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1830
1467 | 1867 England.

8994 banks amounted to 4,138,6181.; the amount in circula1810 1308 1869

10,396 tion by private banks, same year, was 6,973,6131.--the 1145 England. 10.50 1298 1876

976 total amount exceeding eleven millions.* In Ireland 1857 1488 1877

967 similar banks have been instituted, the first being the 1850 1268 1878

1034 Hibernian Bank, in 1825. The note-circulation of joint1863 8470 1879

1156

stock bauks, on 1 Oct. 1855, was, in England, 3,990,8001. ; 1864 In 1857 there were in Scotland..

in Scotland, 4,280,0001.; and in Ireland, 6,785,0001.; total, Ireland....

73 with English private banks, about 19,000,0001.; and with United Kingdom..

2014 the Bank of England, above 39,000,000l. By the new In 1860

Scotland..
Ireland .....

113 Companies Act, passed 15 Aug. 1879, unlimited comUnited Kingdom...

1826 panies may register as limited. In the United States, both the general and state govern

Chief London Banks.

Founded. ments have power to pass bankrupt laws, but the con.

London and Westminster (becomes limited, 1879).

1834 stitution specially empowers Congress to make uni.

London Joint Stock...

1836 form laws upon this subject. The power has been

Union Bank of London... exercised three times-1st, in the act of 4 April, 1800,

Commercial Bank of London...
repealed 19 Dec. 1803; 2d, in the act of 19 Aug. 1841,
repealed 1843; 3d, by act of 2 March, 1867, repealed by

London and County (becomes limited, 1879).
City Bank (becomes limited, 1880).

1855 act of 7 July, 1878, which took effect.... .1 Sept. 1878

Bank of London.. Banks IN THE UNITED STATES. The first bank

Joint Stock Banks, Jan. 1860: in the United States was the Bank of North America, England and Wales (including London). chartered by congress at the instance of Robert Morris Scotland..

15

Ireland .. in 1780, and by the state of Pennsylvania 1781, with a

British and foreign colonial banks with oflices in London. capital of $400,000. It is still in existence, and has a capital of $1,000,000. The first bank of the United Banks, NATIONAL. The national-bauk system of States was incorporated in 1791, but did not go into the United States was organized 25 Feb. 1863, to give operation until 1794. It was the suggestion of Hamil uniformity to the paper currency and the banking ton, the secretary of the treasury; its capital was laws of the country. T'he old banks, anthorized by the $10,000,000. At that time the whole banking capital several states, were induced by certain privileges, or of the United States was only $2,000,000, invested in forced by special taxes, to surrender their state charters the Bank of North America. The Bank of New York, and accept charters as national banks from the United founded 1784, and the Bank of Massachusetts in Boston, States government. A subsequent act was adopted and founded the same year. The charter of the United approved 12 June, 1870. By the terms of this law States Bank was limited to twenty years; its headquar- the circulation of the national banks was limited to ters were fixed in the city of Philadelphia, and it was to $354,000,000, which was secured by the deposit of the be governed by twenty directors. A new one was char- bonds of the government with the United States treastered in 1816, for the same term, with a capital of $35,- urer, This limitation was removed by later legislation. 000,000. In it the government funds were kept on de- On the 1st Oct. 1881, there were 2132 national banks in posit. An act of congress in 1832, re-chartering it, existence, with an aggregate capital of $463,821,983, was vetoed by president Jackson. He also caused the and an aggregate circulation of $360,344,250. United States funds to be withdrawn from it in Sept.

Banks of SCOTLAND. The old bank of Scotland 1833. This act produced a violent partisan feeling was set up in 1695 at Edinburgh, and began 1 Nov., throughout the Union, and strong movements were the second institution of the kind in the empire; lending made to impeach the president. A resolution of cen- money to the crown was prohibited. sure was passed by the United States senate in March, 1834. It was expunged by order of the senate in Jan. Royal Bank of Scotland chartered.

.8 July, 1727

1746 1837. Efforts were made in 1814 to establish a similar British Linen Company Bauk...

Commercial Bank bank under another name. A bill for establishing the

National Bank.. Fiscal Bank of the United States passed the house of Union Bank.

1830 representatives in Aug. 1811. It was vetoed by presi- First stone of present Bank of Scotland laid .3 June, 1801 dent Tyler. Another bill for a “ Fiscal Corporation ” City of Glasgow Bankt.

Scotch banking act passed.

21 July, 1845 was retoed by him on the 9th of Sept. This caused the Western Bank of Scotland and the Glasgow Bank stopped, resignation of all the cabinet, except Daniel Webster, on causing much distress..

