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Montgomery takes Montreal, 13 Nov.; killod at Quebec, Columbia, district of (under the immediate government

31 Dec. 1775

British evacuate Boston... of congress), contains Washington, the seat of govern.

..17 March, 1776 ment...

1790-1
Battle of Fort Moultrie.

26 June, Vermont.

1791

The colonies declared "free, sovereign, and indepen

dent" Kentucky.

1792

.4 July, * Tennessee

1796

Gen. Howe takes Long Island, 27 Aug.; New York, 15 Ohio...

1802

Sept. ; battle of wbite Plains, 28 Oct.; Howe takes * Louisiana (bought from France in 1803).

1812
Rhode Island....

....8 Dec. Indiana..

1916

The Hessians at Trenton surrender to Washington, * Mississippi. 1817

26 Dec. Illinois

1818

Lafayette and other French officers join the Americans.. 1777 * Alabama.

1819
Battle of Princeton..

...3 Jan. Maine

Battle of Bennington.

1820 Missouri.

Battle of Brandywine. 1821

..11 Sept.

Howe takes Philadelphia... * Arkansas.. 1836

Sept. Michigan

1837

First battle of Stillwater, 19 Sept.; second battle...7 Oct. * Florida (ceded by Spain, 1820); made a state.

Battle at Germantown. 1845

3, 4 Oct * Texas.

Burgoyne surrounded; capitulates at Saratoga...17 Oct. Iowa....

1846

A federal government adopted by congress......15 Nov. Wisconsin..

The states recognized by France.. 1848

,16 Dec. California.

Alliance with France... 1850

...6 Feb. 1778 New Mexico (territory)..

Battle of Monmouth.. Utah (territory). .

The king's troops quit Philadelphia..

... June, Washington (territory).

1853
Massacre of Wyoming.

..3 July, " Minnesota (territory, 1849); state.

1857
British capture Savannah.

29 Dec. Oregon (territory, 1850); state..

1859
Americans defeated at Brier's Creek.

.3 March, 1779 Kapsas (territory, 1854); state..

1861
Americans capture Stony Point...

15 July, Dakota (territory)

Paul Jones's victory...

.23 Sept. Arizona (territory).

1863
Charleston surrenders to the British.

.12 May, 1780 Idaho (territory)

Cornwallis defeats Gates at Camden. West Virginia (from Virginia); state.

Major André hanged as a spy...

2 Oct. Nevada (territory, 1861); state...

1864

[André (born 1751) was an adjutant-general in the Montana (territory)..

British army, and was taken in disguise on his return Nebraska (territory, 1854); state..

1867

from a secret expedition to the traitorous American Wyoming (territory).

1868

general Arnold, 23 Sept. 1780. He was sentenced to Alaska (territory)..

execution as a spy by a court of gen. Washington's Colorado (territory, 1861); state....

1876

officers at Tappan, New York, and suffered death, 2

Oct. following. His remains were removed to EngThe census report thus classifies the population : Males, land in a sarcophagus, 10 Aug. 1821, and interred in

25,520,582; females, 24,632,284. Native born, 43.475,500; Westminster Abbey. Impartial judges justify the foreign born, 6,677,360. Whites, 43, 404,877; colored, 6,577,- severity of this punishment.) 151. The remaining 170,838 are composed of Indians not Battle of King's Mountain..

7 Oct. in tribal relations and under government care, Chinese, and Battle of Cowpens..

.17 Jan. 1781 other Asiatics. The Chinese are estimated at 105,363. Greene's celebrated retreat..

.J: and Feb. The senate is composed of two members for each state, elected Articles of confederation adopted, 1 March; congress asfor six years. The representatives in congress are elected sembles...

2 March, for two years. (Formerly five slaves were counted as three Cornwallis defeats Greene at Guilford. ..15 March, persons, but this system ended with the abolition of slavery. Battle of Hobkirk's Hill..

25 April, in 1872' the number of representatives was raised from 233 New London burned by Arnold.

...6 Sept. to 283, to commence 3 March, 1873. A new ratio of appor. Battle of Eutaw Springs..

..8 Sept. tionment, usually involving some change in the total nuin Surrender of lord Cornwallis and his whole army of 7000 ber of representatives, is adopted after each census. The men to gens. Washington and Rochambeau, at York. exact apportionment, founded upon the census of 1880, has town...

...19 Oct. not yet (Jan. 1882) been determined.

Arrival of sir Guy Carleton to treat for peace, 5 May; For statistics of revenues, expenditures, and public debt, see provisional articles signed at Paris by commissioners, titles National Debt of United States, and Revenue of United

13 Nov. 1782 States.

Savannah evacuated by the British.

..11 July, 1783 For statistics of the foreign commerce of the United States, New York evacuated by the British.

.25 Nov. see titles Exports and Imports of Merchandise.

Washington resigns his commission

.23 Dec. ARMY (see title Army). —That which achieved independence Definitive treaty of peace signed at Paris, 3 Sept. 1783; was disbanded at the end of the war. In 1789, a war de- ratified by congress....

14 Jan. 1784 partment was established, and in 1790 the army consisted Samuel Seabury consecrated bishop of the Episcopal of 1216 men for the Indian frontier. In 1808, the militia church in America.. was newly equipped. When war with Great Britain was John Adams, first American ambassador's first interview declared on 18 June, 1812, 35,000 men were voted; and this with the king of England..

.2 June, 1785 army was disbanded at the peace in 1815.

The cotton-plant introduced into Georgia............. 1786 In 1855, Army, 11,658. Militia, 1,873,558. Fleet, 72 vessels Shays's rebellion in Massachusetts...

1787 (2290 guns).

