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15 Sept. ; they submit to the president; and Kellogg inaugurated; in his message he professes impartial is restored... 18 Sept. 1874 devotion to the public good...

5 March, 1877 Great fire at Fall River cotton-mills, Massachusetts; about Gen. Grant visits Britain.

...28 May et seq. 60 lives lost..

19 Sept. Molly Maguires," murderous terrorist rioters in Penn. Lincoln monument, Springfield, III., inaugurated.15 Oct. sylvanian coal fields, subdued; several executed, Triennial convention of the Episcopal church ; canon

June, passed against ritualism..

27 Oct. Strike of railway servants on Baltimore and Ohio railMajority for democratic party in elections for congress way through reduced pay; violent riots in West Virreported....

4 Nov.

ginia; reign of terror; successful resistance to the President Grant's message, moderate..

7 Dec.

military; many killed and wounded at Pittsburgh; Congress passes a bill for the resumption of cash pay

held by rioters; sheriff killed; cannon used, ment, 1 Jan. 1879... Dec.

16-22 July, Disturbances in New Orleans: government troops eject Strike extending to New York railways (not in New conservative members from the legislative assembly England).

...24 July, as unduly elected...

..4 Jan. 1875 Mob (many foreign communists) beaten by military at Senate rejects new reciprocity treaty with Canada. 4 Feb. Chicago (15 killed, about 100 wounded).... 26 July, Civil rights (of negroes) bill passed...

Gen. Sheridan sent to Pittsburgh, 22 July; damage about The 44th congress comes into office, 4 March; (to meet 8,000,0001.; tranquillity restored......... about 4 Aug. on 6 Dec.).

President Hayes warmly received in the South....Sept. Centenary of battle of Lexington celebrated....19 April, Formation of a Cuban league on behalf of insurgents, Centenary of battle of Bunker Hill celebrated. .17 June,

announced ..

.Sept. Trial of Tilton v. Beecher ends : jury disagreeing, dis- The new congress opened (democratic majority in the charged

.2 July,

house of representatives); Samuel J. Randall, democrat, Andrew Johnson, ex-president, dies..

.31 July,
re-elected speaker....

...15 Oct Democratic conventions of New York declare in favor Many suspicious failures of commercial companies and of hard money and resumption of cash payments,


Sept., Oct. 16 Sept. Reduction of the federal army from 25,000 to 20,000, John McCloskey, Roman Catholic archbishop of New voted by house of representatives; refused by senate, York, made the first North American cardinal, received

Oct., Nov. in his church at Rome.

.30 Sept.

Anti-resumption bill passed by house of representatives, President Grant, in addressing the Tennessee army in

23 Nov. Iowa, protests against Roman Catholic aggression,

President Hayes's message; recommends resumption of 30 Sept.

cash payments on 1 Jan. 1879; pacification of the Democratic inflationists defeated at elections for governor South; good treatment of the negroes.

.3 Dec. in Ohio and lowa....

.... about 12 Oct. Bland's "silver bill,'' making silver legal-tender money Virginia city destroyed by fire (see Nevada). ....26 Oct. (injurious to fundholders, etc.), passed by congress; State official elections give large majority for republicans, veto of the president...

16 Feb. 1878 about 2 Nov. Committee appointed to investigate charges of corrupPresident Grant's message ; alludes to attacks on, and

tion against boards returning delegates to elect the defends, unsectarian education; notices unsatisfactory president....

... June, state of Cuba, and hints at ultimate intervention,

Gen. Butler secedes from the republicans, and joins a 7 Dec.

new “national party" connected with Kearney, a Centennial year begun with great demonstrations at violent agitator from California (they are popularly Philadelphia, etc...

.1 Jan. 1876 termed "greenbackers," as contending for soft money, Gen. Babcock, secretary to president accused of com

and opposing return to cash payments)... Aug. et seq. plicity in "whiskey frauds;"' resigned., ...24 Feb. Desire expressed for a new reciprocity treaty with Can. Mr. Belknap, secretary of war, accused of selling official


. Aug places; resigns; impeached by congress.. .2 March, Many deaths by yellow fever (which see) in southern Salary of next president proposed to be reduced from


.Aug., Sept., Oct. 50,000 to 25,000 dollars.. .. March, Autumn elections..

.mostly on 5 Nov Increased opposition to Chinese immigration.... March, 46th congress elected; 149 democrats, 130 republicans, Dana's appointment as British minister rejected by the

10 greenbackers..

..Nov. senate.. ..about 5 April, Gold at par (first time since 1862).

.18 Dec. Lincoln monument, Washington (erected by colored Resumption of cash payments.

.1 Jan. 1879 people), unveiled.'.

.14 April, Death of Caleb Cushing, U. S. minister at Madrid, aged Other scandals in government offices reported.... April,

about 79..

