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Grant assaulls Lee's intrenchments at Cold Harbor, and ernment, 21 April; Jolinstou surrenders on same terms is repulsed with a loss of about 10,000 men; the con

as Lee....

. 26 April, 1865 foderates losing 1000.....

.3 June, 1864 J. Wilkes Booth shot, and his accomplice Harrold capt. After a succession of attacks on both sides, Grant by a ured, in a farm house..

26 April, tlank movement marches to the other side of Rich. The confederate general Richard Taylor (near Mobile) sur. mond, and faces Petersburg, 15 June; where, having

renders...

4 May, taken the first intrenchments after desperate assaults, President Jefferson Davis captured at Irwinsville, Georgia, he is repulsed with considerable loss.. ..18 June, imprisoned ..

11 May, The confederate steamer Alabama (capt. Semmes) at- President Johnson proclaims the opening of the southern

tacked and sunk by the U.S. corvette Kearsarge (capt. ports, 22 May; and an amnesty with certain exemp. Winslow) near Cherbourg, France

19 June,
tions...

29 May, Mr. Chase, secretary of the treasury, resigns; succeeded Solemn fast observed for death of president Lincoln, by Mr. Fessenden. ...July,

1 June, Part of Lee's army invades Maryland, 5 July; defents The armies rapidly disbanding; fierce riots at New York Wallace near Monocacy river, 9 July; threatens Balti

between whites and negroes.

..June, more and Washington, and retreats.. 12, 13 July, Galveston, Texas, the last seaport held by the South, Sherman's three battles at Atlanta (Ga.), 20, 22 July; vic

surrendered...

,5 June, tory remains with the federals.

28 July, The British and French governments rescind their recConfederates again invade Maryland and Pennsylvania, ognition of the confederates as belligerents.2, 6 June, and destroy Chambersburg...

.30 July,

President Johnson, uniting with the democrats, and act. Grant orders the explosion of a mine at Petersburg, ing leniently towards the South; reorganization of the whereby 250 confederates are killed; but the assault state governments...

..June, following is repulsed with great slaughter....30 July, Close of the long trial of the assassination conspirators, The Tallahassee confederate steamer (built in London) 29 June; execution of Payne, Atzerott, Harrold or destroys many U.S. merchantmen.. .....July-Aug. Herold, and Mrs. Surratt

.7 July, Severe conflicts in the Shenandoah valley; the federals The president declines recognition of the emperor of victors

Aug.
Mexico....

..18 July, The confederate flotilla near Mobile destroyed by Farra- All southern prisoners of war to be released on parole gut, 5 Aug ; Fort Gaines taken..

on taking the oath of allegiance.....

29 July, McClellan nominated for the presidency by the “demo. The confederate privateer Shenandoah (capt. Waddell) cratic" Chicago convention ..

.1 Sept.

captures and destroys many federal vessels (about 30), Sherman occupies Atlanta; the confederate general

Aug Hood retires..

.2 Sept. Pacific policy of president Johnson; he declares himself Sherman orders the depopulation of Atlanta......7 Sept. opposed to centralization and in favor of state'rights; McClellan declares for maintaining the Onion; the demo- and is bitterly opposed..

...Sept. cratic party divided.....

.13 Sept.

Correspondence between earl Russell and Mr. Adams Sheridan (federal) defeats Early at Winchester, in the (U. S. minister, London) respecting the Alabama, conShenandoah valley, but with very great loss .. 19 Sept.

federate privateer; proposal of a commission to The confederates drive back the federals at Cedar Creek; whom claims for reparation shall be referred, Sheridan arrives, rallies bis troops, and defeats the con

7 April-18 Sept. federates ...

...19 Oct. Alex. H. Stephens and other southern oficials pardoned, SL. Alban's raid.-Between 20 and 30 armed men enter

11 Oct. St. Alban's, Vt. ; rob the bank, and carry off horses and Great meeting of Fenians at Philadelphia; the Irish restores; fire on and kill several persons, and flee to public proclaimed...

... 16-24 Oct. Canada, 19 Oct.; where 13 of them are arrested. .21 Oct. Much public discussion respecting equal negro suffrage, Lincoln re-elected president; McClellan resigas his com

July-Oct. mand in U. S. army.

...8 Nov. Gen. Robert E. Lee becomes president of Washington Sherman begins his march through Georgia to Savannah, College, Virginia....

.2 Oct. 16 Nov. Several southern states pass ordinances annulling secesHood's attack on Thomas (federal), at Franklin, repulsed sion, abolishing slavery, and renouncing confederate with severe loss...

...30 Nov.
debt

Sept., Oct., Nov. Lincoln's message to congress considered “bold"

National thanksgiving for the peace..

. 2 Nov. 6 Dec. Capt. Waddell arrives at Liverpool, 6 Nov.; surrenders The St. Alban's raiders discharged by Judge Coursol; gen. ihe Shenandoah to the British government, stating

Dix issues an order for reprisals (annulled by the presi- that he had not heard of the end of the war till 2 Aug; dent)....

.14 Dec.

he and his crew paroled, 8 Nov.; the vessel given up Hood defeated by Thomas (federal) near Nashville,

to the American consul.'.

.9 Nov. 14-16 Dec. Capt. Wirz, after a long military trial, executed for cruelty Sherman storms fort McAllister, 13 Dec.; enters Savan- to the federal prisoners at Andersonville. .....10 Nov. pah.....

21 Dec. A negro convention at Charleston appeals for justice Wilmington bombarded; the attack of gen. Butler and and generosity.

..25 Nov. admiral Porter repulsed. .