New constitution adopted in a convention of states, In 1860, the United States militia were 3,070,987. Fleet, 92

17 Sept. vessels (of all kinds); in Oct. 1862, 256 vessels of war. The same ratified..

...June, 1788 Federal Army, 29 July, 1861, estimated at 660,971. In Dec. New government organized, 4 March; George Washing.

1862, nearly 1,000,000 men. In April, 1865, about 1,500,000, ton, 1st president, inaugurated 30 April; present deat the end of the war, when the reduction began at once. partments of state established.

.27 July, 1789 Number of soldiers in 1867, 54,890; in July, 1871, 32, 135; Death of Benjamin Franklin..

.17 April, 1790 1875, 27,525 men. Present aggregate strength, 25,000 District of Columbia ceded... men.

Bank instituted; capital, $10,000,000... ...7 June, 1791 Fleet, in July, 1867, 261 vessels of all kinds; 2218 guns; Jan. City of Washingion chosen the capital of the Union, 1871, 179 vessels, 1440 guns; 1875, 155 vessels, 1203 guns.

8 July, 1792 Railways, miles : 1830, 23; 1840, 2818; 1850, 9021 ; 1860, 30,635; Eli Whitney's invention of the cotton-gin gives an in1870, 52,914; 1880, 93,637.

mense impetus to the growth of American cotton. .... 1793 First congress held at Albany..

June, 1754 Reinauguration of gen. Washington as president, Act of the British parliament, imposing new heavy duties

4 March, on imports... 11 March, 1764 Whiskey insurrection....

1794 Obnoxious stamp act passed..

.22 March, 1765 Washington's last address to congress. ... 7 Dec. 1796 Stamp act repealed... .18 March, 1766 John Adams, 2d president....

..4 March, 1797 British act, levying duties on tea, paper, painted glass, etc., Washington dies; universal sorrow,

14 Dec. 1799 29 June, 1767 The seat of government removed to Washington. 1800 Gen. Gage sent to Boston... ...Oct. 1768 Thomas Jefferson, 3d president....

4 March, 1801 Boston massacre ..5 March, 1770 War with Tripoli...

.10 June, " 840 chests of tea destroyed by the populace at Boston, Louisiana purchased from the French. .30 April, 1803

16 Dec. 1773 Decatur destroys frigate Philadelphia. ,15 Feb. 1804 Boston Port bill (port rights annulled)........31 March, 1774 Hamilton killed by Burr....

.11 July, " First continental congress met at Philadelphia...4 Sept. Peace with Tripoli....

..3 June, 1805 Declaration of rights adopted..

..14 Oct. Discussion between England and America respecting the First action between the British and Americans, at Lex.

rights of neutrals.....

1807 ington; British retreat...

.19 April, 1775 Fulton's first steamboat voyage up the Hudson. . 14 Sept. ** Capture of Ticonderoga, 10 May; Crown Point... 12 May, American ports closed to the British, July; trade sus. Act of perpetual union between the states......20 May, pended...

.9 Dec. George Washington appointed commander-in-chief, 15 Embargo laid by the United States.

.22 Dec. June; battle of Bunker Hill.

...17 June,
Importation of slaves abolished...

..1 Jan 1808

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27 May,

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24 Sept.

James Madison, 4th president...

.4 March, 1809 | Mr. Fox, British minister, demands the release of Mr. Fight between ships President and Little Belt...16 May, 1811 MacLeod

...12 March, 1811 Battle of Tippecanoe... ...7 Nov. John Tyler, 10th president ...

6 April, Embargo for 90 days laid.

..3 April, 1812 | The case of MacLeod removed to Supreme Court at New War with Great Britain..

... 19 June,
York...

..6 May, Surrender of Hull at Detroit..

16 Aug. A party of British volunteers from Canada carry off col. Action between the American ship Constitution and the Grogan..

..9 Sept British frigate Guerrière.

.....19 Aug. Resignation of all the cabinet officers, with the excepBattle of Queenstown.

....13 Oct.
tion of Mr. Webster....

...11 Sept. The British sloop Frolic taken by the American sloop President's proclamation against lawless attempts of Wasp.

..18 Oct.

American citizens to invade British possessions, and The ship United States, of 64 guns (commodore Decatur), to suppress secret lodges, clubs, and associations, captures the British frigate Macedonian.......25 Oct.

25 Sept. Battles of Frenchtown (which see)..... .22-24 Jan. 1813 Grogan restored to the Americans.

..4 Oct. The Hornet captures the British sloop-of-war Peacock, Statue of Washington placed in the capitol at Washing.

25 Feb.
ton..

..1 Dec. Capture of York, Canada...

.27 April, Affair of the Creole; dispute with England......... Dec. Fort Erie and Fort George abandoned by the British,

[This American vessel was on her voyage to New

Orleans with a cargo of slaves; they mutinied, murThe American frigate Chesapeake captured by the Shan. dered the owner, wounded the captain, and compelled non frigate, capt. Broke.

.....1 June,

the crew to take the ship to Nassau, New Providence, Battle at Burlington Heights..

...6 June, where the governor, considering them passengers, H. M. sloop Pelican takes the sloop Argus. ..14 Aug. allowed them, against the protest of the American conMassacre at Fort Mims..

..30 Aug.

sul, to go at liberty.) Perry's victory on Lake Erie.......... .10 Sept. Announcement of lord Ashburton's mission to the United Battle of the Thames..

..5 Oct.
States..

.....1 Jan. 1842 Buffalo town burned by the British..

.13 Dec. Dorr's rebellion.. American frigate Essex taken by the Phæbe and Cherub, Arrest of Hogan, implicated in the Coroline affair, 2 Feb.

