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26 May,


Vauxhall Gardens (London), were so denomi- | 1867 have been very common under various forms, nated from the manor of Vauxhall, Falkeshall, Fox-hall, termed bicycles and tricycles; the chief inventor of or Faukeshall, said to have been the property of Fulke which, James Starley, an ingenious mechanic of Alde Breauté about 1282. The tradition that this house, bourne, Sussex, was buried at Coventry, June, 1881. or any other adjacent, was the property of Guy Fawkes Velocipede races took place at the Crystal Palace, 26 is erroneous. The premises were the property of Jane May, 1869, and frequently since. Mr. John Mayall and Vaux in 1615, and the mansion-house was then called two friends travelled to Brighton on velocipedes, 17 Feb. Stockden's. From her it passed through various hauds, 1869. till it became the property of Mr. Tyers in 1732. There Mr. Stanton went from London to Bath, 106 miles, on a is no certain account of the time when these premises bicycle in 8 h. 28 min..

..17 Aug. 1874 were first opened for the entertainment of the public; Similar feats since performed. Ordinary speed with bi

cycles, 8 miles an hour; with tricycles, 10 miles may but the New Spring Gardens at Vauxhall are mentioned be attained. --Field. by Pepys 1665, Wycherley 1672, and in the Spectator A gentleman said to have travelled 1000 miles in Ireland 1711, as a place of great resort. The gardens were

and Wales; expenses, 251.
Bicycle clubs formed in London, etc. .

1875 opened for å “ ridotto al fresco,” 7 June, 1732, by Jona- Bicycle Union formed ; published rules.

1877 than Tyers, who spared no pains or expense to maintain Above 1500 velocipedes at a meeting at Hampton Court, his success. The greatest season was in 1823, when

Middlesex magistrates decide that a bicycle is a car133,279 persons visited the gardens, and the receipts

riage, and fine a rider for damage.. ...31 July, 1878 were 29,5901. The greatest number of persons in one John Rankin went from Kilmarnock to London and back night was 2 Aug. 1833, when 20,137 persons paid for to Glasgow, with stoppages (112 miles in one day), admission. The number on the then supposed last six days' contest, Agricultural Hall, London; Mr. George

23 July-10 Aug. night, 5 Sept. 1839, was 1089 persous. Vauxhall was

Waller won prize-belt (1001.) and 1051,, rode 1172 miles, sold by auction, 9 Sept. 1841, for 20,2001., and again 20 28 April-3 May. Mr. Waller again won, rode 1404 miles Aug. 1859. The last performances at Vauxhall took place Ivan Zmertych, Hungarian, travelled on his velocipede

.1-6 Sept. 1879 on 25 July, 1859. The ground has been sold for building

from Ostend to Pesth (about 1200 miles)..,10-30 June, 1880 purposes. Six persons killed and many injured by fall

Velvet. The manufacture, long confined to Genoa, of stack of wood at Buckley's saw-mills, 25 Feb. 1880.

Lucca, and other places in Italy, was carried to France, Vedas, the sacred books of the Hindoos, in Sanscrit, and thence to England, about 1685. Velvet is menwere probably written about 1000 B.C. Veda means tioned by Joinville in 1272; and our king Richard II., in knowledge. These books comprise hymns, prayers, and his will, directed his body to be clothed " in velveto," liturgical formulæ. The edition by prof. Max Müller, 1399. Jerome Lanyer in London patented his “velvet printed under the patronage of the East India Company, paper” in 1634. appeared in 1849-74. Four volumes of a translation by

Venaissin Comtat, or Comrar (S. France), after H. II. Wilson appeared in 1850-67.

various changes, was ceded to pope Gregory X. 1274, and Vegetables for the table were brought from Flan- retained by his successors till 1791, when, with Avignon, ders about 1520; see Gardening.

it was reunited to France. Vegetarian Society, founded 1847, whose mem- Vendée, see La Vendée. bers restrict themselves to a vegetable diet, held their Vendôme Column (132 feet 2 inches high), tilteenth anniversary in London, 4 Sept. 1862.

erected in the Place Vendôme, Paris, by Napoleon I. in Meetings held at Manchester, 14 Oct. 1874; et seq., 22 Oct. 1806 to commemorate his successful campaign in Ger1879.