.24, 25 Dec. Ex-president Buchanan publishes his justification, Nov. The St. Alban's raiders recaptured and committed for trial, Habeas corpus act restored in northern states ..., 1 Dec.

27 Dec. et seq.

Close of correspondence between the British and United Fort Fisher taken.

.15 Jan. 1865 States governments respecting depredations of AlaColumbia, S.C., taken...

.17 Feb.

bama, Shenandoah, etc. The earl of Clarendon main. Charleston, S. C., taken

.18 Feb.

tains that "no armed vessel departed during the war Fruitless meeting of president Lincoln and secretary from a British port, to cruise against the commerce of Seward with the confederate vice-president Stephens

the United States"

2 Dec. and two commissioners, to treat for peace in Hampton Congress and government protest against the French in. Roads. ..2, 3 Feb, tervention in Mexico, Nov..

..6, 16 Dec. The Canadian government surrenders Burley, a raider, Opening of 39th congress; president Johnson's message to the federals.

...3 Feb.

conciliatory and firm (he requires from the southern Lee takes the general command of the confederate ar. states-repeal of their acts of secession, abolition of

mies; he recommends enlistment of negroes. .18 Feb. slavery, and repudiation of confederate debt).., 4 Dec. Wilmington captured by Schofield...

22 Feb. The republican party, opposed to the president, predomThe confederate congress decree the arming of the inate in the congress, and move resolutions against slaves...

22 Feb.

restoration of southern states to the Union....... Dec. Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson inaugurated as Eighty-five members for southern states excluded from president and vice-president...

4 March,

congress; congress refuses to recognize the state gov. A new stringent tariff comes into operation..... 1 April, ernments instituted at the South, and insists upon a Three days' sanguinary conflict at Five Forks, began 31 plan of reconstruction different from that of the presi

March; Sheridan turns Lee's flank, and totally defeats dent; beginning of the contest between the president him, 1 April; Lee retreats...

..2 April,
and congress.....

..... 29 Dec. Richmond and Petersburg evacuated by the confeder- The republicans demand for the negroes personal, civil, ates and occupied by Grant..

..2, 3 April, and political rights, equal to those of the whites; the Sheridan overtakes and defeats Lee at Sailor's Creek, 6 president proposes gradual enfranchisement, in sepaApril; Lee surrenders with the army of Northern Vir

rate states.

Feb. 1866 ginia to Grant, at Appomatox court-house..... 9 April, The president vetoes the Freedman's Bureau bill, 21 Mobile evacuated by the confederates

12 April,

Feb., and the bill for the civil rights of the blacks, The Union flag replaced at Fort Sumter, Charleston,

27 March, 14 April,

The president fiercely opposed by the republicans; the President Lincoln shot in the head at Ford's theatre, conservatives and democrats unite to support him, Washington, about 11 o'clock P.M., 14 April, by J.

March, Wilkes Booth, who escapes; Mr. Seward, the secretary He proclaims the rebellion at an end.

.3 April, of state, and his son, wounded in his own house by The Civil Rights bill passed in spite of the veto..9 April, an assassin about the same time; Lincoln dies at 7.30 Fenian raids in Canada..

.31 May-7 June, A.M., 15 April; Andrew Johnson, vice-president, sworn Death of gen. Winfield Scott, aged 80, 29 May; and of in as seventeenth president

.15 April,
Lewis Cass, aged 83..

.17 June, The convention between Sherman and Johnston (favor. Continued dissension between the president and con. able to confederates), 18 April, disavowed by the gov.

....July,"

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The representatives of Tennessee readmitted to congress bar of the senate by Thaddeus Stevens and Bingham, (10 states still excluded). ....July, 1866

25 Feb. 1868 The Atlantic telegraph completed (see Electric Telegrap!), Nine articles of impeachment (for issuing order for re

27 July, moval of E. M. Stanton from war office, and followCongress adjourns..

28 July, ing proceedings) adopted by the house of representaGreat meeting at Philadelpbia of the National Union Con- tives (127 to 47). .

...2 March, vention, consisting of delegates (men of all parties, in Bill of impeachment of Johnson sent up to the senate by every state, north and south, now termed the conserv.

the house of representatives...

..4 March, ative party), whose object is declared to be to establish Judicious speech of lord Stanley in the British house of the national union, restore the South to its place in

commons on the Alabama claims.. ...6 March, the Union, and vindicate the president's policy,

Trial of president Johnson comes before the senate, 14 Aug.

23 March, Tour of the president; he visits Philadelphia, New York, Impeachment opened by gen. Butler.. .30 March,

Chicago, etc.; he is very enthusiastically received; and Mr. Dickens sails from New York, after most affectionspeaks warmly, and often injudiciously, 24 Aug.--18 Sept. ate parting...

.22 April, Elections for congress go in favor of the republicans, Oct. National republican convention at Chicago; announce Death of Martin Van Buren, ex-president

their "platform;" approving the congress reconstrucTrial of Jefferson Davis deferred till spring.

...Oct,

tion policy; severely condemning president Johnson; Elections in all the states except Delaware and Maryland denouncing repudiation of the debt; declaring for proin favor of the republicans (about 2,200,000 to 1,800,000), tection of naturalized citizens, etc., 20 May; and

Oct.-Nov.

proposing gen. Ulysses S. Grant as the next president, Meeting of congress; president's message; he declares and Mr. Colfax as vice-president.

.21 May, that he adheres to his policy.

.....3 Dec.

The senate reject the 11th article of the impeachment, Bills to provide territorial governments in southern

16 May, states; and restriction of president's appointing pow. Reject 2d and 3d articles, and adjourn sine die; intense ers proposed..