29 March, 1814 Lord Ashburton'arrives at New York.. .1 April, Battle of Chippewa..

...5 July, Washington treaty, defining the boundaries between the Battle of Lundy's Lane.

...25 July, United States and the British-American possessions, (Several engrgements with various success followed.] and for suppressing the slave - trade, and giving up The British, under Ross, defeat the Americans at Bla- fugitive criminals; signed at Washington, by lord Ash. densburg; the city of Washington taken and public

burton and Mr. Webster

..9 Aug edifices burned.. .24 Aug. The Tariff bill is passed...

... Aug. The British sloop-of-war Avon sunk by the American Lord Ashburton leaves the United States...

..5 Sept. sloop Wasp... .....1 Sept. James Knox Polk, 11th president ....

.4 March, 1845 The British squadron on Lake Champlain captured,

Resolution of the senate and house of representatives 11 Sept.

for terminating the joint occupancy of Oregon, Attack on Baltimore by the British; gen. Ross killed,

20 April, 1846 12 Sept. Congress declares war with Mexico..

.11 May, Treaty of peace with Great Britain, signed at Ghent, Mexicans defeated by Taylor at Palo Alto. .8, 9 May, 24 Dec. Battle of Resaca de la Palma...

..9 May, The British defeated at New Orleans...

.8 Jan. 1815 Treaty fixing the northwest boundary of the United The British ship Endymion captures the President,

States at the 49th parallel of latitude, and giving the 15 Jan.

British possession of Vancouver's island, the free navi. The Ghent treaty ratified..

.17 Feb.

gation of the Columbia river, etc., signed.....12 June, War declared against Algiers. .

. March, Monterey captured... James Monroe, 5th president..

.4 March, 1817 The Mexicans defeated by gen. Taylor at Buena Vista, Centre foundation of the capitol at Washington laid,

22, 23 Feb. 1847 24 Aug. 1818 Vera Cruz taken by storm, 29 March; the Mexicans Florida purchased from Spain....

.22 Feb. 1819 everywhere worsted. Great battle of Cerro Gordo; the Steamship Savannah made the first steam voyage across Mexicans signally defeated by gen. Scott..... 18 April, the ocean, going from Savannah, Georgia, to Sc. Peters- Battle of Chapultepec.

.13 Sept. burg, Russia, via England.

City of Mexico taken..

...14 Sept. The "Missouri Compromise" of Henry Clay, regarding Treaty between Mexico and the United States....2 Feb. 1848 slavery, passed..... ..3 March, 1820 Gold discovered in California...

.Feb. Spain cedes Florida to the United States.........24 Oct. Gen. Zachary Taylor, 12th president.. ......5 March, 1849 The United States acknowledge the independence of Riot at the theatre, New York, occasioned by the dispute South American republics.

.8 March, 1822 between Mr. Forrest and Mr. Macready. .10 May, Visit of Lafayette....

.15 Aug. 1824 Proclamation of the president against the marauding exTreaty with Colombia..

.3 Oct,
pedition to Cuba.

11 Aug. John Quincy Adams, 6th president.

.4 March, 1825 (Lopez, a Spanish adventurer, landed 600 men at Death of the two ex-presidents Adams and Jefferson, on Cuba; after a short but obstinate struggle they took

the 50th anniversary of the independence of the the town of Cardenas; and soon after had a land en. United States....

..4 July, 1826 gagement with some Spanish soldiers, in which many Convention with Great Britain concerning indemnities of them were killed or taken prisoners; the others for war 1812-14.

... 13 Nov.

embarked with Lopez in the Creole steamer, and thus American Tariff bill imposing heavy duties on imported escaped from a Spanish war - steamer, the Pizarro, goods.

..13 May, 1828 May, 1850.) Andrew Jackson, 7th president..

.4 March, 1829 The French ambassador dismissed from Washington, Treaty between the United States and the Ottoman

14 Sept. Porte......:

.7 May, 1830 Treaty with England for a transit way across Panama Ports reopened to British commerce. .

...5 Oct.
(see Bulwer), 19 April; ratified. ...

.4 July, 1850 First railway made....

President Zachary Taylor dies 9 July; death of J. C. CalBlack Hawk war..

1832 houn.

.31 March, Nullification excitement..

Millard Fillmore, 13th president..

....... 16 July, New tariff laws.. .14 July, Fugitive-slave bill passed...

... Aug. Commercial panic.

President Fillmore issues a second proclamation against Great fire at New York; 674 houses and many public the promoters of a second expedition to Cuba, and the edifices burned; loss estimated at $20,000,000,

ship Cleopatra, freighted with military stores destined 16 Dec. 1835 for that island, is seized ..

...25 April, 1851 National debt paid off..

1836 Henry Clay, American statesman, dies. ......29 June Martin Van Buren, 8th president..

.4 March, 1837 | Failure of the second expedition against Cuba by Lopez In the Canadian insurrection, many Americans assist and his followers; they are all defeated and taken; 51 the insurgents...

..Oct, to Dec.

are shot by the Cuban authorities, Lopez is garroted, The American steamboat Caroline is attacked and

and the rest are sent prisoners to Spain, where, after burned by the British, near Schlosser, to the east of some negotiation, they are mercifully set at liberty the Niagara, on the territory of the United States,

(see Cuba).

.... Aug.-Sept. 29 Dec. J. F. Cooper, American novelist, dies. ..14 Sept. Proclamation of the president against American citizens The president issues a proclamation against the sympaaiding the Canadians.

......5 Jan. 1838 thizers with the revolutionary movement in Mexico, The Great Western steamship first sails from Bristol to

22 Oct. New York..

8-15 April, Part of the capitol at Washington, and the whole of the American banks suspend cash payments... ...Oct. 1839 library of the United States congress, destroyed by fire, Alexander MacLeod charged with aiding in the destruc

24 Dec. tion of the Caroline; true bill found against him for M. Kossuth, the Hungarian chief, arrives at Washingmurder and arson....