many in 1805. On its side were bass-reliefs by Launay. " Fraternia,” a settlement of vegetarians, existed in Cali- It was pulled down by the communists “in the name of fornia in 1880. Vehmic Tribunal: Vehmgerichte, Fehmgerichte, or national assembly, 31 Aug. 1874; statue of Napoleon I.

international fraternity," 16 May, 1871; restored by the Femgerichte, were secret tribunals established in West

on the top replaced, 28 Dec. 1875. phalia to maintain religion and the public peace,

had their origin in the time of Charlemagne, and rose to im- France. They rose against the Romans 57 B.c., and

Veneti, maritime Gauls inhabiting Armorica, N.W. portance in 1182, when Westphalia became subject to the archbishop of Cologne. Persons of the most exalted were quelled by Julius Cæsar, who defeated their feet, rank were subjected to their decisions, being frequently 56, and cruelly exterminated an active commercial race. seized, tried, and executed. The emperors endeavored Venetia, see Venice. to suppress them, but did not succeed till the sixteenth

Venezuela, the seat of a South American republic. century. Their last court, it is said, was held in 1568. When the Spaniards landed here in 1499, they observed Sir W. Scott has described them in * Anne of Geierstein.” some huts built upon piles, in an Indian village named A remnant of this tribunal was abolished by Jerome Cora, in order to raise them above the stagnated water Bonaparte, king of Westphalia, in 1811.

that covered the plain ; and this induced them to give Veii, an independent Latin city near Rome. Be- it the name of Venezuela, or Little Venice. This state, tween the Romans and Veientes frequent wars occurred, in July, 1814, declared in congressional assembly the till Veii was utterly destroyed, after ten years' siege, 396 sovereignty of its people, which was recognized in 1818.

The Roman fanily, the Fabii, who had seceded It formed part of the republic of Colombia till it sepafrom Rome for political reasons, were surprised and de- rated from the federal union, Nov. 1829. stroyed at the river Cremera by the Veientes, 477 B.C. Its independence was recognized by Spain. . Vellore (S.E. India) became the residence of the Gen. 1. T. Monagas was elected president..

A new constitution promulgated

.Dec. 1858 family of the dethroned sultan of Mysore, and was a revolution; don José Castro became president, March, strongly garrisoned by English troops, 1799. The re- 1858; compelled to resign in Aug. 1859; and Dr. Pedro

Gual assumed the government. . volt of the sepoys, in which the family of the late 'Tip

. . Aug. 1859 poo took an active part, took place 10 July, 1806. The Gen. José l’aez elected president.

The population about 1,565,000..

.8 Sept. 1861 insurgents were subdued by col. Gillespie, and mostly put He resigned; and Juan E. Falcon succeeded.'

. .17 June, 1863 to the sword; about 800 sepoys were killed.

Gen. Febres Cordero protested, and set up a rival government at Porto-Cabello.

..0(t. Velocipedes. A machine of this kind was in- Marshal J. C. Falcon proclaimed president....18 March, 1865 vented by Blanchard the aeronaut, and described in the A revolution in Caraccas; president Falcon fled, Journul de Paris, 27 July, 1779 ; and one was invented the president Monagas dies, 18 Nov., and Pulgar be

22-26 June, by Nicéphore Niepce in 1818. The “dandy-horse," or

comes provisional president..

Dec. Draisena, a machine called a velocipede," was patented Caraccas captured by gen. Guzman Blanco, after three for the Baron von Drais, in Paris and London, in 1818, days' conflict.

.27 April, 1870

He is made president, virtually dictator........13 July, and described in “ Ackerman's Repository," Feb. 1819.

A rebel general, Salazar, tried and shot. .about 17 May, 1872 These machines came again into use in 1861; and since Blanco re elected president

20 Feb. 1873


1845 1855


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Severity towards the church for opposition to civil mar. Venetian deputies will not attend the Austrian parliariages; bishop of Merida expelled.... ...July, 1874

ment at Vienna.....

..May, 1861 Renunciation of papal authority announced. .Sept. 1876 Venetia surrendered to France for Italy (by the treaty of Gen. F. L. Alcantara president, elected.. 27 Feb. 1877 Vienna, signed 3 Oct.), and transferred to Italy.17 Oct. 1865 Gen. A. Guzman Blanco president, elected.

1879 Plebiscitum: 651,758 votes for annexation to Italy; 69 (See Colombia.) against...

.22 Oct. “Vengeur Story," see Ushant, note.