.3 Dec.
excitement among republicans...

26 May, The president charged with being "silent and motion- Mr. Stanton resigns, 27 May; succeeded by gen. Schofield, Dec.

30 May, A bill admitting negroes to the suffrage in District of Co- Death of the ex-president James Buchanan.....1 June, lumbia passed..

13 Dec. Chinese embassy received by the president .....5 June, Veto of president set aside.

..Jan. 1867 Bill for readmitting North and South Carolina, Georgia, Supreme Court decides that congress bas not power to Louisiana, Florida, and Alabama, to representation in appoint military tribunals.....

...Jan.
congress, passed by the senate ..

.11 June, Impeachment of president agreed to in committee, 7 Jan. Mr. Reverdy Johnson nominated ambassador to Great Nebraska admitted as the 37th state, over president's

Britain

......12 June, veto...

..9 Feb. Arkansas readmitted over the president's veto.. 20 June, Bill for establishing military government in the south- The democratic convention nominate Horatio Seymour ern states, divided into five districts, discussed,

for president, and Francis P. Blair for vice-president, 13-15 Feb.

4-7 July, Modified and passed, 20 Feb.; vetoed by the president, General amnesty (with exceptions) issued.. 4 July, 28 Feb. Wyoming territory organized...

.22 July, Mr. Peabody gives $1,000,000 to promote education in Act for protection of naturalized citizens abroad passed, the South.. Feb.

27 July, Fortieth congress opened. 4 March, Thaddeus Stevens dies....

.12 Aug. Supplementary reconstruction bill for the South passed, Gen. Ulysses Grant elected 13th president. .....,3 Nov.

20 March, Gen. Sheridan's victory over insurgent Indians; a village Tenure of Office act passed

March,
burned

27 Nov. Russian America purchased for $7,000,000; treaty rati. Any repudiation of debt renounced by the house of repfied by the senate ,9 April, resentatives (154 to 6).

14 Dec. Many strikes among operatives..

April, Cornell university (which see) founded. Jefferson Davis released on bail, 13 May; proceeded to Convention respecting Alabama claims signed by lord New York, and thence to Canada. .... 20 May,

Clarendon and Mr. Reverdy Johnson.. 14 Jan. 1869 Supplementary reconstruction bill adopted over the pres. Prosecution of Jefferson Davis dropped; a nolle prosequi ident's veto.

....15 July,
entered..

6 Feb. Long trial of John H. Surratt for complicity in assassi- Indian war reported over..

Feb. nation of president Lincoln; jury not agreed on ver- Alabama treaty rejected by committee of senate, 18 Feb. dict (discharged, 6 Nov. 1868).

. 10 Aug. Fifteenth article of amendment to the constitution passed, E. M. Stanton, secretary of war, refuses to resign at the

26 Feb. requisition of the president, 5 Aug ; suspended; suc- Gen. Schenck's bill, declaring that all national obligations ceeded by gen. Grant..

12 Aug.
shall be paid in coin, passed...

....3 March, General amnesty proclaimed by the president....9 Sept. Adjournment of 40th congress; meeting of 41st congress; Removal of gen. Sheridan from the government of Lou. president Grant assumes office..

.4 March, isiana, and of Sickles from North Carolina, for insub- Schenck's bill for cash payments passed by senate, ordination to the president ... Aug.-Sept.

15 March, National cemetery at Antietam (which see) dedicated in Act authorizing the Mexican claims commission passed, presence of the president.. .17 Sept.

7 April, Sir Frederick Bruce, British ambassador, died at Boston, Convention respecting Alabama claims rejected by the

9 Sept.
senate,

...13 April, Russian America ceded....

...8 Oct. John Lothrop Motley appointed minister at London, Jefferson Davis's trial adjourned.. .26 Nov.

April, Elections in the South give supremacy to the negroes; Naturalization treaty with Great Britain ratified by senate, in some parts of the north great majorities for the

15 April, democrats.

Oct.-Nov. Great peace jubilee held at Boston ; colossal concert President's message, maintaining his principles on re- (10,371 voices, 1094 instruments, with anvils, bells, etc.) construction,

..3 Dec.
began..

..... 15 June, Proposed impeachment of the president negatived in con- William Pitt Fessenden, financier, died..........8 Sept. gress (108 to 57).. ..8 Dec. Gold panic, New York,

..24 Sept. Treaty for purchase of Danish West Indies (St. Thomas Steamboat Stonewall burned on the Mississippi; about and St. John), for $7,500,000, signed....

200 persons perish...

27 Oct. Great general storm of snow and sleet; many perish; Admiral Charles Stewart, "Old Ironsides,' aged 92, died, many wrecks. 11-15 Dec.

6 Nov. President Johnson censured, and gen. Sheridan thanked Correspondence respecting Alabama claims, etc., be

by house of representatives (see Aug. 1867)......4 Jan. 1868 tween lord Clarendon and Mr. Hamilton Fish (JuneStanton restored to war department..

..14, 15 Jan.
Oct. 1869) published...

Dec The house of representatives declare that there is no valid Renewal of the reciprocity treaty with Canada rejected government in the south; and transfer the jurisdiction by senate ....

13 Dec from president Johnson to Grant, as general of the U. Š. corvette Oneidu sunk by collision with British army.

.21 Jan.

P. &0. steamer Bombay ; 112 lives lost....... 24 Jan. 1870 Great commercial depression; Mr. Wells, the revenue

[Capt. Eyre, of the Bombay, severely censured for commissioner, recommends "peace, retrenchment, not waiting to give succor.) and reform"

.Jan. Darien canal scheme approved by congress, Jan.; treaty The inland cotton tax repealed..