.Nov. 1857 the 17th of the month. In 1828 the “* Safety Fund Sy'stem” was tried in New York, but in 1838 was given up, * The ROYAL British BANK was established in 1849, by and the free banking system introduced, which worked Mr. John McGregor, M.P., and others, under sir R. Peel's Jointwell, and was imitated in many states. The New York stock Banking Act, 7 & 8 Vict. c. 113 (1844), as an attempt to

introduce the Scotch banking system of cash credits into Eng. Clearing-house was established in Oct. 1833; that in land.

On 3 Sept. 1856, it stopped payment, occasioning much Boston was opened for business 29 March, 1856. The distress and ruin to many small tradesmen and others. In Suffolk Bank system of redemption in Boston began consequence of strong evidence of the existence of fraud in 1825. The “ Bank of Mutual Redemption," set up in before the court of bankruptcy, the government instructed

the management of the bank, elicited during the examination opposition to the Suffolk Bank, was chartered 1855, but the attorney-general to file er-officio informations against the did not go into operation for several years, and never manager, Mr. H. Innes Cameron, and sereral of the directors. accomplished much. In 1857 there was a general sus- They were convicted 27 Feb. 1858, after thirteen days' trial,

and sentenced to various degrees of imprisonment. Attempts pension of specie payments throughout the Union, pre- to mitigate the punishmeni failed (May, 1858); but all were cipitated by the bankruptcy of the Ohio Life and Mutual released except Cameron and Esdaile, in July, 1858. In April, Insurance Company, but it passed off with comparative- 1860, dividends had been paid to the amount of 158. in the

pound. The attorney general brought in a bill called the ly little injury. Specie payments were suspended again Fraudulent Trustees Act, 20 & 21 Vict. c. 54, to prevent the soon after the breaking-out of the Civil War, and were recurrence of such transactions. resumed 1 Jan. 1879. (See Banks, National, infra.)

On 19 April, 1860, a deficiency of 263,0007, was discovered in

the Union Bank of London. Mr. George Pullinger, a cashier, Banks, JOINT-STOCK. Since the act of 1826, a confessed himseli guilty of forgery and fraud, and was sennumber of these banks have been established. In 1810, tenced to twenty years' imprisonment. the amount of paper currency issued by joint-stock of the Commercial Bank of London, had robbed his

On 18 Feb. 1861, it was discovered that John Durden, a clerk

mployers

of 67,0001., of which 46.0001. might be recovered. other banking establishments had been declared insolvent. In Dec. 1864, J. W. Terry and Thomas Burch, manager and Every succeeding week continued to add from seventy to a secretary of the Unity Bank, were committed on a charge of hundred merchants, traders, and manufacturers to the bank conspiracy for fabricating accounts; but acquitted ou their rupt list.

This was the period of bubble speculation, and of trial. unprecedented commercial embarrassment and ruin.

+ City Of GLASGOW BANK (with unlimited liability ); * Liquidations now preferred to baukruptcy.

founded 1839; identified with Glasgow; held Free Church

1810 1825

1839 1717 1810

Bannatyne Club, named after George Bannatyne seventeen were condemned to death, of whom eleven (the publisher), was established in 1823 by sir Walter were executed; the others were sentenced to receive Scott and others, for printing works illustrative of the each 200 lashes. The executions took place on board history, antiquities, and literature of Scotland, of which the Majestic, Centaur, Formiduble, Téméraire, and about 113 volumes were issued; dissolved, 1860. L'Achille, 8 to 18 Jan. 1802. Banner Cross Murder, see Trials, 1879.

Bapaume (N. France), the site of severe indecisive Banneret, Knight, a dignity between baron and engagements between the French army of the north, uoknight, anciently conferred by the king under the royal der Faidherbe, and the Germans, under Manteuffel; the standard on the field of battle. Its origin is of uncer- French retreated 2, 3 Jan. 1871. tain time; Edmondson dates it 736, but it was probably Baptism, the ordinance of admission into the church, created by Edward I. John Chandos is said to have practised by all Christian sects except Quakers. John been made a banneret by the Black Prince and the king the Buptist baptized Christ, 30 (Matt. iii.). Infant bapof Castile at Najara, 3 April, 1367. The dignity was tism is mentioned by Irenæus about 97. In the reign of conferred on John Smith, who rescued the royal standard Constantine, 319 baptisteries were built, and baptism was at Edgehill fight, 23 Oct. 1642. It fell into disuse, but performed by dipping the person all over. In the west was revived by George III. for sir William Erskine, in sprinkling was adopted. Much controversy has arisen 1764, and for admiral Pye, and capts. Knight, Bickerton, since 1831 (particularly in 1849 and 1850), in the church and Vernon, in 1773.