11 Jan. The president vetoes the bill for reduction of president's Meeting of 46th congress.

4 March, salary

.19 April, Great emigration of negroes from the southern to the Issue of silver coin for small notes...

.. May,
western states.....

March, April, Dispute with Great Britain respecting the extradition Largest grain crops for many years.. ......autumn, of Winslow, an American forger.. . March-May, Elections specially favor republicans..

......(ct. International exhibition opened (see Philadelphia),

Much distress of freed negroes in Kansas, etc.....1 Jan. 1880

10 May, The republican convention at Chicago nominate gen. Political conferences at Philadelphia urge reforms. May, James A. Garfield and Chester A. Arthur as president Gov. Rutherford B. Hayes, of Ohio, nominated for presi.

and vice-president, 9 June; the democratic convention dent, and William A. Wheeler for vice-president, by the at Cincinnati nominate gen. Winfield Scott Hancock republican convention, Cincinnati... .16 June,

and William H. English..

.24 June, The arrangements for surrendering fugitive criminals in Gen. Garfield sets forth his proposed policy in a letter;

the treaty of 1842 nullified by the release of Winslow says, “We legislate for the people of the United States, and Brent (see Extradition). .

not for the whole world"

.12 July, Massacre of gen. Custer and his command by Indians Gen. Garfield elected president; Mr. Arthur vice-presiunder Sitting Bull....

25 June,
dent (213-156)...

.2 Nov. Mr. Tilden nominated for president by the democratic Garfield inaugurated..

4 March, 1881 convention, St. Louis...

29 June, Dispute between the president and senator Conkling reCentenary of the foundation of the republic. ..4 July, specting appointment of collector of customs at New Massacre of negro militiamen by whites at Hamburg, York; Conkling resigns......

May, S. C., 9 July; 63 whites indicted for murder...... Aug. Attempted assassination of president Garfield by Charles Mr. Belknap's case in the senate; 35 vote him guilty of Jules Guiteau, a lawyer of Chicago, at railway station, official corruption; 25 not; acquittal...

1 Aug

Washington; two pistol-shots; ball enters the body,
Death of gen. Braxton Bragg.

2 July, Reefs at Hell Gate blown up....

24 Sept.

President Garfield, after much suffering, died... 19 Sept. The president's proclamation against unlawful combina. Gen. Arthur sworn in as president.

... 20 Sept. tions (of whites) in South Carolina...

.17 Oct. Guíteau convicted of murder, 26 Jan. 1882; sentenced, Ho declines to receive a centennial address from Irish

2 Feb., to be hanged; executed..

..30 June, 1882 home rulers Election of electors for the president..

.7 Nov.

PRESIDENTS OF THE T'XITED STATES OF AMERICA. International exhibition at Philadelphia closed,

1789 & 1793. Gen. George Washington elected first president, 10 Nov.

6 April President Grant's message; he declares the electoral sys- 1797. John Adams. 4 March tem to have failed....

..5 Dec. 1801 & 1805. Thomas Jefferson. 4 March. Election for president by delegates; Mr. Tilden, 184; Mr. 1809 & 1813. James Madison. 4 March. Hayes, 185 (some votes challenged)..

..6 Dec. 1817 & 1821. James Monroe. 4 March. End of dispute with the British government announced 1825. John Quincy Adams 4 March. (see Extradilion).......

Dec. 1829 & 1833. Gen. Andrew Jackson. 4 March, Brooklyn theatre burned; about 300 lives lost.... 5 Dec. 1837. Martin Van Buren. 4 March Electoral tribunal (to settle the election for president) 1841. Gen. William Henry Harrison. 4 March. Died 4 April; chosen in congress..

30 Jan. 1877

succeeded by President in his message urges a speedy return to cash 1841. John Tyler (formerly vice-president). payments.

...3 Feb.

1845. James Knox Polk. 4 March Rutherford B. Hayes's election confirmed; William A. 1849. Gen. Zachary Taylor. 4 March. Died 9 July, 1850, EUCWheeler, vice-president, 2 March; sworn, 4 March;

ceeded by the vice-president.



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4 March.

1850. Millard Fillmore.

Cambridge and Orford. The Universities act, passed 10 1853. Gen. Franklin Pierce. 1857. James Buchanan. 4 March.

Aug. 1877, appoints commissioners with power to make 1861 & 1865. Abraham Lincoln. 4 March. Shot 14 April; statutes and other provisions.

died 15 April, 1865; succeeded by vice-president, 1865. Andrew Johnson. 15 April

University Boat-race. The contest between 1869 & 1873. Ulysses S. Grant. 4 March.

the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, at first near 1877. Rutherford Birchard Hayes. 4 March.

Oxford, afterwards on the river Thames, began 10 June, 1881. Gen. James Abram Garfield. 4 March.

1829, and has been annual since 1856. In 1864, after 20 Gen. Chester A. Arthur. 19 Sept.

contests, the opposing parties were equal; but on 8 Unity, see Christian.