.about 1 Feb.
signed...

26 Jan. Edward Thornton, new British ambassador, and Charles Prince Arthur presented to president Grant, 24 Jan.; alDickens received by the president... ....7 Feb.

tended Mr. Peabody's funeral.

....8 Feb Angry correspondence between the president and gen. Virginia (15 Jan.) and Mississippi readmitted to congress, Grant.. 28 Jan. -14 Feb.

3 Feb. President Johnson orders dismissal of Stanton, and ap- Bill for purchase of St. Thomas's isle rejected by senale, points gen. Thomas secretary of war, 21 Feb,; declared

23 March, illegal by the senate...

22 Feb. Fifteenth amendment proclaimed. ..30 March The impeachment of the president voted by house of Texas (15 March) and Georgia readmitted to congress, representatives (126 to 47), 24 Feb.; reported at the

20 April,

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The tariff bill opposed by free-traders.

May, 1870 Non recognition of Cuba affirmed.

June, San Domingo annexation treaty sent to senate 10 Jan.; rejected...

.30 June, Admiral J. A. Dahlgren died.

12 July, Session of congress closed.

,15 July, J. L. Motley, minister to Great Britain, recalled...July, First through car from the Pacific coast arrives in New York....

24 July, New tariff bill passed (new rates take effect 1 Jan, 1871).. Admiral David G. Farragut died, aged 70.......14 Aug. Strict neutrality in the Franco-Prussia war proclaimed,

Aug Senator Oliver P. Morton accepts the embassy to Great Britain.....

23 Sept. Great loss of life and property through floods in Virginia and Maryland...

end of Sept. -2 Oct. Great reduction of the heavy internal taxation begins,

1 Oct. Meeting of the southern convention at Cincinnati for political and commercial affairs..

..4 Oct. Gen. Robert E. Lee dies, aged 62. .

.12 Oct. President Grant issues a proclamation against Fenianism and attacks on Cuba ..

.13 Oct. Mr. Morton declines the embassy to Great Britain for party reasons.

... about 25 Oct. The republican majority in congress greatly reduced by

the autumn election (the first in which all races are duly represented)...

Nov. Gen. Cox, secretary of interior, dismissed; quarrel between him and the president..

Nov. Annual message of the president; he regets failure of pro

posal for annexing St. Domingo; and of the non-seillement of the Alabama claims; and complains of Canadian aggression..

...6 Dec. Population: 33,581,680 whites; 4,879,323 colored; In

dians, 25,733; Chinese, 63,196; Japanese, 55; total,

38,549,987.. Mr. Motley terms bis recall " an outrage

1.7 Dec. Steamer Nick Wall sinks on the Mississippi; 100 lives

lost. Gen. Robert Schenck appointed minister to Great Britain; accepts...

.21 Dec. San Domingo commission appointed

11 Jan. 1871 Statue of Abraham Lincoln in the capitol at Washington unveiled.....

25 Jan. George Ticknor, historian, dies.

..26 Jan. President signs bill giving District of Columbia a territo

rial government.. 42d congress meets (senate, 47 republicans; 15 democrats),

4 March, Proclamation against the Ku-Klux in South Carolina,

5 March, San Domingo com inissioners report to the senate, 4 April, Miners' riots in Scranton, Pa.

..7 April, Supreme Court decides the Legal-tender act to be constitutional..

...1 May, Commission to settle disputes with Great Britain respect.

ing the Alabama, etc., fishery question, and the Sau Juan affair: for the British the earl de Gray (since marquess of Ripon), sir Stafford Northcote, and others; for the Americans, secretary Fish, gen. Schenck, and others; announced 10 Feb.; meet at Washington, 27 Feb. ; sign treaty, agreeing to arbitration at Geneva, etc. (see Alabama and San Juan), 8 May; ratified,

26 May, Gen. Schenck warmly received at Liverpool.....3 June, An American fleet, accompanied by English and French

and German ships, arrives at Corea to conclude a treaty for protection of mariners; on attempting to explore the peninsula the Europeans are assailed from masked batteries; the Corean forts are then attacked and destroyed; and negotiations renewed.. .....June, Explosion of steamer Westfield at New York; 100 lives lost...

.30 July, Explosion of steamer Ocean Wave at Mobile; 60 lives lost,

27 Aug. Great excitement in New York over the frauds of tho

Tweed "ring;" committee of 70 appointed, 4 Sept. ; great frauds discovered and exposed, Sept. ; Tweed arrested, 28 Oct.; Connolly arrested

.26 Nov. Chicago destroyed by fire; great exertions to relieve the sufferers; see Chicago; about 2000 lives lost by fires in N. W. forests.

.8-11 Oct. Col. Hodge, paymaster of the regular army, confesses

great defalcations since 10 Sept. 1864; condemned to long imprisonment.....

Nov. European and North American railway opened at Bangor, Me., by lord Lisgar and gen. Grant.

18 Oct. Dispute between the U. S. secretary of state, Hamilton

Fish, and the Russian envoy Katakazy (for undue in. terference); Katakazy dismissed

Nov. Grand-duke Alexis of Russia warmly received at New

........18 Nov. Congress opened; president in his message refers to pence abroad and prosperity at home..

4 Dec. Formal meeting of the Alabama arbitration commission at Geneva (adjourned to 15 June).

18 Dec. Gen. Halleck died.

...Jan. 1872 General amnesty bill passed..

.. 16 Jan. American case under the treaty of Washington; claims

indirect damages by Alabama and other vessels; much excitement in England......