Result reported by Venetian deputies, and the iron crown given to the king at Turin..

.4 Nov. Veni, vidi, vici, “I came, I saw, I conquered;" see He enters Venice..

..7 Nov. Zelu.

Masterpiece of Titian (“Death of Peter Martyr'') de. Venice (N. Italy). The province of Venetia, held The remains of Daniel Manin (brought from Paris) buried

stroyed at the burning of a chapel..

..15 Aug. 1867 by the Veneti, of uncertain origin, was invaded by the in St. Mark's....

23 March, 1868 Gauls about 350 B.C. The Veneti made an alliance with His statue unveiled.

..22 March, 1875 the Romans, 215 B.C., who founded Aquileia, 181, and The emperor of Austria and king of Italy at Venice,

5-7 April, gradually acquired the whole country. Under the em- (Venice has had 122 doges: Anafesto, 697, to Luigi pire, Venetia included Padua, Verona, and other impor- Manin, 1797.) tant places. Population of the city of Venice in 1857, Venloo (Holland) surrendered to the allies under 118,173; in 1871, 128,094. New line of steamers for the Marlborough, 23 Sept. 1702; and to the French under East started from Venice by the Peninsular and Oriental Pichegru, 26 Oct. 1794. Company, July, 1872. Venice founded by families from Aquileia and Padua

Venner's Insurrection, see Anabaptists, 1661. fleeing from Attila....

.about A.D. 452 Ventilators were invented by the rev. Dr. Hales, First doge (or duke) chosen, Anafesto Paululio..


and described to the Royal Society of London, May, Bishopric founded.'. The doge Orso slain; an annual magistrate (maestro di

1741; and the ventilator for the use of ships was animiliti, master of the militia) appointed...

737 nounced by Mr. Triewald in Nov. same year. The marDiodato, son of Orso, made doge.

742 Two doges reign: Maurizio Galbaio and his son Giovanni, 111 quess of Chabannes's plan for warming and ventilating The Rialto made the seat of government

sii theatres and houses for audiences was applied to those Venice becomes independent of the Eastern empire, and of London about 1819. The systems of Dr. Reid (about acquires the maritime eities of Dalmatia and Istria... 997

1834) and others followed, with much controversy. Dr. Its navy and commerce increase.

.1000-1100 The Venetians aid at the capture of Tyre and acquire

Arnott's work on this subject was published in 1838. A the third part, 1124; and ravage the Greek archipelago, 1125 commission on warming and ventilation issued a report Bank of Venice established..

1157 in 1859. Ceremony of wedding the Adriatie instituted ..... about 1177 Zara captured by the Venetians..

24 Nov. 1202 | New air- machine in the house of commons started, The Venetians aid the crusaders with men, horses, and

5 June, 1874 ships....

Mr. Tobin's plan, a horizontal tube from without comCrete purchased..


municating with vertical tube ipside; successful at Venice helps in the Latin conquest of Constantinople,

Leeds; described (in Times)....

12 April, 1875 and obtains power in the East.

04-5 The four bronze horses by Lysippus, brought from Con

Ventriloquism (speaking from the belly) is evistantinople, placed at St. Mark's by the doge Pietro Zi- dently described in Isa. xxix. 4 (about 712 B.C.). Among ani, who died.

1229 eminent ventriloquists were baron Mengen and M. Saint The Venetians defeat the Genoese near Negropont.. 1263

Gille, about 1772 (whose experiments were examined by War with Genoa...

1293 The Venetian feet severely defeated by the Genoese in

a commission of the French Academy); Thomas King the Adriatic, 8 Sept. 1298; peace between them... 1299 (about 1716), Charles Mathews (1824), and M. AlexanLouis of Hungary defeated at Zara...

.1 July, 1346

dre (1822). Severe contest with Genoa...

1350-81 The doge Marino Faliero, to avenge an insult, conspires Venus, the Roman goddess of love and beauty (the against the republic; beheaded.

.17 April, 1355

Greek Aphrodité). The transit of the planet Venus The Venetians Jose Istria and Dalmatia,

1358 War with the Genoese, who defeat the Venetians at Pola,

over the sun was predicted by Kepler, but not observed. and advance against Venice, which is vigorously de- The first transit observed was by the rev. Jeremiah Horfended...


rox, or Horrocks, and his friend William Crabtree, on 24 The Genoese fleet is captured at Chiozza.