April, 1865, 24 March, 1866, 13 April, 1867, 4 April, Universal Suffrage (Plebiscitum), one of the six 1868, and 17 March, 1869, Oxford won, the last time bepoints of the charter (see Chartists), was adopted by the ing the 9th in succession. Cambridge won, 6 April, French in their constitution of 1791, and used in the 1870, 1 April, 1871, 23 March, 1872, 29 March, 1873, and election of their president in 1851 and of their emperor 28 March, 1874. Oxford won, 20 March, 1875; Camin 1852, and by the Italian states in voting for annexa- bridge won, 8 April, 1876. Dead heat, neither won, 24 tion to Sardinia in 1860, 1861, 1866, and 1870.

March, 1877; Oxford won, 13 April, 1878; Cambridge Universalists, who believe in the final salvation won, 5 April, 1879; Oxford won on Monday, 22 March, of all men. This doctrine, declared in the Talmud, and | 1880, and Friday, 8 April, 1881. In the international ascribed to Origen about 230, was adrocated by other boat-race between the universities of Oxford and Harearly fathers, but opposed by St. Augustine, about 420; vard, Massachusetts, U. S., Oxford won, 27 Aug. 1869. and condemned by the 5th general council at Constan- University College (London), see London Unitinople, May, June, 553. It was received by the Unita- rersity and Oxford. rians in the seventeenth century, and avowed by numerous clergymen of the Church of England. James

University Education Act (Ireland), 42 & 43 Relly, who published his “ Union” in 1760, founded the Vict. c. 85, passed 15 Aug. 1879. It provides for the sect of Universalists in Britain; and John Murray, in dissolution of the “Queen's University” and the foundaAmerica, about 1770. The sect barely exists in Britain, tion of the Royal University of Ireland," the charter of but flourishes in America.

which was signed by the queen, 19 April, 1880.

University Elections, see Dodson's Act. Universities. The most ancient in Europe are those of Bologna, Oxford, Cambridge, Paris, and Sala

University Teaching, society for its extension manca. In old Aberdeen was a monastery, in which formed in London, and supported by Cambridge, Oxford, youths were instructed in theology, the canon law, and and London universities ; great meeting for its support the school philosophy, at least 200 years before the uni- at the Mansion house, 19 Feb. 1879. Courses of lectures versity and King's College were founded; see Degrees. given in various parts of London, Oct. 1879. The following dates are generally given:

University Tests (Religious). A bill for their


Aberdeen founded,
1494 | Franeker..
1585 | Paderborn..

1592 Abo, Finland... 1640 Fribourg, Germany. 1460 Padua, Italy.

1228 Adelaide, Australia.. 1876 Geneva..

1368 Palenza, 1209; removed to Sala. Andrews, St., Scotland. 1411 Ghent. 1816 manca.

1249 Angers, chiefly law.. 1364 Glasgow.. 1450 Palermo.

1447 Anjou, 1349; enlarged..

1735 Paris, 792; renovated..

1200 Athens. 1836 Granada, Spain. 1537 Parma.

1482 Barcelona, revived 1841 Gripswald.. 1547 | Pau....

1722 Basle, Switzerland. 1460 Groningen, Friesland, 1614 Pavia, 1360; enlarged.

1599 Berlin.. 1810 Halle, Saxony. 1694 Perpignan.

1349 Berne.. 1834 Harvard, U.S.. 1638 Perugia, Italy.

1307 Besançon, Burgundy... 1676 Heidelberg

1386 Petersburg, St., 1747; again.. 1819 Bologna, Italy. 1116 Helmstadt. 1575 Pisa, 1343; enlarged..

1552 Bonn.. 1784, 1818 Ingolstadt, Bavaria.

1573 Poitiers...

1431 Bordeaux 1472 Irish, new 1879 Prague..

1349 Bourges.. 1465 Jena, or Sala, Thuringia,

1547 Queen's University (Ireland). 1850 Breslau. 1702 Kiel, Holstein.. 1665 Rheims, 1145; enlarged.

1548 Bruges, French Flanders. 1665 King's College, London (which

1245 Brussels 1834 see).... 1829 Rostock, Mecklenburg.

1419 Caen, Normandy, 1436; revived.. 1803 Königsberg. Prussia.

1544 Salamanca.

1239 Cambridge, began about 635 (?); re. Leipsic, Saxony:

1409 Salerno.

1233 vived. 1109 Leyden, Holland.. 1575 Salzburg.

1623 Cambridge, New England, pro. Liege..

1816 Saragossa, Aragon..

1474 jected 1630 Lima, in Peru. 1614 Seville..