....Jan. 1872 Serious political disturbances in New Orleans. .1-15 Jan. Despatch from the British minister sent 2 Feb. ; reply

received (uot divulged to parliament).... 14 March, Formation of Yellowstone National Park (which see) authorized by congress..

March, Mayor Hall's trial begins..

...1 March, " Garvey makes exposures of "ring” frauds.....8 March, Further correspondence (see Alabama).... March, April, Horace Greeley, editor of the New York Tribune, nomi

nated for president by the liberal republicans. . 4 May, New tariff, reduced duties to begin from 1 Aug.; passed,

4 June, Gen. Grant nominated for re-election as president by the republicans, at Philadelphia.

.6 June, Continued negotiations respecting the Alabama aflair, May; nothing settled; congress adjourns to Doc.,

10 June, Dispute with Spain respecting unjust imprisonment of

Dr. Howard, an American citizen, in Cuba, since 13 Dec. 1870; settled; Dr. Howard released

...June, General labor strike in New York; 100,000 workmen cease work....

..June, Great international musical peace jubilee at Boston,

17 June-4 July, Coalition between the democrats and the liberal republic

cans at Baltimore to support Greeley ........10 July, Trial of Edward S. Stokes for murder of James Fisk of

the Erie ring (see New York, 1872)... United States squadron at Southampton, England, visitod by the prince of Wales..

13 Aug. Judge Barnard convicted of corruption, and removed from office and disqualified...

.19 Aug. Sinking of steamer Metis in Long Island Sound; 48 lives lost

.31 Aug. The “straight-out democrats'' nominato Charles O'Con. or for president,.

..Sept. Announcement of the award of the Geneva arbitration

on the Alabama, etc. (about 3,229, 1661.). .Sept. Wm. Henry Seward, statesman, died ..

.10 Oct. The emperor of Germany, arbitrator in the San Juan difficulty, awards the island to the United States,

23 Oct. Gen. Grant re-elected president (by 300 electoral votes; 68 for Greeley). .....

.5 Nov. Great fire in Boston; loss $70,000,000.........9, 10 Nov. Death of Horace Greeley, aged 61..

.29 Nov. Gen. Grant, in his message, says that the results of the

arbitration leave Great Britain and the United States

without a shadow upon their friendly relations, 2 Dec. Serious political disturbances in Louisiana,

Nov. and Dec. Beginning of the Credit Mobilier scandal in Congress,

19 Dec. Modoc Indians defeat troops sent to expel them, 17 Jan. 1873 Visit of prof. Tyndall; he lectures in Boston, Philadel

phia, Washington, New York, etc..... Sept. 1872-Feb. Civil war in Louisiana; figliting at New Orleans. ...Feb. The congress opened; great Credit Mobilier scandal, members accused of bribery.

March, Death of chief-justice Chase

...7 May, Gen. Canby and others massacred (see Indians), 11 April; capt. Jack and others captured; end of the war,

1 June, Hiram Powers, sculptor of "the Greek Slave," diod at Florence...

27 June Steamer Wawasset takes fire on the Potomac; about 70 perish...

.8 Aug. Great financial panic in New York; Stock Exchange closed and many great banking houses failed,

19 Sept. et seq. Great excitement through the execution of Americans taken in the Virginius (see Cuba).

.Nov. President Grant's message (calm)...

..2 Dec. Great deficiency in the revenue (about 17,000,0002.) announced.

..Dec. Alex. H. Stephens, the great confederate leader, returns to polítical life and congress...

Dec. Women's whiskey-war in Ohio; endeavor to suppress the

liquor traffic by prayers, singing, etc., opposite the shops, Feb. ; in New York..

..27 Feb. 1874 Ex-president Fillmore died...

.8 March, Charles Sumner, senator, died.

11 March, Women's whiskey - war resisted; subsides,

March, April, President Grant's veto of the currency bill for creating

inconvertible paper money, advocated by the Butler party.

.22 April, Fierce white and black riots at Austin, Miss., quelled

by the military (after loss of 15 lives).. ....12 Aug. Great excitement respecting the Beecher-Tilton scandal;

the rev. H. W. Beecher, a great preacher, accused of adultery wi Mrs. Tilton, July; acquitted by a com. mittee of his church..

.27 Aug. Insurrection of negroes at Trenton, Tennessee ; suppressed; leaders hanged.....

Aug. Centenary of the meeting of delegates at Philadelphia celebrated.....

.Sept. Insurrection of whites at New Orleans against W. P. Kel.

logg, the governor of Louisiana, wbom they deposo,

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The representatives of Tennessee readmitted to congress bar of the senate by Thaddeus Stevens and Bingham, (10 states still excluded). . .July, 1866

25 Feb. 1868 The Atlantic telegraph completed (see Electric Telegraph), Nine articles of impeachment (for issuing order for re

27 July, moval of E. M. Stanton from war office, and followCongress adjourns..

28 July, ing proceedings) adopted by the house of representaGreat meeting at Philadelpbia of the National Union Con. tives (127 to 47)...

...2 March, vention, consisting of delegatos (men of all parties, in Bill of impeachment of Johnson sent up to the senate by every state, north and south, now termed the conserv

the house of representatives..

.4 March, ative party), whose object is declared to be to establish Judicious speech of lord Stanley in the British house of the national union, restore the South to its place in commons on the Alabama claims.. ..6 March, the Union, and vindicate the president's policy,

Trial of president Johnson comes before the senate, 14 Aug

23 March, Tour of the president; he visits Philadelphia, New York, Impeachment opened by gen. Butler.. .30 March,

Chicago, etc.; he is very euthusiastically received; and Mr. Dickens sails from New York, after most affectionspeaks warmly,and often injudiciously, 24 Aug.-18 Sept. ate parting...