1380 And peace concluded


Nov. 1639, as predicted by Horrox in 1533. The asVenice flourishes under Antonio Vernieri. .1382–1400 tronomer-royal Maskelyne observed the transit at St. War with Padua; conquest of Padua and Verona. 1404 Helena, 6 June, 1761. Capt. Cook made his first voyage War against Milan; conquest of Brescia, 1425; of Berga

in the Endeavor to Otaheite to observe a transit of Ve

1428 The city suffers from the plague.

1447 nus, 3 June, 1769; see Cook's Voyages. The diurnal roWar against Milan, 1430; conquest of Ravenna. 1454 tation of Venus was discovered by Cassini in 1667. The War with the Turks; Venice loses many of its Eastern

transit, 6 Dec. 1882, may be observed in Eastern Europe, possessions.

.1461-77 The Venetians take Athens, 1466; and Cyprus.....

1475 Asia, New Zealand, Australia, the Mauritius, etc.; see Venice excommunicated, 1483; joins league against Na. Sun, note.

ples, 1493; helps to overcome Charles VIII. of France, 1495 Injured by the discovery of America (1492) and the pas

Halley suggested the observation of the transit as a sage to the Indies...


means of estimating the distance of the earth from the The Venetians nearly ruined by the League of Cambray

sun, and devised a method for this purpose ..

1716 formed against them...


Another method was invented by Delisle ........about 1743 They assist in defeating the Turks at Lepanto ....7 Oct. 1571 Expeditions for the accurate observation of the phenom.

Both plans were used in...

..Dec. 1874 The Turks retake Cyprus.. Destructive fire at Venice.


ena on 8 Dec. astronomical day (ordinary day, 9 Dec.), The Rialto bridge and the Piazza di San Marco erected,

1874, were sent to different parts of the globe by all about 1592

the great powers, and favorable results have been rePaul V.'s interdict on Venice (1606) contemptuously dis


......1875-6 regarded...

1607 Vera Cruz (Mexico), built about 1600, was taken Naval victories over the Turks: at Scio, 1651; and in the Dardanelles.

1655 by the Americans in 1847, and by the allies on 17 Dec. The Turks take Candia after 24 years' siege.

1669 1861, during the intervention; retaken by the liberals Venice recovers part of the Morea, 1683–99; loses it.. 1715-39 under Juarez, 27 June, 1867. Venice occupied by Bonaparte, (who, by the treaty of

Campo Formio, gives part of its territory to Austria, Vercelli (the ancient Vercellæ), Piedmont, near

and annexes the rest to the Cisalpine republic... 1797 which Marius defeated the Cimbri, 101 B.C. It was the The whole of Venice annexed to the kingdom of Italy by the treaty of Presburg...

. 26 Dec. 1805 seat of a republic in the thirteenth and fourteenth cenAll Venice transferred to the empire of Austria. 1814 turies. It was taken by the Spaniards, 1630; French, Venice declared a free port..

.24 Jan. 1830 1704; and allies, 1706; and afterwards partook of the Insurrection begins 22 March, 1848; the city, defended

fortunes of Piedinont. by Daniel Manin, surrenders to the Austrians after a long siege...

......22 Aug. 1849 Verden (Hanorer). Here Charlemagne massacred (During the Italian war in 1859, the country was much disorganized, and many persons emigrated in

about 4500 Saxons, who had rebelled and relapsed into 1860-1.)

idolatry, 782.


Verdun (the ancient Verodunum), a first-class for- other emperors, chiefly bronze, discovered near Verona, tress on the Meuse, N.E. France, made a magazine for Jan. 1877. his legions by Julius Cæsar. It was acquired by the