1504 Christiania.. 1811 Lisbon, 1290; removed to Coim.


1380 Cologne, in Germany, refounded... 1385 bra

1391 Siguenza, Spain.

1517 Compostella, Spain.. 1517 London University (which see).. 1826 Sorbonne, France

1253 Coimbra, Portugal. 1279 | Louvaine, Flanders, 926; en


1538 Copenhagen.. 1476 larged.. 1426 Stuttgardt..

1775 Cordova, Spain.. 968 Lyons, France. .830, 1300 Sydney, N.S. W.

1852 Corfu.. 1823 Madrid.. 1836 Toledo, Spain

1499 Cracow, Poland, 700; revived.. 1364 Mantua.

1625 Toulouse..

1229 Dijon, France, 1722 Marburg. 1527 Treves, Germany.

1473 Dillingen, Swabia. 1565 Mechlin, Flanders. 1440 Tübingen, Würtemberg.

1477 Dole, Burgundy. 1422 Melbourne, Victoria.. 1855 Turin.

1405 Dorpat..

1477 Upsal, Sweden.

1476 Douay, French Flanders. 1568 Milan.. 1565 Utrecht, Holland.

1634 Dresden, Saxony... 1694 Montpellier. 1289 Valence, Dauphiné.

1454 Dublin (see Trinity College). 1591 Moscow, 1754; again.

1803 Valencia...

1209 Dublin College (Catholic). 1851 Munich.. 1826 Valladolid

1346 Durham.. 1831 Munster.. 1491 Venice...

1592 Edinburgh, founded by James VI.. 1582 Nancy.

1769 Victoria, North of England.... 1880 Erfurt, Thuringia; enlarged... 1390 Nantes.

1460 Vienna.

1365 Erlangen... 1743 Naples.. 1224 Wittenburg..

1502 Evora, Portugal.. 1533 Orange. 1365 Würzburg

1403 Florence, Italy, enlarged. 1439 Orleans, France.


1803 Frankfort-on-the-Oder. 1506 | Oxford (sce Oxford).

879 Zurich.

1832 (For leading American universities, see Colleges in the United States.)

Universities of Oxford and Cambridge. | abolition was rejected by the lords, 19 July, 1869, and Royal commission appointed to inquire into their in- 14 July, 1870; passed, and received royal assent, 16 June, come and property, in 1872; reported in Oct. 1874 that 1871. A similar act for Trinity College, Dublin, was the united income for 1871 was 754,405l. 58. 11d. ; see passed in May, 1873. In April, 1878, on trial it was


affirmed that an endowment with a religious test at | (1.). On 27 July, 1778, after an indecisive action of three hours, Hertford College, Oxford, was valid.

the French, under cover of the night, withdrew into the

harbor of Brest. Admiral Keppel commanded the English Unknown Tongues, see Irvingites, note.

fleet; the count d'Orvilliers the French. The failure of a

complete victory was attributed to admiral sir Hugu PallUnlearned Parliament, see Parliament, 1404. ser's non-compliance with the admiral's signals. Palliser

preferred articles of accusation against his commander, who Unseaworthy Ships Commission, see Sea

was tried and acquitted, and the charge against him demen and Merchant Shipping Act.

clared to be “ malicious and ill-founded." Upsal (Sweden). The Swedish rulers were kings (2.) Lord Howe with 25 ships signally defeated the French

fleet (26 ships, under Villaret-Joyeuse), taking six ships of of Upsal till 1001. The university was founded in 1476, the line, and sinking one (the vengeur *), 1 June, 1794. by Sten Sture, the “protector,” and opened 21 Sept. 1477. While the two fleets were engaged in this action, a large Celebration of foundation of university, Sept. 1877.

fleet of merchantmen, on the safety of which the French

nation depended for its means of prosecuting the war. got Uranium, a brittle gray metal discovered by Klap- safely into Brest harbor, which gave occasion to the enemy roth in 1789, in the mineral pitchblende. It has lately

to claim the laurels of the day, notwithstanding their loss

in ships and in killed and wounded, which was very great, been employed in the manufacture of glass for certain

The day was long termed in England the glorious first of philosophical purposes.

June." Uranus, a planet with eight satellites, was discov- Usury from a stranger was permitted to the Jews, ered by William Herschel, 13 March, 1781; first called but forbidden from their brethren, 1491 B.C. (Exod. xxii. Georgium Sidus, after George III. ; next Herschel; and 25; Deut. xxiii. 13). This law was enforced by Nehefinally Uranus. It is about twice as distant from the miah, 445 B.C. (Neh, v.). Usury was prohibited by the sun as the planet Saturn. The anniversary of its first English parliament, 1341. Until the fifteenth century, revolution (in 84 years 7 days) since its discovery, was no Christians were allowed to receive interest of money, celebrated on 20 March, 1865. Its perturbations led to and Jews were the only usurers, and therefore often bauthe discovery of Neptune in 1846. Uranus has 8 satel- ished and persecuted; see Jews. By 37 Hen. VIII. the lites; 6 discovered by Herschel, 2 in 1787, 2 in 1790, 2 in rate of interest was fixed at 10 per cent., 1545. This 1794; 1 by Lassell, and 1 by Struve, in 1847.

statute was repealed by Edward VI., but re-enacted 13 Urbanists, see Clementines and Clare.