of England, respecting baptismal regeneration, which Banners were common to all nations. The Jewish the Arches Court of Canterbury decided to be a doctrine tribes had standards or banners-Numb. ii. (1491 B.C.). of the church of England; see Trials, 1849, and note. The standard of Constantine bore the inscription In hoc Demanding fees for baptisms was made unlawful by an signo vinces (“ By this sign thou shalt conquer”), under act passed 18 July, 1872. the figure of the cross; see Cross. The magical banner Baptists (see Anabaptists). A sect distinguished of the Danes (said to have been a black raven on a red by their opinions respecting (1) the proper subjects, and ground) was taken by Alfred when he defeated Hubba, (2) the proper mode, of baptism; the former they affirm 878. St. Martin's cap, and afterwards the celebrated to be those who are able to make a profession of faith; auriflamma, or oriflamme, were the standards of France the latter to be total immersion. There are seven secabout 1100; see Auriflamma, Standards, etc.

tions of Baptists: Arminian, Calvinistic (or particular), Bannockburn (Stirlingshire), the site of two etc. The first Baptist church formed in London was battles: (1) between Robert Bruce of Scotland and Ed- about 1608. They published their confession of faith in ward II. of England, 24 June, 1314. The army of Bruce 1643 ; revised in 1689. In 1851 they had 130 chapels consisted of 30,000; that of Edward of 100.000 men, of in London and 2789 (with sittings for 752,353 persons) whom 52,000 were archers. The English crossed a rivu- in England and Wales. Rhode Island, America, was let to the attack, and Bruce having dug and covered settled by Baptists in 1635. pits, they fell into them, and were thrown into confusion. The rout was complete; the English king narrowly Baptist College, Regent's Park, founded.

Particular Baptist Fund... escaped, and 50,000 were killed or taken prisoners. (2) Mr. C. H. Spurgeon's great Baptist tabernacle, NewingAt Sauchieburn, near here, James III. was defeated and

ton Butts, opened......

.31 March, 1861 slain on 11 June, 1488, by his rebellious nobles.

A Baptist Pastors' College near it, founded by Mr. Spur. geon....

..14 Oct. 1873 Banns, in the feudal law, were a solemn proclama- | A great tabernacle at Shoreditch (rev. Wm. Cuft) opeved, tion of any kind; hence arose the present custom of ask- In the United States, in 1880, the Baptist churches numbered

11 Nov. 1879 ing banns, or giving notice before marriage; said to

24,794, with 15,401 ministers and 2,133,044 communicants have been introduced into the English church about 1200. The proper time of publishing banns in the

Bar sur Aube (N.E. France). Here the French, church was the subject of much discussion in 1867,

under Oudinot and Macdonald, were defeated by the

allies, 27 Feb. 1814, Banqueting-house, Whitehall, London, built by Inigo Jones, about 1619.

Barataria Bay, on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico, Bantam (Java). Here a British factory was estab- about thirty miles west of the Mississippi river. The lished by capt. Lancaster, in 1603. The English and bay was the headquarters of a band of pirates and smugDanes were driven from their factories by the Dutch in glers under Jean Lafitte; and in 1814, when the British 1683. Bantam surrendered to the British in 1811, but were preparing their expedition against New Orleans, was restored to the Dutch at the peace in 1814.

they sent a vessel under capt. Lockyer to secure Lafitte's

assistance, which, with his knowledge of the intricate Bantingism, see Corpulence.

waterways of that region, would have been invaluable. Bantry Bay (S. Ireland), where a French fleet, Lafitte asked for time to consider the offer made him (of bringing succor to the adherents of James II., attacked $30,000 and the command of a ship), but secretly sent the English under admiral Herbert, 1 May, 1689; the messengers to reveal the plan to the authorities in New latter retired to form in line and were not pursued. A Orleans, and to offer his services to the Americans on French squadron of seven sail of the line and two frig- the sole condition that he and his men should be parates, armed en flûte, and seventeen transports, anchored oned the offences charged against them. This proposihere for a few days, without effect, Dec. 1796,-MUTINY tion was accepted, and Latitte rendered valuable services, of the Bantry Bay squadron under admiral Mitchell was Barbadoes, a West India island, one of the Windin Dec. 1801, In Jan. 1802, twenty-two of the mutineers ward Isles discovered by the Portuguese about 1600, were tried on board the Gladiator, at Portsmouth, when taken possession of by the English 1605, and settled by

sir Wm. Courteen, who founded Jamestown, 1625, As Sustentation Fund; stopped for a few days during crisis, Nov. 1857. In 1878 paid dividend 12 por cont. (1001. stock, 2361.); many royalists settled here, the island was taken by the 1272 shareholders, very many in humble circumstances. The parliamentarians in 1632, Population, 1876, 162,042; bank stopped 2 Oct. Invesiigation showed great fraud and white, 16,560; colored, 145,482. falso accounts. Estimated loss, 6,783,0001., causing much calamity and ruin to many. The directors, J. Stewart, Lewis A dreadful hurricano, more than 4000 inhabitants perPotter, R. Salmond, Wm. Taylor, H. Inglis, and J. I. Wright, ished...

