April, bombardment. ..2 May, Papal nuncio received by the king..

...3 May, A battle at Prats de Llusanés, indecisive.. ...6 May, Aguirre, Carlist general, joins the royalists. .about 9 May, New ministry formed under Zabala

..13 May,

Jovellar commander of royal army........about 7 June, Carlists repulsed in severe attack at Ramales,

Martinez Campos said to have taken fortress of Miraveti, about 20 May,

24 June, Carlists defeated at Gondesa..... .... about 6 June, Vigorous action of the government troops; Carlists exRepublicans repulsed before Estella. .25-27 June, pelled from Castile; stringent measures ordered against Concha killed (succeeded by Zabala). .....27 June, ihose who favor them......

....,July,

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