Eliz. 1570. For later legislation, see Interest. Urbino, the ancient Urbinum Hortense, central Italy, ganized 9 Sept. 1850; the capital, Great Salt Lake City,

Utah, a western territory of North America, was orcapital of a duchy created for Malatesta, 1474. It was is the chief seat of the Mormons (which see). treacherously seized by Cæsar Borgia, 1502 ; captured by Julius II., 1503, and given to Borgia, 1504; given to

Utica (N. Africa), an ancient Tyrian colony, an ally Lorenzo de' Medici by Leo X., 1516; after many vicissi- of Carthage, named in the treaty with the Romans, 348 tudes recovered by the duke Francesco, 1522; on the B.C. Here Cato the Younger, after the defeat of the duke's resignation annexed to the l'apal States, 1031; partisans of Pompey at Thapsus, committed suicide, 46 annexed to Italy, 1860.

Utica flourished greatly after the fall of Carthage,

and was made a Roman city by Augustus on account of Urgency, see Parliament, 1881.

its favoring Julius Cæsar. It suffered by the invasion Uriconium, see Wroxeter,

of the Vandals, 439, and of the Saracens, about 700. Urim and Thummim, LiGHT AND PERFECTION, Utilitarianism, termed the “ greatest happiness (Exod. xxviii. 30), words connected with the breastplate principle,” the philosophy which proposes the attainworn by the high-priest when he entered into the holy ment of the greatest happiness of the greatest number; place, with the view of obtaining an answer from God a doctrine ascribed to Priestley by Bentham. The doc(1490 B.C.),

trine is found in the writings of Locke, Hartley, Hume, Ursuline Nuns (so called from St. Ursula), founded and Paley; but was chiefly propounded by Jeremy Benoriginally by St. Angela of Brescia, about 1537. Sey- tham in his “ Introduction to the Principles of Norals eral communities existed in England, and some still exist and Legislation,” 1780–9, and by John Stuart Mill, who

died 9 May, 1873. Mill founded a small “ utilitarian suin Ireland.

ciety” in 1822.

He took the name from an expression Uruguay, BANDA ORIENTALE, a republic in South in Galt's “Annals of the Parish.” America, formerly part of the viceroyalty of Buenos

Utraquists, see Calixtins. Ayres; declared its independence, 25 Aug. 1825; recognized, 4 Oct. 1828; constitution proclaimed, 18 July, 1830. the seat of an independent bishopric about 695. The

Utrecht (the Roman Trajectum ad Rhenum) became Population about 450,000.

last prelate, Henry of Bavaria, weary of his turbulent The president of the executive, G. A. Pereyra, elected in subjects, sold his temporal government to the emperor 1856; succeeded by B. P. Berro...

Charles V. in 1528. The union of the seven united prora Civil war broke out in consequence of the invasion of

the ex-president, gen. Venancio Florès..... 26 June, 1863 inces began here (see United Provinces), signed 23 Jan. The vice president Aguirre became president,

1579; 300th anniversary celebrated 23 Jan. 1879. The

1 March, 1864 | treaty of Utrecht, which terminated the wars of queen He refused to modify his ministry according to the de. sire of gen. Florès, who marched towards the capital, Anne, was signed by the ministers of Great Britain and

June, France, and all the other allies, except the ministers of Florès became provisional president...

..Feb. 1865 the empire, 11 April, 1713. This treaty secured the F. A. Vidal elected president..

...1 March, 1866 Protestant succession in England, the separation of the During an insurrection of the Blanco party (headed by Berro) at Montevideo, gen. Floris was assassinated;

French and Spanish crowns, the destruction of the works the troops remained faithful; insurrection soon sup- of Dunkirk, the enlargement of the British colonies and pressed, and Berro shot..

19 Feb. 1868

plantations in America, and a full satisfaction for the Gen. Lorenzo Battle elected president..........1 March, Blanco insurrection repressed, July, 1871; ended...Jan. 1872 claims of the allies. Utrecht surrendered to the PrusRevolution at Montevideo; Ellazio's government over- sians, 9 May, 1787; was acquired by the French, 18 Jan. thrown; Pedro Varela provisional president,

1795; and restored at the peace, 1814.

about 15 Jan. 1875 Col. J. Latorre, president.

.11 March, 1876 Uxbridge (W. Middlesex). On 30 Jan. 1645, comDr. F. A. Vidal, president...

.17 March, 1880

* Various French histories, on the authority of the French Useful Knowledge Society, see Diffusion.

demagogue Barrère, state that the English bad 36 ships of Uses, STATUTE OF, 27 Hen. VIII. c. 10 (1535-6); the line, and the French, only 26; and that the crew or iho

l'engeur sang the Marseillaise while the ship sank, displaying see Charitable Uses.

the tricolor flag. All this was denied in 1802, and disproved Ushant, an island near Brest, N.W. France, near by rear-admiral Griffith in Nov. 1838. The Vengrur surren which two naval battles were fought between the British The French statement was accepted by Alison, and at first by

dered to the British, who exerted themselves to save the crew. and French fleets.