.22 April, Elections for congress go in favor of the republicans, Oct. National republican convention at Chicago; announce Death of Martin Van Buren, ex-president.

their platform;" approving the congress reconstrucTrial of Jefferson Davis deferred till spring. ......Oct.

tion policy; severely condemning president Johnson ; Elections in all the states except Delaware and Maryland denouncing repudiation of the debt; declaring for pro in favor of the republicans (about 2,200,000 to 1,800,000), tection of naturalized citizens, etc., 20 May; and

Oct.-Nov.

proposing gen. Ulysses S. Grant as the next president, Meeting of congress; president's message; he declares and Mr. Colfax as vice-president ..

...21 May, that he adheres to his policy

...3 Dec. The senate reject the 11th article of the impeachment, Bills to provide territorial governments in southern

16 May, states; and restriction of president's appointing pow. Reject 2d and 3d articles, and adjourn sind die; intense ers proposed. .3 Dec. excitement among republicans...,

26 May, The president charged with being "silent and motion. Mr. Stanton resigns, 27 May; succeeded by gen. Schofield, less" Dec.

30 May, A bill admitting negroes to the suffrage in District of Co- Death of the ex-president James Buchanan.....1 June, lumbia passed..

13 Dec. Chinese embassy received by the president .....5 June, Veto of president set aside..

.Jan. 1867 Bill for readmitting North and South Carolina, Georgia Supreme Court decides that congress has not power to Louisiana, Florida, and Alabama, to representation in appoint military tribunals...

..Jan.
congress, passed by the senate

....11 Jupe, Impeachment of president agreed to in committee, 7 Jan. Mr. Reverdy Johnson nominated ambassador to Great Nebraska admitted as the 37th state, over president's

Britain.

.... 12 June, Veto..

..9 Feb. Arkansas readmitted over the president's veto..20 June, Bill for establishing military government in the south- The democratic convention nominate Horatio Seymoar ern states, divided into five districts, discussed,

for president, and Francis P. Blair for vice-president, 13-15 Feb.

4-7 July, Modified and passed, 20 Feb.; vetoed by the president, General amnesty (with exceptions) issued.......4 July, 28 Feb. Wyoming territory organized...

.22 July, Mr. Peabody gives $1,000,000 to promote education in Act for protection of naturalized citizens abroad passed, the South.. .Feb.

27 July, Fortieth congress opened.. 4 March, Thaddeus Stevens dies.....

12 Aug Supplementary reconstruction bill for the South passed, Gen. Ulysses S. Grant elected 13th president. .3 Nov.

20 March Gen. Sheridan's victory over insurgent Indians; a village Tenure of omice act passed

March,
burned

27 Nov. Russian America purchased for $7,000,000; treaty rati. Any repudiation of debt renounced by the house of rep. fied by the senate ..

..9 April,
resentatives (154 to 6).

14 Dec Many strikes among operatives.

April, Cornell university (which see) founded. Jefferson Davis released on bail, 13 May; proceeded to Convention respecting Alabama claims signed by lord New York, and thence to Canada... .....20 May,

Clarendon and Mr. Reverdy Johnson..

14 Jan. 1809 Supplementary reconstruction bill adopted over the pres. Prosecution of Jefferson Davis dropped; a nolle prosequi ident's veto..

.15 July,
entered..

.6 Feb Long trial of John H. Surratt for complicity in assassi- Indian war reported over.....

. Feb. nation of president Lincoln; jury not agreed on ver- Alabama treaty rejected by committee of senate, 18 Feb.

dict (discharged, 6 Nov. 1868)... ....10 Aug. Fifteenth article of amendment to the constitution passed, E. M. Stanton, secretary of war, refuses to resign at the

26 Feb. requisition of the president, 5 Aug. ; suspended; suc- Gen. Schenck's bill, declaring that all pational obligations ceeded by gen. Grant.

..12 Aug.
shall be paid in coin, passed..

.3 March, General amnesty proclaimed by the president....9 Sept. Adjournment of 40th congress; meeting of 41st congress; Removal of gen. Sheridan from the government of Lou. president Grant assumes office..

...4 March, isiana, and of Sickles from North Carolina, for insub. Schenck's bill for cash payments passed by senate, ordination to the president ... Aug. --Sept.

15 March, National cemetery at Antietam (which see) dedicated in Act authorizing the Mexican claims commission passed, presence of the president.. 17 Sept.

7 April, Sir Frederick Bruce, British ambassador, died at Boston, Convention respecting Alabama claims rejected by the

9 Sept.
senate..

.13 April, Russian America ceded..

8 Oct.

John Lothrop Motley appointed minister at London, Jefferson Davis's trial adjourned.. .26 Nov.

April, Elections in the South give supremacy to the negroes; Naturalization treaty with Great Britain ratified by senate, in some parts of the north great majorities for the

15 April, democrats.

Oct.-Nov. Great peace jubilee held at Boston ; colossal concert President's message, maintaining his principles on re- (10,371 voices, 1094 instruinents, with anvils, bells, etc.) construction...

..3 Dec.
began..

......15 June, Proposed impeachment of the president negatived in con- William Pitt Fessenden, financier, died..........8 Sept. gress (108 to 57). ..8 Dec. Gold panic, New York.

24 Sept. Treaty for purchase of Danish West Indies (St. Thomas Steamboat Stonewall burned on the Mississippi; about and St. John), for $7,500,000, signed...