10 Oct. 1780 and the manager. R S. Stronach, were committed for trial, 30 A large plantation with all its buildings destroyed, by

Stronach and Potter were convicted of falsifying and tho land removing from its original site to another, fabricating balance sheets (18 montlis' imprisonment; the and covering everything in its peregrination...17 Oct. 1784 others of uttering the same, 8 months' imprisonment), 1 Feb. An inundation, Nov, 1795; and two great fires,

May and Dec. 1796 The liquidators reported that about 1819 contributors had Bishoprie established.... paid about 4,500,0001. (13s. 1d. in the pound), 1 Dec. 1879; 20s. Awful devastation, with the loss of thousands of lives, in the pound paid to depositors, 2 March, 1880.

aud of immense property, by a hurricane,...,10 Aug 1831

Oct.

1879.

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Nearly 17,000 persons died of cholera,

1854 | other places, 1879. The Cymmrodorion Society held an Property to the amount of about 300,0001. destroyed by a fire at Bridgetown..

14 Feb. 1860

Eisteddfod at Carnarvon, 23 Aug. 1880. The GwyneddiGreat increase in growth of cotton.

.... 1864–5 gion Society of Bards was founded in 1770. Turlogh Governor, James Walker...

1861 O'Carolan, the last of the Irish bards, died in 1738.Rawson W. Rawson.

1868

Chambers.
John Pope Hennessy.

1875 Proposed confederation of the Windward Isles; support

Barebone's Parliament. Cromwell, supreme ed by the governor in a speech, 3 March; opposed by in the three kingdoms, summoned 122 persons, such as che planters .

March, 1876 he thought he could manage, who, with six from ScotThe colored population, ignorantly expecting advantage

from the confederation, rise, plundering and destroy- land and five from Ireland, met as a parliament, 4 July, ing much property and cattle ; negroes killed and 1653. It obtained its appellation from a nickname given wounded by police...

21, 22 April,

to one of its members, a leather-seller, named “ PraiseGreat panic among the planters; the governor and clergy said to have acted judiciously; peace restored,

God Barbon.” The majority evinced much sense and

24 April, spirit, proposing to reform abuses, improve the adminisThe governor exonerated from serious blamo......July,

tration of the law, etc. The parliament was suddenly Trial of 450 rioters; 82 punished (17 penal servitude; others light sentences).....

12-21 Oct.

dissolved, 13 Dec. 1653, and Cromwell made lord proCapt. George C. Strahan appointed governor........Nov. tector. Sir Henry Bulwer, governor...

1880

Bareilly, province of Delhi (N.W. India), ceded to Barbary, in N. Africa, considered to comprise Al- the East India Company by the ruler of Oude in 1801. geria, Morocco, Fez, Tunis, and Tripoli, with their de- A mutiny at Bareilly, the capital, was suppressed in pendencies. Piratical states (nominally subject to Tur- April

, 1816. On 7 May, 1858, it was taken from the key) were founded on the coast by Barbarossa, about cruel sepoy rebels. 1518.

Barfleur (N. France), where William, duke of NorBarbers lived in Greece in the fifth century and at mandy, equipped the fleet by which he conquered Eng. Rome in the third century B.C. In England, formerly, land, 1066. Near it, William, duke of Normandy, son of the business of a surgeon was united to the barber's, and Henry I., in his passage from Normandy, was shiphe was denominated a BARBER-SURGEON. A London wrecked, 25 Nov. 1120, when the prince, his bride, and company was formed in 1308, and incorporated 1462. many others perished. Barfleur was destroyed by the This union was partially dissolved in 1540, and wholly English in the campaign in which they won the battle so in 1745. “No person using any shaving or barbery

of Crecy, 1346. The French navy was destroyed near in London shall occupy any surgery, letting of blood, or the cape by admiral Russell, after the victory of La other matter, except only drawing of teeth."-32 Hen. Hogue, 19 May, 1692. VIII. 1540.

Bari (S. Italy), the Barium of Horace, was, in the 9th Barca (N. Africa), the Greek Barce, a colony of Cy- century, a stronghold of the Saracens, and was captured It was successively subjugated by the Persians, in 871. In the 10th century it became subject to the

by the emperor Louis II., a descendant of Charlemagne, Egyptians, and Saracens. In 1550 the sultan Solyman Eastern Empire, and remained so till it was taken by combined Barca with the newly conquered pachalic of Robert Guiscard, the Norman, about 1060. Tripoli.