Carlyle, but afterwards contradicted by both.



missioners met here to discuss terms of peace between effect, 22 Feb. The latter required absolute control of the Charles I. and the parliament; they separated without army and nary, the abolition of the episcopacy, liturgy, etc.





Vacations, see Terms.

the Romans, became the capital of a Moorish kingdom, Vaccination (from Variola raccina, the cow-pox), 1000; annexed to Aragon, 1238. Its university, founded, discovered by Dr. Edward Jenner. He was born in 1749, it is said, in the thirteenth century, was revived in the and educated for the medical profession, partially under fifteenth. Valencia was taken by the earl of PeterborJohn Hunter. Having heard that milkmaids who had ough in 1705, but submitted to the Bourbons after the had the cow-pox never took the small-pox, he, about unfortunate battle of Almanza, in 1707. It resisted the 1780, conceived the idea of vaccination. He made the attempts made on it by marshal Moncey, but was taken first experiment by transferring to a healthy child on 14 from the Spaniards with a garrison of more than 16,000 May, 1796, the pus from the pustule of a milkmaid who men, and immense stores, by the French under Suchet, had caught the cow-pox from the cows. He announced 9 Jan. 1812. his success in a memoir published 1798, and vaccination, Valenciennes (N. France). This city (the Roman begun 21 Jan. 1799, soon became general, after much op- Valentianæ), after many changes, was taken by Louis position. For this Dr. Jenner received 10,0001. from par- XIV. in 1677, and annexed 1678. It was besieged from liament, 2 June, 1802, and 20,0001. in 1807. The first na- 23 May to 28 July, 1793, when the French garrison surtional institution for vaccination, the Royal Jennerian rendered to the allies under the duke of York. It was Institution, was founded 19 Jan. 1803. The emperor Na- retaken, together with Condé, by the French, 27-30 poleon valued Dr. Jenner so highly that he liberated Dr. Aug. 1794; on capitulation, the garrison and 1100 emiWickham, when prisoner of war, at Jenner's request, grants were made prisoners, with immense stores. and subsequently whole families of English, making it a Valentia, a Roman province, including the country point to refuse him nothing that he asked. Vaccination, between the walls of Severus and Adrian, was reconalthough much opposed, was practised throughout all quered from the Picts and Scots by Theodosius, and Europe previously to 1816. Dr. Jenner died suddenly, named after Valentinian I., the reigning emperor, 368. 26 Jan. 1823.

Valentine's Day (14 Feb.). Valentine is said to Royal Jennerian and London Vaccine Institution, founded 1802 The Vaccination act, 3 & 4 Vict. passed... 23 July, 1840 have been a bishop, who suffered martyrdom under Mr. John Badcock, of Brighton, began to inoculate cows Claudius II. at Rome; others say under Aurelian, in 271. with small-pox to produce new lymph for vaccination,

618,000 letters passed through the post-office on 14 Feb. An important blue book, entitled “Papers on the His

1856. 530,300 was the estimated number of valentines tory and Practice of Vaccination," edited by Mr. John delivered in 1864; in 1870, 1,545,755. The origin of the

Simon, was published by the board of health in... 1857 ancient custom of “choosing a valentine” has been much
A statue, subscribed for by all nations, was erected to
Jenner's memory in Trafalgar Square..

..30 April, 1858 controverted; see Post, It was removed to Kensington in...

1862 Valentinians, followers of Valentine, a priest, who, Vaccination was made compulsory in England in 1853,

on being disappointed of a bishopric, forsook the Chrisand in Ireland and Scotland.. A statue was erected by the French at Boulogne, and in

tian faith, declaring there were thirty gods and godaugurated..

.11 Sept. 1865 desses, fifteen of each sex, which he called Æones, or These laws were consolidated and amended by 30 & 31

Ages. He taught in the second century, and published Vict. c. 84, 12 Aug. 1867 (see Small-pox and Inocula. tion), and amended in..


a gospel and psalms: his followers added other errors. Much opposition to vaccination; an anti-vaccination so

Valladolid (Spain), the Roman Pintia and the ciety formed, 1870-1; a parliamentary coinmission ap

Moorish Belad Walid; was recovered for the Christians pointed..

.13 Feb. A government bill respecting punishment for compul

by Ordoño II., the first king of Leon, 914-23. It became sory vaccination dropped..

Aug. 1880 the capital of Castile in the fifteenth century. It was Vaccination direct from the cow or calf advocated and

taken by the French, Jan, 1808; and captured by the practised in Brussels, etc.

...1879-81 Vadimonis Lacus, the Vadimonian lake, Umbria, bus, 20 May, 1506.