.6 Feb. 1841 ton, on the invitation of the United States congress, The United States Bank again suspends payment, 7 Feb.

30 Dec. Gen. W. H. Harrison, 9th president.

4 March, Publication of "Uncle Tom's Cabin," by Mrs. Stowe, Diod. .... . 4 April,

20 March, 1852

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The dispute with England relating to the fisheries occurs

that a reward was offered for his head. He had arabout this time; Mr. Webster's note upon the subject, ranged for the successful issue of the insurrection

14 July, 1852 above mentioned, so far as to devise a provisional Lone Star Society (see Lone Star)..

..Aug.

government and a new constitution. On 16 Oct he The United States ship Crescent l'ity boarded at Havana, and his band seized the arsenal at Harper's Ferry, a and not allowed to land her mails or passengers,

town on the borders of Virginia and Maryland, stopped 3 Oct.

the railway trains, and cut the telegraph wires; a con. Death of the eminent statesman Daniel Webster, in his flict with the military ensued, and Brown was cap. 70th year...

....... 24 Oct.

tured. Temporary panic in southern states.) Expedition to Japan..

Gen. Harney superseded by gen. Scott at San Juan, who Address to the women of America on slavery, adopted makes conciliatory overtures; accepted by gov. Douglas, by the duchess of Sutherland and other ladies (signed

Nov. 1839 afterwards by 576,000 English women).

....26 Moy.
Death of Washington Irving.

28 Nov. Gen. Franklin Pierce, 14th president.. .4 March, 1853 John Brown executed...

..2 Dec. Affair of Koszta at Smyrna (see Koszla). .21 June, Great agitation in congress, Nov. 1859; no speaker electCrystal Palace opens at New York,

..14 July,
ed till..

1 Feb. 1860 Duel between Mr. Soulé (American minister at Madrid) President Buchanan protests against a proposed inquiry and M. Turgot.

18 Dec.
into his acts.

.28 March, Great fire at New York; Great Republic clipper destroyed, Companions of John Brown executed.

... March, 26 Dec. The national republican convention meet at Chicago; Astor Library, New York, opened...,

1.9 Jan. 1854 Abraham Lincoln chosen as candidate for the presji William Walker proclaims the republic of Sonora divided dency...

...16 May, into two states, Sonora and Lower California,

Japanese embassy received by the president at Wash. 18 Jan. ington..

17 May, American steamer Black Warrior seized at Cuba, 28 Feb. Fresh disputes at San Juan, through gen. Harney, who is Tho Spanish government remitted the fine, but con

recalled

May, sidered the seizure legal..... .. April, Samuel G. Goodrich (Peter Parley) dies.

..May, Commercial treaty concluded between Japan and United The national democratic convention meets in Charles. States, by commodore Perry (sent there for the pur

ton, S.C., 23 April; southern members secede, 30 April; pose).

.23 March, convention adjourns, 3 May, to meet in Baltimore, 18 Kansas Nebraska bill passed

.. May, June; southern members meet separately in Richmond, Reciprocity treaty between Great Britain and United

11 June, and resolve to re-enter the convention; conStates (respecting Newfoundland fishery, international vention meets in Baltimore, 18 Juno; seceding mem. trade, etc.) concluded...

.7 June,

bers are refused readmission, 22 June, and a further Capt. Hollins, in American sloop Cyane, bombards San division follows; the regular convention nominates Juan de Nicaragua..

.. 13 July, Stephen A. Douglas for president; adjourns, 23 June; Negotiation for the annexation of the Sandwich Islands, the seceding delegates - including many from the

Oct.

north-meet in separate convention, and nominate Dreadful election riots in Kansas...... March and April, 1855 John C. Breckinridge....

....23 June, Indian war.

25-29 April, The Great Eastern arrives at New York.. .....23 June, Dispute with British government on enlistment (see The prince of Wales arrives at Detroit, 20 Sept. ; visits Foreign Legion)

...July, Washington, 3 Oct.; Philadelphia, 9 Oct.; New York, Gen. Harney gains a victory over the Sioux Indians,

11 Oct.; Boston, 17 Oct.; embarks at Portland, 3 Sept.

20 Oct. Senator Charles Sumner savagely assaulted by represent- Abraham Lincoln, the republican candidate, elected 16th

ative Preston S. Brooks, in the senate-chamber, for president (see Southern Confederacy).. ..6 Nor. speaking against slavery

.2 May, 1856 (303 electors were appointed to vote for a president; Mr. Crampton, British envoy, dismissed.. .28 May, 152 to be a majority. The numbers were, for Abraham John C. Fremont nominated the is republican” candi- Lincoln, 180; John C. Breckinridge, 72; John Bell, 39; date for the presidency...

.17 June,

Stephen A. Douglas, 12.) Battle in Kansas; the pro slavery men (under capt. Reid) Intense excitement at Charleston, South Carolina, and in defeat Brown and the abolitionists.. ...30 Aug.

other southern states..

.Nov. The Resolute presented to queen Victoria (see Franklin), South Carolina secedes from the Union. ...20 Dec

12 Dec. Major Anderson, of United States army, occupies Fort James Buchanan, 15th President. ..4 March, 1857 Sumter in South Carolina...

.. 26 Dec. Lord Napier appointed British envoy to United States Delegates from South Carolina not received by the presi. (16 Jan.); warmly received.

.18 March,
dent..

..30 Dec. Central American question settled..