A great ec

clesiastical council was held here on 1 Oct. 1098, when Barcelona (N.E. Spain), an ancient maritime city, the filioque article of the Creed and the procession of the Baid to have been rebuilt by Hamilcar Barca, father of Holy Spirit were the subjects of discussion, the great Hannibal, about 233 B.C. It was held by the

Baring Island, Arctic Sea, discovered by capt. Romans, Goths, Moors, and Franks, and, with the prov: Penny in 1850–1, and so named by him after sir Francis ince of which it is the capital, was made an independent Baring, first lord of the admiralty in 1849. country about A.1). 864, and incorporated with Aragon, 1164, the last count becoming king. The city has suf

Barium (Greek, barys, heavy), a metal found abunfered much by war. The siege by the French in 1694, dantly as carbonate and sulphate. The oxide baryta was relieved by the approach of the English fleet, com.

was first recognized as an earth distinct from lime by manded by admiral Russell; but the city was taken by Scheele in 1774; and the metal was first obtained by the earl of Peterborough in 1706. It was bombarded Humphry Davy, in 1808.- Watts. and taken by the duke of Berwick and the French in Bark, see Jesuit's-bark. 1714, and was taken by Napoleon in 1808, and retained Barlaamites, followers of Barlaam, a learned Catill 1814. It revolted against the queen in 1811, and labrian monk of the order of St. Basil, who maintained was bombarded and taken in Dec. 1842, by Espartero. various peculiar tenets, attacked the Greek monks, supFrequent insurrections here; one suppressed Jan. 1874. ported the Latin against the Greek church in a controAn exhibition opened by the king Alfonso XII. 4 March versy at Constantinople, 1337, and acted as the emperor's 1877. Barcelona very prosperous, 1879.

envoy in an attempt to reconcile the churches in 1339.

He died about 1348. Barclay, Captain, see Pedestrianism. Bardesanists, followers of Bardesanes, of Mesopo- for virtue and courage, were massacred through the

Barmecides, a powerful Persian family, celebrated tamia, who embraced the errors of Valentinus, after refuting them, and added denial of the incarnation, resur- His vizier Giafar was a Barmecide. The phrase Bar

jealousy of the caliph Haroun-al-Raschid, about 802. rection, etc., about 175.

mecide (or imaginary) feast originated in the story of Bards. Demodocus is mentioned as a bard by Ho- the barber's sixth brother, in the “ Arabian Nights’ Enmer; and we find bards, according to Strabo, among the tertainments.” Romans before the age of Augustus. The Welsh bards formed an hereditary order, regulated, it is said, by laws an about 1530, were much engaged in instructing youth,

Barnabites, an order of monks, established in Milenacted about 940 and 1078. They lost their privileges relieving the sick and aged, and converting heretics. at the conquest by Edward I. in 1284. The institution was revived by the Tudor sovereigns; and their Eistedd

Barnardo Homes. Dr. T.J. Barnardo, of German fods (or meetings) have been and are still frequently extraction, born in Ireland, came to London, and in 1866 held : at Swansea, Aug. 1863; at Llandudno, Aug. 1864; began energetically to promote the welfare of homeless in the vale of Conway, 7 Aug. 1865; at Chester, 4 Sept.

children, 1866; at Carmarthen, 3 Sept. 1867; at Ruthin, 5-7 Aug. Barnard's, Sir John, Act (7 Geo. II., c. 8), enti1868; at Rhyl, 8-12 Aug. 1870; at Portmadoc, Aug. tled “An act to prevent the infamous practice of stock1872; at Mold, Aug. 1873; at various places in 1874-6; jobbing," was passed in 1734, and repealed in 1860. Sir at Carvarvon, 21 Aug. 1877; at Llanrwst, 1-3 Aug.; at John Barnard (born 1685, died 1761) was an eminent Menai Bridge, Aug. 1878; at Conway, 6 Aug., and at lord mayor of London.