Dec.
200 persons perish..

.27 Oct Great general storm of snow and sleet; many perish; Admiral Charles Stewart, “Old Ironsides,'' aged 92, died, many wrecks. 11-15 Dec.

6 Nov. President Johnson censured, and gen. Sheridan thanked Correspondence respecting Alabama claims, etc., be

by house of representatives (sec Aug. 1867)......4 Jan. 1868 tween lord Clarendon and Mr. Hamilton Fish (JuneStanton restored to war department. .14, 16 Jan. Oct. 1869) published..... The house of representatives declare that there is no valid Renewal of the reciprocity treaty with Canada rejected government in the south; and transfer the jurisdiction

by senate ....

13 Dec. from president Johnson to Grant, as general of the U. $. corvette Oneida sank by collision with Britisha army..

21 Jan.

P. & 0. steamer Bombay; 112 lives lost....... 24 Jan. 1870 Great commercial depression; Mr. Wells, the revenue

(Capt. Eyre, of the Bombay, severely censured for commissioner, recommends ** peace, retrenchment,

not waiting to give succor. ) and reform"

..Jan. Darien canal scheme approved by congress, Jan. ; treaty The inland cotton tax repealed.

.about 1 Feb.
signed.....

. 26 Jan. Edward Thornton, new British ambassador, and Charles Prince Arthur presented to president Grant, 24 Jan., alDickens received by the president..

...7 Feb.
tended Mr. Peabody's funeral......

.....8 Feb Angry correspondence between the president and gen. Virginia (15 Jan.) and Mississippi readmitted to congress Grant.. 28 Jan. -14 Feb.

3 Feb President Johnson orders dismissal of Stanton, and ap- Bill for purchase of St. Thomas's isle rejected by senale, points gen. Thomas secretary of war, 21 Feb.; declared

23 March, illegal by the senate...

22 Feb. Fifteenth amendment proclaimed... 30 March The impeachment of the president voted by house of Texas (15 March) and Georgia readmitted to congress, representatives (126 to 47), 24 Feb. ; reported at the

20 April,

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May, 1870

indiroct damages by Alabama and other vessels; much Non-recognition of Cuba affirmed.

...June,
excitement in England....

...Jan. 1872 San Domingo annexation treaty sent to senate 10 Jan.; Serious political disturbances in New Orleans. , 1-15 Jan. rejected...

30 June, Despatch from the British minister sent 2 Feb.; reply Admiral J. A. Dahlgren died.

12 July, received (not divulged to parliament).......14 March, Session of congress closed.

,15 July, Formation of Yellowstone National Park (which see) auJ. L. Motley, minister to Great Britain, recalled...July, thorized by congress....

March, First through car from the Pacific coast arrives in New Mayor Hall's trial begins..

.1 March, York

.24 July, Garvey makes exposures of "ring" frauds.....8 March New tariff bill passed (new rates take effect 1 Jan. 1871).. Further correspondence (see Alabama).... March, April, Admiral David G. Farragut died, aged 70.......14 Aug. Horace Greeley, editor of the New York Tribune, nomiStrict neutrality in the Franco-Prussian war proclaimed, nated for president by the liberal republicans. .4 May,

Aug. New tariff, reduced duties to begin from 1 Aug. ; passed, Senator Oliver P. Morton accepts the embassy to Great

4 June, Britain...

.23 Sept. Gen. Grant nominated for re-election as president by Great loss of life and property through floods in Virginia the republicans, at Philadelphia .

.6 June, and Maryland...

end of Sept. -2 Oct. Continued negotiations respecting the Alabama affair, Great reduction of the heavy internal taxation begins,

May; nothing settled; congress adjourns to Dec., 1 Oct.

10 June Meeting of the southern convention at Cincinnati for po- Dispute with Spain respecting unjust imprisonment of litical and commercial affairs..

...4 Oct.

Dr. Howard, an American citizen, in Cuba, since 13 Dec. Gen. Robert E. Lee dies, aged 62. .

.12 Oct

1870; settled; Dr. Howard released .....,June, President Grant issues a proclamation against Fenianism General labor strike in New York; 100,000 workmen cease and attacks on Cuba

13 Oct.
work......

..June, Mr. Morton declines the embassy to Great Britain for Great international musical peace jubilee at Boston, party reasons.... ..... about 25 Oct.

17 June-4 July, The republican majority in congress greatly reduced by Coalition between the democrats and the liberal republic

the autumn election (the first in which all races are cans at Baltimore to support Greeley ...10 July, duly represented)..

.Nov. Trial of Edward S. Stokes for murder of James Fisk of Gen. Cox, secretary of interior, dismissed; quarrel be

the Erie ring (see New York, 1872)... ..15 July, tween him and the president..

..Nov. United States squadron at Southampton, England, visited Annual message of the president; he regets failure of pro

by the prince of Wales..

.13 Aug posal for annexing St. Domingo; and of the non-soitle- Judge Barnard convicted of corruption, and removed ment of the Alabama claims; and complains of Cana

from office and disqualified..

19 Aug. dian aggression..

.5 Dec. Sinking of steamer Metis in Long Island Sound; 48 lives Population: 33,581,680 whites; 4,879,323 colored; In.

.....31 Aug. dians, 25,733; Chinese, 63, 196; Japanese, 55; total, The “ straight-out democrats nominato Charles O'Con. 38,549,987.

..Dec.
or for president..

...Sept. Mr. Motley terms his recall " an outrage

.7 Dec. Announcement of the award of the Geneva arbitration Steamer Nick Wall sinks on the Mississippi; 100 lives on the Alabama, etc. (about 3,229.1661.).. .Sept. lost...