March, Vacillating policy of president Buchanan; the secretaJudgment given in the “Dred Scott" case in the Supreme ries Cass, Cobb, Floyd, and Thompson resign, Court. (He was claimed as a slave in a free state; two

Dec. 1860-Jan. 1861 judges declared for his freedom, five against it, which New York and other northern states protest against the causes great dissatisfaction throughout the free states), secession; a general fast proclaimed; observed on March,

4 Jan. Disorganized state of Utah; troops march to support new Steamer Star of the West fired upon in Charleston harbor, governor.. ...May and June,

9 Jan. Riots in Washington against Irish electors; and in New Vicksburg, Mississippi, fortified..

12 Jan York on accouut of changes in the police arrangements, Secession (by convention) of Mississippi, 8 Jan. ; Alabama,

June, Florida, 11 Jan. ; Georgia, 19 Jan.; Louisiana, 26 Jan. ; Insurrection in Kansas quelled.. ..July, Texas (by legislature)....

...1 Feb Commercial panic in New York.

.Aug. Southern confederacy formed at Montgomery, Ala., 4 Feb. Outrage at Staten Island; quarantine house burned,

Jefferson Davis elected by the six seceding states, 8

7 Sept. Feb.; is inaugurated president of the “Confederate Dispute respecting right of search, settled. ... May, 1858 States," at Montgomery, Alabama..

.18 Feb. Tranquillity restored in Utah. ..June, New (Morrill) tarill bill passed...

.2 March, Great rejoicing at the completion of the Atlantic tele- President Davis prepares for war (100,000 men to be graph (see Electric Telegraph)..

Aug.
raised).

Marchi, A massacre of emigrants at Mountain Meadows, Utah Abraham Lincoln, ipaugurated president at Washington. (Mormons suspected).

18 Sept.

says, "the central idea of secession is the essene of Lieut. Moffat seizes the American slave-ship Echo and anarchy

..4 March. takes her to Charleston...

.Sept. Southern commissioners not received by the president Death of W. H. Prescott, the historian, .28 Jan. 1859 at Washington.

.12 March, Daniel E. Sickles killed Philip Barton Key, for adultery Gen. Winfield Scott, in a letter to president Lincoln, sets with his wife; acquitted of murder.

.26 Feb.

before him four courses; either, I., to surrender to The American commodore Tatnall assists the English at slavery half the territory acquired, or to be acquired; the Chinese engagement on the river Peiho, saying,

II., to blockade all revolted ports; III., to say to seceding "Blood is thicker than water".

25 June,

states, “ Wayward sisters, go in peace!"or, IV., to conGen. Ward, the United States envoy, goes to Pekin, but quer the South, which would require 300,000 men, and does not see the emperor...

July,

afterwards a resident army (the letter became public Gen. Harvey sends troops to San Juan Island, near Van

Oct. 1862).

March, couver's Island, "to protect the American settlers;' Great excitement at the operation of the new Morrill moderation of the British, who have a naval force

tariff, which begins..

...1 April, at hand; governor Douglas also sends troops,

The war begins : Major Anderson refuses to surrender 27 July,

Fort Sumter, Charleston, when summoned, 11 April; it Insurrection at Harper's Ferry..

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16 Oct.

is taken by the secessionists, after a bloodless conflict, (John Brown, called capi. Brown and old Brown,

13 April. was a prominent leader in the violent conflicts in Kam. President Lincoln summons congress to meet on 4 July; sas, during the agitation respecting the question of its issues a proclamation, calling on the states to fur becoming a slave state. He was an enthusiastic aboli.

pish a contingent of 75,000 men, etc.... .15 April tionist, and contended that all means for annih lating Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania, and other states blavery were justifiable. He gathered together a band zealously respond, with vigorous preparations for war; who so much anpoyed Missouri and other slave states, Kentucky, North Caroliua, Virginia, Tennessee, and

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Missouri, decidedly refuse, asserting the proposed coercion to be wicked, illegal, and uncoustitutional. April, 1861 Virginia secedes..

..17 April, The mob in Baltimore, Maryland, attack some Massa.

chusetts regiments on their way to Washington; several persons killed in the conflict...

.19 April, President Davis issues letters of marque, 17 April; presi

dent Lincoln proclaims the blockade of the ports of seceding states..

. 19 April, U.S. arsenal at Harper's Ferry, Va., fired by com

mand, and 45,000 stand of arms destroyed, 18 April; 9 ships of war and naval stores in the navy-yard, Norfolk, Va., burned to prevent them falling into the hands of the southern confederates, who occupy the place....

.21 April, Lincoln calls for 42,034 volunteers for three years, 3

May, and informs foreign powers of his intention to
maintain the Union by war.

4 May, The confederates under Beauregard and Johnston, in Virginia, threaten Washington.

May, The British queen commands her subjects to be neutral in the ensuing war..

13 May, The federals enter Virginia; Beauregard calls on the Virginians to rise and expel them.

.1 June, Formal secession of Arkansas, 6 May; North Carolina, 20 May; Tennessee (9th, 10th, 11th).

.8 June, Several British vessels seized while endeavoring to

break the blockade; the southern privateer Savannah
captured..

.June,
Neutrality announced by the French emperor..10 June,
Fast day in confederate states

.13 June, Missouri.-Gen. Lyon raises a federal army, and defeats

the state troops, 17 June; the federals successful at Carthage, 5 July; Fremont takes command in West Missouri, 26 July; federals victorious at Athens, 5 Aug. ; at Wilson's Creek (gen. Lyon killed), 10 Aug. ; Fremont proclaims martial law, and freedom to slaves of rebels, 31 Aug ; Lexington surrenders to confederates, 20 Sept. ; Fremont, blamed, retires; succeeded by Hunter,

2 Nov. Virginia. --- Federals defeated at Big Bethel, 10 June;

occupy Harper's Ferry, evacuated by the confederates, 16 June; col. Pegram and 600 confederates surrender at Beverley..