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Ilis home for boys at Stepney, founded 1870, was followed by | in 1801 are of the United Kingdom. Betham's “Bar

one for girls, ai Barkingside, Essex, with infirmary, schools, onetage of England,” 5 vols. 4to, 1801-5.
etc.; all were reported successful in 1874.
His disinterestedness and management having been impugned,

Barons' War arose in consequence of the faithhe gave up the management to trustees, and invited inves. tigation. The arbiters (canon Miller 'and Messrs. J. B. lessness of Henry III. and the oppression of his favorites Maule and Wm. Graham) in their report, after commenting in 1258. The barons, headed by Simon de Montfort. on the imperfect evidence, commended the charities, and earl of Leicester, and Gilbert de Clare, earl of Gloucester, generally exonerated Dr. Barnardo, 15 Oct. 1877. (See Coffee Palaces and East End Juvenile Mission.)

met at Oxford in 1262, and enacted statutes to which

the king objected. In 1263 their disputes were in vain Barnburners. A name given to Democrats in the referred to the decision of Louis IX. of France. War United States who withdrew from the regular organiza- broke out, and on 14 May, 1264, the king's party was totion of their party in 1846. The name is said to have tally defeated at Lewes; and De Montfort became the been given to theni in allusion to the story of a man who virtual ruler of the kingdom. The war was renewed; burned his barn in order to get rid of rats; the barn- and at the battle of Evesham, 4 Aug. 1265, De Montfort burners wished to legislate against all corporations be- was slain, and the barons were defeated; but they did cause they feared the re-establishment of the United not render their final submission till 1268. A history States Bank. The name was used chiefly in New York. of this war was published by Mr. W. H. Blaauw in 1844; Other origins have been assigned to the nickname. 2d ed. 1871.

Barnet, Hertfordshire. Here, at Gladsmore Heath, Barossa, see Barrosa. Edward IV. gained a decisive victory over the Lancas- Barracks (from “ Baraque-Ilutte que font les soltrians, on Easter-day, 14 April, 1471, when the earl of dats en campagne pour se mettre à couvert") were not Warwick and his brother the marquess of Montacute, or numerous in this country until about 1789. A superinMontague, and 10,000 men were slain. A column com- tendent-general was appointed in 1793, since when commemorative of this battle has been erected at the meet- modious barracks have been built in the various garrison ing of the St. Albans and Hatfield roads."

towns and central points of the empire.-A report, cenBaroda, see India, 1874-5.

suring the condition of many barracks, was presented to Barometers. Torricelli, a Florentine, knowing fected under the direction of Mr. Sidney (afterwards

parliament in 1858; and great improvements were efthat water did not rise in a pump through what was

lord) Herbert; see Aldershot, supposed to be nature's abhorrence of a vacuum, imitated the action of a pump with mercury, and made the first

Barrel-organs, see Orguns. barometer, about 1643. Pascal's experiments (1646) Barricades, mounds formed of trees and earth, for enhanced the value of the discovery by applying it to military defence. During the wars of the League in the measurement of heights. Wheel barometers were France, in 1588, the people made burricades by means of contrived in 1668; pendent barometers in 1695; marine chains, casks, etc., and compelled the royal troops to retire. in 1700; and many improvements have been made During the war of the Fronde, a barricade was erected since. In the aneroid barometer (from a, no, and vnpós, in Paris on 27 Aug. 1648. Barricades composed of overwatery) no liquid is employed; the atmospheric pressure turned vehicles, etc., were erected in Paris in the insurbeing exerted on a metallic spring. Its invention (at- rections of 27-30 July, 1830, and 23-26 June, 1848, when tributed to Conté, in 1798, but due to Vidi, who died in sanguinary conflicts took place. April, 1866), excited much attention in 1848-9. Barom

Barrier Treaty, by which the Low Countries were eters were placed at N.E. coast stations in 1860 by the ceded to the emperor Charles VI., was signed by the duke of Northumberland and others.

British, Imperial, and Dutch ministers, 15 Nov. 1715. Mr. James B. Jordan's very delicate glycerine barometer, in which one inch is expanded to nearly eleven inches, was

Barristers are said to hare been first appointed by described to the Royal Society 22 Jan. 1880, and was set up Edward I., about 1291, but there is earlier mention of during the year at Kew and other places. The publication professional advocates. They are of various ranks, as of two hourly variations of one at the office begun in the king's or queen's counsel, sergeants, etc., which see, Stu

dents for the bar must keep a certain number of terms Baron, formerly the only title in our peerage, now at the Inns of Court previously to being called, and by the lowest. Its original name in England, Virusour, the regulations of 1853 must pass a public examination. was changed by the Saxons into Thane, and by the Irish students must keep eight terms in England. Normans into Buron. Many of this rank had undoubt

Barrosa, or BAROSSA (S. Spain). The British army, edly assisted in or been summoned to parliament (in commanded by major-gen. sir Thomas Graham, after1205); but the first precept found is of no higher date wards lord Lynedoch, totally defeated the French under than the 49 Hen. III. 1265. The first raised to this dig- marshal Victor, 5 March, 1811, the French leaving nearnity by patent was John de Beauchamp, created baron ly 3000 dead, sis pieces of cannon, and an eagle, the first of Kidderminster, by Richard II., 1387. The barons that the British had taken; the loss of the British was took arms against king John, and compelled him to 1169 men killed and wounded. grant the great charter of our liberties, and the charter

Barrow Island (Arctic Sea), discovered by capt. of our forests, at Runnymede, near Windsor, June, 1215. Charles II. granted a coronet to barons on his restora- Penny in 1850-1, and named by him in honor of John tion, 1660.