Versailles (near Paris) was a small village, in a Franks in the sixth century, and formed part of the do- forest thirty miles in circuit, where Louis XIII. built a minions of Lothaire by the treaty of Verdun, 843, when hunting-seat about 1632. Louis XIV., between 1661 the empira was divided between the sons of Louis I. It and 1687, enlarged it into a magnificent palace, which was taken and annexed to the empire by Otho I. about became the usual residence of the kings of France. By 939. It surrendered to France in 1552, and was for the treaty between Great Britain and the revolted colomally ceded in 1648. It was taken and held by the nies of British North America, signed at Paris, the latter Prussians 43 days, Sept.-Oct. 1792. Gen. Beaurepaire, power was admitted to be a sovereign and independent the commandant, committed suicide before the surren- state, 3 Sept. 1783. On the same day a treaty was signed der, and 14 ladies were executed on 28 May, 1794, for at Versailles between Great Britain, France, and Spain, going to the king of Prussia to solicit his clemency for by which Pondicherry and Carical, with other possesthe town. Verdun surrendered to the Germans 8 Nov. sions in Bengal, were restored to France, and Trincoma1870, after a brave defence, two vigorous sallies being lee restored to the Dutch. Here was held the military made 28 Oct. Above 4000 men were captured, with a festival of the royal guards, 1 Oct. 1789, which was follarge quantity of arms and ammunition. It was the last lowed (on the 5th and 6th) by the attack of the mob, place held by the Germans, and was given up 15, 16 who massacred the guards and brought the king back Sept. 1873, and the troops retired.

to Paris. Versailles became the residence of Louis Phil. Vergara (N. Spain). Here the Carlist general Ma- ippe in 1830. The historical gallery was opened in 1837. roto made a treaty, termed “The Pacification of Verga- Versailles, with the troops there, surrendered to the Gerra,” with Espartero, 31 Aug. 1839. The monument to mans 19 Sept. 1870, and the crown-prince of Prussia encelebrate it was destroyed by the Carlists in Aug. 1873. tered the next day; and on 26 Sept. he awarded the

iron cross to above 30 soldiers at the foot of the statue Vermandois (N. France), a county given by Char. of Louis XIV. The palace was converted into a hospilemagne to his second son Pepin, whose family held it tal. The royal headquarters were removed here from till the eleventh century. In 1156 it came by marriage Ferrières 5 Oct. After the peace Versailles became the to the counts of Flanders, and in 1185 it was seized by seat of the French government (see France), March, Philip II., and incorporated with the monarchy in 1215. 1871.

Vermont, a northern state of the United States, was Verse, see Poetry, Ilexameter, Elegy, Tambic, etc. settled by the French, 1724-31, and ceded to Great Brit- Surrey's translation of part of Virgil's “ Æneid" into ain in 1763. It was freed from the authority of New blank verse is the tirst English composition of the kind, York, and admitted as a state of the Union in 1791. omitting tragedy, extant in the English language (pub. Verneuil (N. W. France), the site of a battle fought compositions was the stanza of eight lines, the ottava

lished in 1547). The verse previously used in our grave 17 Aug. 1424, between the Burgundians and English rima (as adopted, with the addition of one line, by Spenunder the regent duke of Bedford, and the French, assisted by the Scots, commanded by the count de Nar- from Ariosto and Tasso). Boccaccio introduced it into

ser in his “Faërie Queene,” who probably borrowed it bonne, the earls of Douglas and Buchan, etc. The French at first were successful, but some Lombard aux- French chansons. Trissino is said to have been the first

Italy in his “ Teseide,'' having copied it from the old iliaries who had taken the English camp commenced introducer of blank verse among the moderns, about pillaging. Two thousand English archers came then

1508.- Vossius. fresh to the attack, and the French and Scots were totally defeated and their leaders killed.

Verulam, see Albun's, St. Vernon Gallery. The inadequate manner in

Vervins (N. France). Here was concluded the which modern British art was represented in the Na- peace between Philip II. of Spain and Henry IV. of tional Gallery was somewhat remedied in 1847 by the France, with mutual concessions, 2 May, 1598. munificent present to the nation by Mr. Robert Vernon Veseronce (S.E. France), near Vienne. Here Gonof a collection of 157 pictures, all but two being by first- demar, king of the Burgundians, defeated and killed rate British artists. They were first exhibited at Mr. Clodomir, king of Orleans, and revenged the murder of Vernon's house in Pall Mall, next in the vaults beneath his brother Sigismond and his family, 524. This conthe National Gallery, afterwards at Marlborough house, Alict is called also the battle of Voiron. and are now at the South Kensington Museum. In 1857 Vespers, see Sicilian l'espers. In the house of the Mr. John Sheepshanks followed Mr. Vernon's example; French ambassador at Blackfriars, in London, a Jesuit see Sheepshanks's Donations.