.13 July, (Very many skirmishes, with various results. ] Meeting of U. S. congress, 4 July; a loan of $250,000,000 authorized.

.17 July, McClellan defeats confederates at Rich Mountain, 11 July; action at Blackburn's Ford, near Centreville,

18 July, Meeting of confederate congress at Richmond, Virginia,

20 July, Battle of Bull Run (which see) or Manassas, Virginia; the federals, seized with panic, flee in utter disorder,

21 July, Passport system introduced into the northern states,

and the liberty of the press greatly restricted.... Aug. The charges in the Morrill tariff greatly raised; the

confederates prohibit exportation of cotton except by southern ports.

.Aug. Battle of Springfield or Wilson's Creek; confederates defeated...

10 Aug. McClellan assumes command of the army of the Potomac,

20 Aug. Federal general Butler takes Fort Hatteras, North Caro.

lina (700 prisoners and 100 stand of arms). ...,29 Aug. Fast-day in federal states..

. 26 Sept. Garibaldi declines command in the federal army ..Sept. Battle of Ball's Bluff; federals defeated, and gen. Baker

killed, near Leesburg, Va.; hundreds drowned. 21 Oct. The federals and confederates enter Kentucky; the gov.

ernor protests; many skirmishes... .Sept.-Dec. Resignation of lieut.-gen. Scott, 31 Oct.; George B.

McClellan made commander-in-chief of the federal army.

...1 Nov. The federal general Sherman takes Port Royal forts, South Carolina..

..7,8 Nov Battle of Belmont, Missouri..

..7 Nov. Capt. Wilkes, of federal war steamer San Jacinto, boards

the Royal British mail packet Trent, and carries off Messrs. Mason and Slidell, confederate commissioners, and their secretaries, 8 Nov., and conveys them to Boston....

19 Nov. Great rejoicings in the northern states at the capture of Mason and Slidell..

Nov. McClellan reviews 70,000 men.

20 Nov. Capt. Pegram, of confederate steamer Nashville, burns

the federal ship Harrey Birch, 19 Nov., and brings the crew on to Southampton..

21 Nov. A secession ordinance passed by a party in Missouri, 2 Nov. ; the same in Kentucky..

30 Nov. Dissensions increase between the republicans (abolition.

ists) and the democrats in New York, etc..... .Nov. Jefferson Davis elected president of confederate states for six years..

..30 Nov. President Lincoln states that the federal armies comprise 660,971 men.

..2 Dec. Meeting of congress, which votes thanks to capt. Wilkes,

2 Dec. ; the foreign envoys at Washington protest against his act...

.....3 Dec. The federals commence sinking hulks filled with stones

to block up Charleston harbor (South Carolina) (much
indignation in England)..

21 Dec. 1861 Banks at New York, etc., suspend cash payments. 30 Dec. A firm despatch from the British government arrives 18

Dec. 1861; Mason and Slidell, surrendered, sail for Eu-
rope..

...1 Jan. 1862 Phelps's fruitless expedition to Ship Island, Mississippi Sound..

..3 Dec. 1861-Jan. Confederate general Zollicofler defeated by Thomas, and

slain at Mill Springs, or Somerset, Ky. ...19 Jan. The federals (Grant) take Fort Henry, 6 Feb. ; Fort Donelson, with 15,000 prisoners, 16 Feb.; and Nashville,

23 Feb. Confederates defeated at Pea Ridge, Ark.....6-9 March, Confederate iron-plated ship Merrimac destroys federal

vessels Cumberland and Congress in Hampton Roads, 8
March; is repulsed by federal iron-clad floating battery
Monitor....

.9 March, McClellan and his army (100,000) cross the Potomac and find the confederate camp at Bull Run evacuated,

10 March, Burnside's expedition sails, 11 Jan.; takes Roanoke,

North Carolina, 7, 8 Feb. ; Newbern.. .14 March, Confederates defeated at Winchester.. ..23 March, Gen. Burnside occupies Beaufort and Fort Macon,

1 April, Slavery abolished in District of Columbia.......4 April, McClellan advances into Virginia, with the view of taking

Richmond, he besieges Yorktown, held by confeder.
ates..

.5 April, Correspondents of English newspapers excluded from federal army..

...5 April, Great battles of Shiloh or Pittsburgh Landing, near Cor

inth, Tennessee; an indecisive battle, but the confed.
erates lose their able general, Albert Sydney Johnston.
Island No. 10 captured, 7 April; they retire.6, 7 April,

7
Treaty between Great Britain and the United States
for the suppression of the slave trade....

.7 April, Federals take Fort Pulaski, on the Savannah, 11 April; and New Orleans...

.25-28 April, Yorktown evacuated by confederates..

.3 May, The Seward-Lyons treaty between Great Britain and

the United States, for the suppression of the slave-
trade, signed 7 April; ratified..

. 20 May, Confederates repulsed at Williamsburg, 5 May; their

naval depot at Norfolk, Va., surrenders, 10 May; they
burn the Merrimac..

.il May, Commodore Farragut with a flotilla ascends the Missis. sippi..

..May, Little Rock, Ark., taken by federals...

..May, Stonewall Jackson defeats Banks at Winchester 18 May, McClellan takes Hanover Court-house.

.27 May, Skirmishes in Virginia; success varying.

May, Severe battles of Fair Oaks, before Richmond,

31 May, 1 June, Beauregard and the confederates retreat from Corinth, Tennessee, 30 May; pursued by Halleck and the federals,

June, Memphis, on the Mississippi, taken...