Wm. Henry Seward, statesman, died .... ..10 Oct. Gen. Robert Schenck appointed minister to Great Britain; The emperor of Germany, arbitrator in the San Juan accepts..

21 Dec.

difficulty, awards the island to the United States, San Domingo commission appointed . .11 Jan. 1871

23 Oct. Statue of Abraham Lincoln in the capitol at Washington Gen. Grant re-elected president (by 300 electoral votes; unveiled.

25 Jan.
68 for Greeley)....

...5 Nov. George Ticknor, historian, dies.

.. 26 Jan. Great fire in Boston; loss $70,000,000.........9, 10 Nov. President signs bill giving District of Columbia a territo- Death of Horace Greeley, aged 61.

..29 Nov. rial government..

Gen. Grant, in his message, says that the results of the 42d congress meets (senate, 47 republicans; 15 democrats), arbitration leave Great Britain and the United States

4 March,

without a shadow upon their friendly relations, 2 Dec. Proclamation against the Ku Klux in South Carolina, Serious political disturbances in Louisiana, 5 March,

Nov. and Dec. San Domingo commissioners report to the senate, 4 April Beginning of the Credit Mobilier scandal in Congress, Miners' riots in Scranton, Pa....... ..7 April,

19 Dec. Supreme Court decides the Legal-tender act to be consti- Modoc Indians defeat troops sent to expel them, 17 Jan. 1873 tutional..

..1 May, Visit of prof. Tyndall; he lectures in Boston, PhiladelCommission to settle disputes with Great Britain respect- phia, Washington, New York, etc.....Sept. 1872-Feb.

ing the Alabama, etc., fishery question, and the San Civil war in Louisiana; fighting at New Orleans.... Feb. Juan affair: for the British the earl de Gray (since mar- The congress opened, great Credit Mobilier scandal, quess of Ripon), sir Stafford Northcote, and others; for members accused of bribery...

.. March the Americans, secretary Fish, gen. Schenck, and Death of chief-justice Chase ..

...7 May, others; announced 10 Feb.; meet at Washington, 27 Gen. Canby and others massacred (see Indians), 11 April; Feb.; sign treaty, agreeing to arbitration at Geneva, capt. Jack and others captured; end of the war, etc. (see Alabama and San Juan), 8 May; ratified,

1 June, 26 May, Hiram Powers, sculptor of "the Greek Slave," died at Gen. Schenck warmly received at Liverpool.....3 June, Florence...

.27 June, An American fleet, accompanied by English and French Steamer Wawasset takes fire on the Potomac; about 70 and German ships, arrives at Corea to conclude a treaty perish...

..8 Aug. for protection of mariners; on attempting to explore Great financial panic in New York; Stock Exchange the peninsula the Europeans are assailed from masked closed and many great banking houses failed, batteries; the Corean forts are then attacked and de

19 Sept. et seq. stroyed; and negotiations renewed... .....June, Great excitement through the execution of Americans Explosion of steamer Westfield at New York; 100 lives taken in the Virginius (see Cuba).

..Nov. lost.. .30 July, President Grant's message (calm).

.2 Dec, Explosion of steamer Ocean Wave at Mobile; 60 lives lost, Great deficiency in the revenue (about 17,000,0001.)

announced.

.Dec. Great excitement in New York over the frauds of the Alex. H. Stephens, the great confederate leader, returns Tweed “ring;" committee of 70 appointed, 4 Sept.; to political life and congress....

Dec. great frauds discovered and exposed, Sept. ; Tweed ar Women's whiskey-war in Ohio; endeavor to suppress the rested, 28 Oct.; Connolly arrested

...25 Nov.

liquor traffic by prayers, singing, etc., opposite the Chicago destroyed by fire; great exertions to relieve the shops, Feb.; in New York..

...27 Feb. 1874 sufferers; see Chicago; about 2000 lives lost by fires Ex-president Fillmore died ..

..8 March, in N. W. forests... ......8-11 Oct. Charles Samner, senator, died.

..11 March, Col. Hodge, paymaster of the regular army, confesses Women's whiskey - war resisted; subsides, great defalcations since 10 Sept. 1864; condemned to

March, April, long imprisonment......

Nov. President Grant's veto of the currency bill for creating European and North American railway opened at Bangor, inconvertible paper money, advocated by the Butler Me., by lord Lisgar and gen. Grant...

.....18 Oct.
party..

.22 April, Dispute between the U. s. secretary of state, Hamilton Fierce white and black riots at Austin, Miss., quelled Fish, and the Russian envoy Katakazy (for undue in

by the military (after loss of 15 lives). .

.12 Aug. terference); Katakazy dismissed

Nov.

Great excitement respecting the Beecher-Tilton scandal; Grand-duke Alexis of Russia warmly received at New the rev. H. W. Beecher, a great preacher, accused of York

........ 18 Nov.

adultery with Mrs. Tilton, July; acquitted by a comCongress opened; president in his message refers to pence

mittee of his church.

.27 Aug. abroad and prosperity at home..

4 Dec. Insurrection of negroes at Trenton, Tennessee ; supFormal meeting of the Alabama arbitration commission pressed; leaders hanged....

.Aug. at Geneva (adjourned to 15 June). .

.18 Dec. Centenary of the meeting of delegates at Philadelphia Gen. Halleck died. ...Jan. 1872 celebrated........

..Sept. General amnesty bill passed.

16 Jan. Insurrection of whites at New Orleans against W. P. Kel. American case under the treaty of Washington; claims logg, the governor of Louisiana, whom they depose,

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