was preaching to upwards of three hundred persons in an Verona (N. Italy) was founded by the Gauls or upper room, the floor of which gave way with the weight, Etruscans ; see Campus Raudius. The amphitheatre when the whole congregation was precipitated to the was built by Titus, A.D. 82. Verona has been the site street, and the preacher and more than a hundred of his of many conflicts. It was taken by Constantine, 312; auditory, chietly persons of rank, were killed. This caand on 27 Sept. 489, Theodoric defeated Odoacer, king tastrophe, termed the Fatal Vespers, occurred 26 Oct. of Italy. Verona was taken by Charlemagne 774. About

1623.-Stow, 1260 Mastino della Scala was elected podestà, and his

Vesta. The planet Vesta (the ninth) was discovdescendants (the Scaligeri) ruled till subdued by the ered by Dr. Olbers of Bremen on 29 March, 1807. She Visconti, dukes of Milan, 1387. Verona was conquered appears like a star of the sixth magnitude. by the Venetians 1405, and held by them, with some Vestals, virgin priestesses, took care of the perpetintermissions, till its capture by the French general Masual fire consecrated to Vesta. The mother of Romulus sena, 3 June, 1796. Near to it Charles Albert of Sar- was a vestal. Numa is said to have appointed four, 710 dinia defeated the Austrians, 6 May, 1848. Verona is B.C., and Tarquin added two. Minutia was buried alive one of the four strong Austrian fortresses termed the for breaking hier virgin vow, 337 B.C. ; Sextilia, 273 B.C.; Quadrangle, or Quadrilateral (which see), and here the and Cornelia Maximiliana, A.n). 92; see Chastity. The emperor Francis Joseph, on 12 July, 1859, in an order of order was abolished by Theodosius, 389. the day, announced to his army that he must yield to "Vestiges of the Natural History of Creacircumstances unfavorable to his policy, and thanked tion," a work which upholds the doctrine of progreshis people and army for their support. It was surren- sive development as an hypothetic history of organic credered to the Italian government, 16 Oct. 1866; and the ation, ascribed to Robert Chambers and other persons, king was received by 70,000 persons in the amphithea- first appeared in 1814, and occasioned much controversy; tre, 18 Nov. 1866. Above 50,000 coins of Gallienus and I see Origin of Species.

Vesuvius. By an eruption of Mount Vesuvius, the Vice-president of the United States. The cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum (which see) were vice-president of the United States is president of the overwhelmed, 24 Aug. A.v. 79, and more than 200,000 senate, and in the event of the death, resignation, or dispersons perished, among them Pliny the naturalist. ability of the president the vice-president succeeds him. Numerous other disastrous eruptions have occurred. Four vice-presidents have in this way become presidents, Torre del Greco, with 4000 persons, was destroyed, 17 as follows: John Tyler, succeeding William Henry HarDec. 1631. There was a dreadful eruption took place rison, who died 4 April, 1841; Millard Fillmore, succeedsuddenly, 24 Nov. 1759, and another 8 Aug. 1767. The ing Zachary Taylor, who died 9 July, 1850; Andrew violent burst in 1767 was the 34th from the time of Johnson, succeeding Abraham Lincoln who died 15 April, Titus. One in June, 1794, was most destructive: the 1865; and Chester A. Arthur, succeeding James A. Gar. lava flowed over 5000 acres of rich vineyards and cul- field, who died 19 Oct. 1881. tivated land, and Torre del Greco was a second time burned; the top of the mountain fell in, and the crater

Vicksburg (Miss.), CAMPAIGN FOR THE POSSESSION is now nearly two miles in circumference. A great of, 18 May, 1862-4 July, 1863. Vicksburg lies on the eruption in Oct. 1822, and others in May, 1855, May and east bank of the Mississippi, 400 miles above New OrJune, 1858, caused great destruction. A series of violent leans, and about the same distance from Cairo. It is eruptions, causing much damage, occurred in Dec. 1861. connected with Jackson, the state capital, by railroad; and in Feb. 1865. Torre del Greco was again destroyed and from De Soto, on the opposite bank, a railroad runin Dec. 1861. Another eruption began 12 Nov. 1867, ning to Monroe drains the land-commerce of northern and continued increasing in grandeur and danger, March, Louisiana. It was the most important and the most 1868. The phenomena were observed by professors Tyn- defensible military position on the Mississippi. The dall and Miller, sir John Lubbock, and other scientific town, before the war, had a population of about 5000; it men, in April, 1868. A great eruption began 8 Oct. 1868, is situated on the shelving declivity of high hills, and, and continued, causing much destruction, 19, 20 Nov. A with its dwellings scattered in groups on the terraces, severe eruption began 23 April and ended about 3 May, presents a very picturesque appearance. The high 1872; above 60 lives were lost. The mountain was dis- bluffs upon which the town stands extend southward turbed in 1876, and another eruption began about 20 along the river to Warrenton, and northward till they Sept. 1878; lava was spouted to the height of 300 feet. touch the Yazoo, about 15 miles from Haines's Bluff. An eruption began 11 June, 1879. Prof. John Phillips's Between these bluffs—which were in time strongly “ Vesuvius” was published 1869.