.6 June, Federals defeated near Charleston..

..16 June, Federal forces under Fremont, Banks, and McDowell

placed under Pope; Fremont resigns.........17 Juve, Federals suffer through several severe engagements in Virginia

.25-30 June, Gen. Butler excites great indignation by his inilitary rigor at New Orleans

.... May and June, United States debt estimated at 100,000,0001.... ...June, Seven days' contlict on the Chickahominy before Rich

mond (see Seven Days' Battle)... 25 June-1 July, The tarifl still further raised..

....July, Many contlicts in Kentucky, Missouri, and Tennessee,

through confederate guerilla parties... June and July, Lincolui visits and encourages the army of McClellan, and calls for 300,000 volunteers...

...July, Lincoln's assent to a bill confiscating the property and

emancipating the slaves of all rebels in arms after 60 days..

......17 July, Halleck supersedes McClellan as commander-in-chief,

26 July, Slow volunteering; many emigrations to Canada and

Europe; habeas corpus suspended; the president ordains a drast is the volunteers are not ready by 15 Aug.

July, Pope takes command in Virginia.....

14 July, Lincoln's proclamation of confiscation of property of rebels...

26 July, Fierce attack of Breckinridge (confederates) on Baton Rouge; the federals soon after retire

,5 Aug Pope's troops ravage Virginia; Banks, his subordinate,

attacked at Cedar Mountain by gen. Thomas “Stonewall" Jackson...

[The title "Stonewall” was given to him at the battle of Bull Run, where, in admiration of the firmness with which his brigade held its ground at the time of severest pressure, gen. Lee cried out, "There stands

Jackson like a stone wall.'')
McClellan withdraws from Harrison's Landing (said to

have lost 70,000 men, killed, wounded, prisoners, and
deserters).

.16 Aug. The federals surprised, and Pope loses his baggage. 25 Aug. Jackson turns the flank of Pope's army, and attacks him

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at Groveton, 29 Ang; and when reinforced by Lee,

other relief for the distressed cotton workers in Lan. defeats him and McDowell at Bull Run, 30 Aug; Pope

cashire, arrives...

..9 Feb. 1863 retreats to Centreville..

.1 Sept. 1862 A conscription bill (for men between 18 and 45) passed, The remains of Pope's army flee behind the lines of

25 Feb. Washington, 2 Sept. ; he is removed to the northwest The congress authorizes the suspension of the habeas to act agaibst the Indian insurrection.........3 Sept.

corpus act, 3 March; and establishes a National AcadMcDowell superseded; charged with treachery, he claims emy of Sciences at Washington

.4 March, a trial...

.Sept. Confederate loan for 3,000,0001. well taken up in Europe, McClellan marches against the confederates under Lee,

March, who have crossed the Potomac and entered Mary. Charleston, S. C., attacked by monitors and gunboats; 5.6 Sept. the Keokuk, a monitor, sunk...

...7 April, Severe conflicts at South Mountain Gap (or Middletown), Battle of Chancellorsville (which see); the federals under

14-16 Sept.; confederates, after a great fight near An. Hooker cross the Rappahannock, 28 April; defeated

tietam Creek and Sharpsburg road, retreat....17 Sept. (gen. Stonewall Jackson is mortally wounded), 2-4 Harper's Ferry surrendered to Jackson, 15 Sept. ; ho May; Hooker recrosses the Rappahannock. ....5 May, crosses the Potomac and joins Lee's army....17 Sept. Stonewall Jackson dies.

...10 May, Thanksgiving-day in southern states..

.18 Sept. Grant's successful campaign in Tennessee; he defeats Rosecrans defeats the confederates at luka.....19 Sept.

the confederates under Joseph E. Johnston at Jackson, Confederates re-enter Virginia..

.22 Sept.

14 May; and under Pemberton at Champion Hills, 16 Lincoln proclaims liberty to the slaves in the confeder- May; and invests Vicksburg. Miss., which is strongly

ate states on 1 Jan. 1863, if the states have not returned fortitled, 18 May; a dreadful assault on it repelled,
to the Union.....
.22 Sept.

22 May, Secret convention of sixteen governors of states at Al- Confederate invasion under Lee; invade Maryland and toona. Pa., approves Lincoln's policy

.24 Sept.

Pennsylvania, and take various towns. . 14 Jupe et seq. Draft of 40,000 men ordered in New York state by 15 The federal general Hooker superseded by George H. Oct..

.. Sept.
Meade...

.27 June, Lincoln suspends habeas corpus writ, and authorizes se- Meade advances against Lee; great battle of Gettysburg; vere measures against disloyal persons.. .25-27 Sept.

the confederates evacuate Pennsylvania and Maryland, Desperate conflicts near Corinth, Miss., 3–5 Oct.; and at

13 July, Perrysville, Ky....

8, 9 Oct.

Vicksburg bombarded, 3 July; surrendered by PemberConfederate general Stuart crosses the Upper Potomac

ton to Grant and Porter

.4 July, and enters Pennsylvania; enters Chambersburg and Port Hudson, a confederate fortress on the Mississippi, other places, carrying off horses, ammunition, etc.;

surrenders

..8 July, rides round the federal army, and returns to his camp, Fierce riots at New York against the conscription; many

10-13 Oct.

negroes murdered and much property destroyed, Gold at 29 premium at New York..

13-16 July, Great democratic meeting at New York, condemning the The Sioux defeated, 7 Aug. ; gen. Pope reports that the president's policy

..12 Oct.
Indian war is ended..