Barrow, esq., son of sir John. Baronets, the first in rank among the gentry, and village with a population of about 330, which in 1867

Barrow-in-Furness (Lancashire), in 1847, was a the only knighthood that is hereditary, were instituted had increased to above 17,000, and in 1874 to 35,000, in by James I., 1611. The rebellion in Ulster seems to have given rise to this order, it having been required of consequence of the large manufacture of iron from the

ore (hæmatite) found there. On 19 Sept. 1867, new docks a baronet, on his creation, to pay into the exchequer as much as would maintain "thirty soldiers three years at and Bucclench (proprietors of the land), Mr. Gladstone,

were opened in the presence of the dukes of Devonshire eightpence a day in the province of Ulster in Ireland.” It

and others. was further required that a baronet should be a gentleman born, and have a clear estate of 10001. per annum.

Barrowists, a name given to the Brownists (which The first baronet was sir Nicholas Bacon (whose succes- see). sor is therefore styled Primus Baronettorum Anglice), 22 Barrows, circular or oblong mounds, found in BritMay, 1611. The baronets of Ireland were created in ain and other countries, were ancient sepulchres. Sir 1619; the first being sir Francis Blundell.-Baronets of Richard Hoare caused several barrows near Stonehenge Nova Scotia were created 1625; sir Robert Gordon the to be opened ; in them were found Celtic ornaments, such first baronet.-All baronets created since the Irish Union as beads, buckles, and brooches, in amber, wood, and gold:

Times 25 Oct. 1880.

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1102

1546

1843

Nov. 1808. 230 barrows were opened and discoveries | II., iu an ambuscade, was nearly cut to pieces by the made, chiefly in Yorkshire, 1866 et seq., under the super- Greeks and Saracens, 13 July, 982; the emperor barely intendence of the rev, canon William Greenwell, who escaped. published his elaborate work “ British Barrows" in Dec.

Basilians, an order of monks, which obtained its 1877.

name from St. Basil (who died 380); was reformed by Barrows at Allbourne, North Wilts, were opened by canon pope Gregory in 1569.—A sect, founded by Basil, a phyGreenwell aud rev. Walter Money, Sept.-Oct. 1878.

sician of Bulgaria, which rejected the books of Moses, Canon Greenwell gave urns and other results of his explora. the eucharist, and baptism, and are said to have had tions to the British Museum in 1879. Barrow's Straits (N. Arctic Sea), explored by

everything in common, 1110. Basil was burned alive in

1118. Edward Parry as far as Melville island, lat. 74° 26' N.

Basilica, a body of law, in Greek, including the and long. 113° 47' W. The strait, named after sir John Barrow, was entered on 2 Aug. 1819. The thermometer Institutes of Justinian, the Pandects, etc., arranged by was 55° below zero of Fahrenheit.

order of the emperor Basil, the Macedonian, and his son

Leo the Philosopher, 875-911. The term basilica (palBars in music appear in Agricola’s “Musica Instru- ace) was applied to places of worship by the early Chrismentalis,” 1529; and in Morley's “ Practical Music,” |tian emperors. 1597, for score music. Henry Lawes used them in his

Basilikon Doron (Royal Gist), precepts on the art “ Ayres and Dialogues," 1653.

of government, composed by James I. of England for his Bartholomew, St., THE APOSTLE, martyred 71. son Henry, and first published at Edinburgh in 1599. The festival (24 Aug. o.s., 3 Sept. x.s.) is said to have The collected works of this monarch were published at been instituted 1130.

London, 1616-20, in one vol. fol. Monastery of St. Bartholomew (of Austin Friars) founded

Basque Provinces, N.W. Spain (Biscay, Guipusby Rahere, a minstrel of Henry I.. The hospital founded by him...

..about 1123 coa, and Alava). The Basques, considered to be deRefounded after the dissolution of monasteries (it then scendants of the ancient Iberi, were termed Vascones by

contained 100 beds, with 1 physician and 3 surgeons), the Romans, whom they successfully resisted. They 1544; incorporated... William Harvey, physiologist, physician here. 1609-13

were subdued with great difficulty by the Goths about Earliest record of medical school.

1662 580, and were united to Castile in the thirteenth and Hospital rebuilt by subscription..