English, 4 June, 1813. Here died Christopher Columcentral Italy, near which the Etruscans were totally defeated in two severe engagements by the Roman con

Vallambrosa (central Italy). A Benedictine absuls—1, by Fabius Maximus, 309 B.C.; 2, by Cornelius bey was founded here by John Gualbert, about 1038. Dolabella, 283.

The monks were termed Vallambrosians. Vagrants. By law, after being whipped, a vagrant

Valmy (N.E. France). Here the French, comwas to take an oath to return to the place where he was manded by Kellermann, defeated the Prussians, comborn, or had last dwelt for three years, 1530. A vagrant manded by the duke of Brunswick, 20 Sept. 1792. The a second time convicted was to lose the upper part of the victory was of immense moral advantage to the repubgristle of his right car, 1535; a third time convicted, licans; and Kellermann was made duke of Valmy in

1808. death. A vagabond to be branded with a V, and be a slave for two years, 1547. If he absconded and was Valois, a county (N. France) given by Philip III. caught, he was to be branded with S, and be a slave for to his younger son Charles, whose son Philip became life. Vagrants were punished by whipping, jailing, king as Philip IV. in 1328 ; see France. boring the ears, and death for a second offence, 1572. Valor Ecclesiasticus, a report of the annual The milder statutes were those of 17 Geo. II.; 32, 35, and value of church property, made by order in 1534, was 59 Geo. III. The present Vagrant act (5 Geo. IV. c. 83) published by the Record Commission in 1810–34. was passed in 1824. There were about 33,000 tramps in England and Wales in 1865. For vagrants in London, was bombarded by the Spanish admiral Mendez Nuñez,

Valparaiso, principal port of Chili, South America, see under Poor,

on 31 March, 1866, when much property was destroyed. Valdenses, see Waldenses.

It suffered by earthquakes in 1822, 1829, and 1851. Valençay, a château near Châteauroux, central

Valtelline (N. Italy), a district near the Rhætian France, where Napoleon I. imprisoned Ferdinand of Alps, seized by the Grison league, 1512, and ceded to it, Spain from 1808 to 1813. Ilis kingdom was restored to 1530. At the instigation of Spain, the Catholics rose Ferdinand by a treaty signed 8 Dec. 1813.

and massacred the Protestants, 19-21 July, 1620. After Valencia (E. Spain), the Valentia Edetanorum of I much contention between the French and Austrians, the


neutrality of the Valtelline was assured in 1639. It! Varangians, or VARAGIANS, a name given to was annexed to the Cisalpine Republic in 1797; to Italy, northern pirates, who invaded Flanders, about 813; 1807; to Austria, 1814; to Italy, 1860.

France, about 840; Italy, 852. Their leader, Ruric, inValuation of Property Act, to provide for the vited by the Novgorodians to help them, founded the uniform assessment of ratable property in the

Russian monarchy, 862.

metropolis, was passed 9 Aug. 1869,

Varennes, a town in N.E. France, is celebrated for Valvasor, or VAVASSOR. The first dignity be

the arrest of Louis XVI., his queen, sister, and two chil. neath a peer was anciently that of vidumes, rice-domini, dren. They fled from the Tuileries on 21 June, 1791; or valvasors. Valvasors are mentioned by our ancient were taken here the next day, and conducted back to lawyers as viri magnæ dignitatis, and sir Edward Coke Paris, mainly through Drouet, the postmaster, who at

an intermediate town recognized the king. speaks highly of them. Now, the first personal dignity after the nobility is a knight of the Garter.-Blackstone. Variable Stars. The variation of brightness in

certain stars is said to have been first observed in a small Vanadium (from Vanadis, the Scandinavian Ve star of Cetus, or the Whale, by Daniel Fabricius, 13 Aug. mus), metal discovered by Sefström, in 1830, combined 1596. In October of same year the star had vanished. with iron ore. A similar metal, discovered in lead ore Since then many similar variations have been observed by Del Rio in 1801, and named Erythronium, was proved by Goodricke, Herschel, and other astronomers; and Mr. by Wöhler to be vanadium. Vanadium was discovered Pogson has constructed a table of thirty-eight variable in the copper-bearing beds in Cheshire, in 1865, by H. stars. No satisfactory explanation has yet been given E. Roscoe, by whom its peculiarities were further studied, of the phenomena.-Engl. Cyc. and published in 1867-8. It is likely to be useful in photography and dyeing.