Aug At New Orleans Butler compels all persons who refuse New York rioters tried and convicted, 12 Aug ; conscripto take the oath of allegiance to send in their names tion going on peaceably

.21 Aug and register their property to the provost-marshal, Siege of Charleston; defended by Beauregard--attacks

12 Oct.

with varied success, July; Fort Sumter bombarded McClellan's headquarters at Harper's Ferry ......17 Oct. and destroyed (and so-called Greek fire employed); atRaid of confederate general Morg'ın in Kentucky; he

tacks on the ruins repulsed...

.21, 22 Aug. carries off 80 federal wagons of ammunition, etc., apture of Fort Wagner, South Carolina. ......7 Sept. 18 Oct. Knoxville occupied by Burnside

..10 Sept. Ten confederate prisoners at Palmyra shot by order of A Russian squadron warmly received at New York, gen. McNeil in consequence of the disappearance of

Sept, and Oct. Abraham Allsman. 18 Oct. Battles of Chickamauga..

. 19, 20 Sept. Rosecrans supersedes Buell in the west.. ..30 Oct. Mason, the confederate commissioner in England, proM. Drouyn de Lhuys, on behalf of the French govern

tests against the mode of his reception, and quits, ment, proposes joint mediation in the American con.

22 Sept flict to Great Britain and Russia, 30 Oct.; declined by Confederates defeated at Blue Springs, Tenn..... 10 Oct. Gortschakoff, 8 Nov.; by earl Russell.. 13 Nov. Lincoln calls for 300,000 volunteers

....17 Oct. The confederate steamer Alabama, capt. Semmes, capt- Rosecrans's command of the federal army in Tennes. ures many U. S. vessels, and excites much alarm at

see superseded by Grant and Thomas and Sherman, New York.. Oct-Dec.

19 Oct Elections for next congress; great majority for the dem. The steam rams El Tousson and El Monassir, built by ocratic (opposition) candidates in New York and sev

Mr. Laird at Birkenhead, and suspected to be for the eral other states..

.4 Nov.

confederates, are placed under charge of a government DicClellan, while advancing towards Richmond, is super

vessel in the Mersey

..31 Oct. seded by gen. Burnside, 5 Nov., who advances towards British consuls dismissed from southern states.....Oct. Richmond.

..7 Nov. Meade captures a part of Lee's army on the north side President Davis threatens reprisals if gen. McNeil is not of the Rappahanpock..

....7 Soy. surrendered (see 18 Oct.).

17 Nov.

Longstreet defeats Burnside, and compels bim to retire Burnside summons Fredericksburg to surrender; confed.

into Knoxville...

..14-17 Nov, crate gen. Lee, with about 80,000 men, near...22 Nov. Sherman and Thomas defeat Bragg at Chattanooga, 100,000 federal soldiers on the sick list... Nov.

24, 25 Nov. Great honor shown to McClellan; he is proposed as the Longstreet's attack on Knoxville, defended by Burnside, next president...

.Nov. fails, and he retreats into Virginia. .29 Nov. and 1 Dec. The federal government orders release of disaffected per. The confederate general Bragg superseded by Hardee, sons in prisons. 25 Nov.

2 Dec. Annual session of U. S. congress; the president recom- Lincoln's message to congress warlike; he proffers an

mends compensated emancipation of all slaves in the nesty to all except heads of governments, etc., 4 Dec.; loyal states before the year 1900..

..1 Dec.

Davis's message firm, but acknowledging reverses, Battle of Fredericksburg (which see); Burnside crosses

7 Dec. the Rappahannock, 10 Dec.; bombards Fredericksburg, Gen. Joseph E. Johnston takes command of the confed11 Dec. ; a series of desperate attacks on the confeder

erate army in Georgia...

.27 Dec. ates; Burnside totally defeated, 13 Dec. ; recrosses the President Lincoln orders a draft of 500,000 men for three river.

...15 Dec.
years

.....1 Feb. 1864 First attack on Vicksburg..

29 Dec. Federal expedition into Florida; defeated at Olustee, Engagements in Tennessee with varying results.... Dec,

20 Feb. Discovery of frauds in the l'. S. army financial accounts; Failure of attack of Kilpatrick and Dahlgren on Richmond, public dissatisfaction with the gorernment; secretaries

27 Feb.-4 March, Chase and Seward resign, but resume oflice....... Dec. Ulysses S. Grant made commander-in-chief, succeeding Battles near Murfreesborough, or Stone River, between

Halleck...

.3 March, Rosecrans and the federals and Braxton Bragg and the Confederate raids into the western states........ March, confederates: begin 29 Dec. ; severe but indecisive, 31 Sherman's expedition against Mobile, 2 March; defeated Dec.; battle continued, 2 Jan.; Bragg, defeated, retreats, by Kirby Smith...

.5 April, 3 Jan. 1863 Capture of Fort Pillow..

12 April p"There have been about 2000 battles and skir. James E. B. Stuart, the celebrated confederale cavalry mishes since the commencement of the war."-Amer.

oflicer, killed.

..11 May, ican Almanac. )

Campaign in Virginia ; the army of the Potomac crosses President Lincoln proclaims the freedom of slaves in the

the Rupidan; advance of Lee (now supported by Longrebel states, except in parts held by the U. S. army,

street), 2 May; severe battle in the Wilderness" (near 1 Jan.

Chancellorsville), indecisive, 5, 6 May; battle of SpoltBurnside superseded by Joseph Hooker in command of sylvania; much carnage..

. 10–12 May, army of the Potomac

......26 Jan.

Sherman (in Georgia) beats the confederates at Resaca, The French government's offer of mediation, 9 Jan., de.

14 May, and at Dallas,

.23 May, clined.....

..6 Feb. Fugitive-slave act repealed by the house of representaThe George Griswold, a vessel containing provisions and

tives..

13 June,

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