1729 fourteenth centuries. Their language is conjectured to Medical college founded..

be of Tartar origin. 5803 in patients; 160,520 out patients treated, 653 beds. 1878 New buildings for Medical School, museum, etc., opened Basque Roads (W. France). Fourteen French by the prince of Wales....

1.3 Nov. 1879 ships of the line, riding at anchor here, were attacked by Bartholomew the Great, St., near Smithfield. The build. ing of the church, said to have begun 1102, restored by

lords Gambier and Cochrane (the latter commanding the subscription and reopened. ..

..29 March, 1868 fire-ships), and all were destroyed, 11-29 April, 1809. Bartholomew Fair. The charter was granted by Henry

Cochrane accused Gambier of neglecting to support him. 1., 1133, and was long held in Smitbfield (which see). The shows were discontinued in 1850, and the fair was

At a court-martial, 26 July-4 Aug., lord Gambier was acproclaimed for the last time in 1855. In 1858 Mr. H. quitted. Morley published his “History of Bartholomew Fair,"

Bassano (N. Italy). Here the Austrians, under with many illustrations. The MASSACRE OF ST. BARTHOLOMEW commenced at Paris

Wurmser, were defeated by the French under Massena, on the night of the festival...

. 24 Aug. 1572 8 Sept. 1796. According to Sully, 70,000 Huguenots, or French Protes

tants, including women and children, were murdered Bassein (Bombay), a Mahratta town, taken by the throughout the kingdom by secret orders from Charles British, 1774, 1780; finally annexed by them, 1818. By IX., at the instigation of his mother, the queen dow

treaty here, 31 Dec. 1802, they engaged to support the ager, Catherine de' Medici. La Popelionère calculates the victims at 20.000; Adriani,

peishwa's rights. De Serres, and De Thou say 30,000; Davila states them

Basset, or BASSETTE, or Pour et Contre, a game at at 40,000; and Póréfixe makes the number 100,000. Above 500 persons of rank, and 10,000 of inferior con

cards, said to have been invented by a noble Venetian, in dition, perished in Paris alone, besides those slaugh- the fifteenth century; introduced into France, 1674. tered in the provinces. Pope Gregory XIII. ordered a Te Deum to be performed, with other rejoicings.

Basseterre Roads, St. Christopher's, West Indies.

Here the French admiral, the comte de Grasse, was reBartholomew, St., a West Indian island held by pulsed with loss in three desperate attacks on the BritSweden. It was colonized by the French in 1648; and ish fleet, commanded by sir Thomas Graves, 25, 26 Jan. has been several times taken and restored by the British.

1782. It was ceded to Sweden by France in 1785; captured by the English and restored, 1801; ceded to France, 1877.

Bassoon, a wooden double-reed wind-instrument,

said to have been invented by Afranio, a canon of FerBartholomites, a religious order expelled from rara, early in the sixteenth century. Armenia, settled at Genoa 1307, where is preserved in the Bartholomite church the image which Christ is said Turkish city, founded by the caliph Omar, about 635. It

Bassorah, BussoRAH, or Basrah (Asia Minor), a to have sent to king Abgarus. The order suppressed by has been several times taken and retaken by the Perpope Innocent X. 1650.

siaus and Turks. Barton Aqueduct (near Manchester) was constructed by James Brindley, to carry the Bridgwater land), was granted to the Lauders, 1316; purchased for a

Bass Rock, an isle in the Frith of Forth (S. Scotcanal over the Irwell, at a height of 39 feet above the state-prison, 1671; taken by the Jacobites, 1690; surrenriver; completed in 1761.

dered, 1694; granted to the Dalrymples, 1706. Basel (Basle, French Bâle), a rich city in Switzer- Bass's Strait (Australia). Mr. Bass, surgeon of land. The eighteenth general council sat here from Dec. the Reliance, in an open boat from Port Jackson, in 1796, 1431, to May, 1443. Many important reforms in the penetrated as far as Western Port, and affirmed that a church were proposed, but not carried into effect : among strait existed between New South Wales and Van Dieothers the union of the Greek and Roman churches. men's Land. Lieut. Flinders circumnavigated Van DieThe university was founded in 1460. Treaties of peace men's Land and named the strait after Mr. Bass, 1799. between France, Spain, and Prussia were concluded here in 1795. It was made a free imperial city 1392, but

Bastard, a child not born in lawful wedlock. An joined the Swiss confederation 1501.

attempt in England, in 1236, to legitimate bastard chilBashi-bazouks, irregular Turkish troops, partially The barons assembled in the parliament of Merton an

dren by the subsequent marriage of the parents failed. employed in the Crimean war, 1854-6.

swered: Nolumus leges Angliæ mutari (** We will not Basientello (S. Naples). Here the army of Otho I have the laws of England changed"). Women conccal

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