Varna, a fortified seaport in Bulgaria, formerly EuVancouver's Island, North Pacific Ocean, near ropean Turkey: A great battle was fought near this

place, 10 Nov. 1444, between the Turks under Amurath the mainland. Settlements were made here by the English in 1781, which were seized by the Spaniards in John Hunniades. The latter were defeated with great

II., and the Hungarians under their king Ladislaus and 1789, but restored. By a treaty between the British slaughter: the king was killed, and Hunniades made government and that of the United States, in 1846, this prisoner, who had opposed the Christians breaking the island was secured to the former. It has become of much greater importance since the discovery of gold in truce for ten years, recently made at Segedin. "The


Nicholas of Russia arrived before Varna, the the neighboring mainland in 1858, and the consequent headquarters of his army, then besieging the place, 5 establishment of the colony of British Columbia (which Aug. 1828. The Turkish garrison made a vigorous see). Victoria, the capital, was founded in 1857. The attack on the besiegers, 7 Ang.; and another on the 21st, island was united with British Columbia by act passed but were repulsed. Varna surrendered, after a sanguiin Aug. 1866; and on 24 May, 1868, Victoria was declared the capital. Lord Dufferin, governor-general of nary conflict, to the Russian arms, 11 Oct. 1828. It was

restored at the peace in 1829; its fortifications were disCanada, was warmly received here, 15 Aug. 1876; see

mantled, but have since been restored. The allied Juun, san. Chinese immigrants are virtually excluded armies disembarked at Varna, 29 May, 1854, and sailed by a poll-tax, 1878.

for the Crimea, 3 Sept. They suffered severely from Vancouver's Voyage. Capt. Vancouver served cholera. In conformity with the treaty of Berlin, Varna as a midshipman under capt. Cook, and was appointed was evacuated by the Turks, and occupied by Russians, to command during a voyage of discovery, to ascertain autumn, 1878. the existence of any navigable communication between

Vassalage, see Feudal Laws and Slavery. the North Pacitic and North Atlantic oceans. He sailed 7 Jan. 1791, and returned 24 Sept. 1795. He compileri

Vassar College (on the east bank of the Hudson, an account of this voyage of survey of the northwest United States), for the higher education of women, was coast of America, and died in 1798.

founded by Matthew Vassar in 1861. Vandals, a Germanic race, attacked the Roman

Vassy (N.E. France). The massacre of the Protes. empire in the third century, and began to ravage Ger- tants at this place by the duke of Guise, on 1 March, many and Gaul, 406–14; their kingdom in Spain was 1562, led to desolating civil wars. founded in 411; under Genseric, they invaded and con- Vatican (Rome), the ancient Mons Vaticanus, a hill quered the Roman territories in Africa, 429, and took of Rome. The commencement of the palace is ascribed Carthage Oet. 439. They were subdued by Belisarius to Constantine, Liberius, and Symmachus. It became in 534. They were driven out by the Saracen Moors. the residence of the pope at his return from Avignon, The dukes of Mecklenburg style themselves princes of 1377. The palace is said to contain 7000 rooms, rich in the Vandals.

works of art, ancient and modern. The library, founded

by pope Nicholas V., 1448, is exceedingly rich in printed 429. Genseric (sce Mecklen

books and MSS.- Pistolesi's description of the Vatican, burg). 623. Hilderic.

with numerous plates, was published 1829 - 38.— The 477. Hunneric, his son.

phrase “ Thunders of the Vatican" was first used by VolVan Diemen's Land (called Tasmania since New Testament in Greek was published at Rome in

taire, 1748.—the ancient Vatican Codex of the old and 1833), was discovered by Abel Jansen Tasman, 24 Nov. 1857. For “Vatican Decrees," see Councils. 1642, and named after the governor of the Dutch East Indies.

Vaud, a Swiss canton, after having been successfully

held by the Franks, the kings of Burgundy, emperors of Visited by Furneaux, 1773; Cook.


Germany, dukes of Zähringen, and dukes of Savoy, was Proved to be an island by Flinders, who explored Bass's Strait....

1799 conquered by the Bernese, Jan. 1536, and annexed. 1554. Taken possession of by lieut. Bower.

1803 Vaud, made independent in 1798, joined the confederaArrival of col. Collins, the Orst governor, with convicts; tion in 1815. A new constitutiou was obtained in 1830 Hobart Town founded.

180+ Bishopric of Tasmania founded.

after agitation.

1842 Transportation abolished ..

Vaudois, see Waldenses.
Col. Thomas Gore Brown, governor.
Visited by the duke of Edinburgh.

Vauxhall Bridge, constructed of iron, under the Population, 1857, 81, 492; 1865, 95,201 (only four re.

direction of Mr. Walker, at an expense of 150,0001. (to mained of the aborigines); 1870, 99,328. Charles Ducane, governor..


be defrayed by a toll). The first stone was laid 9 May, Frederick Aloysius Weld, governor.

1874 1811, by prince Charles, eldest son of the duke of Bruns. Gen. sir John Henry Lefroy, governor .21 Aug. 1980 wick; and the bridge was opened on 4 June, 1816; freed Vanguard, see Wrecks, 1875.

from toll, 24 May, 1879.


496. Thrasimund.

531. Gelimer.

484. Gundamund.

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1862 7-18 Jan. 1863

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