fortified by the confederates and the Yazoo is a low

country, full of swamps, lagoons, sloughs, and bayous. It Veterinary College (London), was established at

was in this sort of country that Sherman landed his troops Camden-town, 1791; and Albert Veterinary College was (Dec. 1862), and sustained a repulse. The country in opened in 1865. Veterinary College of New York, in the rear of Vicksburg is very rough, and broken by abrupt corporated 1857.

ravines. The following are the remarkable incidents of Vice, or Vise, an instrument of which Archytas of the Vicksburg campaign in their chronological order: Tarentum, disciple of Pythagoras, is said to have been the inventor, along with the pulley and other implements, S. Lee, commanding the advanced naral division of

Farragut's squadron, demanded the surrender of Vicks.

burg, and was refused. M. L. Smith at this time como Vice, SOCIETY FOR THE SUPPRESSION OF, estab

manded the military defences of Vicksburg with 10,000 lished 1802.

... 18 May, 1862

Gen. Thomas Williams, with four regiments and eight Vice-admiralty Courts Act, 1863, was ex- guns, occupies the peninsula opposite Vicksburg, tended and amended in 1867.

24 June,

Farragut runs the Vicksburg blockade to join Davis, and Vice-chancellor of England, an equity judge, bombards Vicksburg...

.28 June, appointed by parliament, first took his seat 5 May, 1813. Van Dorn takes command at Vicksburg. ......28 July A new court was erected for him about 1816 contiguous Expedition up the Yazoo to destroy the ram Arkansas,

meets the ram coming down, and retires; the ram to Lincoln's-inn hall. Two additional vice-chancellors

passes out into the Mississippi, and takes refuge under were appointed under act 5 Vict., Oct. 1841. The office the guns of Vicksburg.

. 15 July, of vice-chancellor of England ceased in August, 1850, Ellet and W. D. Porter, with the Queen of the West and

Essex, attack the ram, are repulsed, and with difficulty and a third vice-chancellor was appointed in 1851, when

.22 July, two more equity judges, styled lords justices, were ap- Williams's canal, begun upon his arrival on the penin pointed.

sula, proves a failure. ..

22 July, Williams's force leaves for Baton Rouge.. .....24 July, VICE-CHANCELLORS OF ENGLAND.

Destruction of the ram Arkansas, after Breckinridge's 1813. Sir Thomas Plumer, 13 April.

defeat at Baton Rouge... 1816. Sir John Leach, 13 Jan.

Vicksburg defences strengthened, and a line of works 1827. Sir Anthony Hart, 4 May.

thrown up on the blusls south of the Yazoo, Aug. -Dec. 1827-50. Sir Lancelot Shadwell, 1 Nov.

Gen. J. C. Pemberton supersedes Van Dorn..


Grant, moving upon Jackson and the rear of Vicksburg, 1852. Sir John Stuart, sat last, 27 March, 1871.

is compelled to retreat by the surrender of Holly 1853. Sir William Page Wood, made a justice of appeal, 1868; Sherman embarks from Memphis with 30.000 men 20


....20 Dec. lord chancellor. Dec. 1868. 1868. Sir George Markham Giffard, died 1870.

Dec. ; is re-enforced by 12.000 men at Helena; convoyed 1869. Sir William M. James, Jan.; made a lord justice of

up the Yazoo by Porter's fleet 26 Dec.; lands near peal, June, 1870.

Chickasaw Bayou 27 Dec. ; advances against tho 1871. Sir John Wickens, April; died 23 Oct. 1873.

northern defences of Vicksburg 28 Dec.; assaults and 1866. Sir Richard Malins, resigned 1881.

is repulsed with a loss of 2000 men.

29 Dec. 1870. Sir James Bacon. now included in the chancery Withdrawal of Sherman's expedition from the Yazoo, 1873. Sir Charles Hall, Nov. } "division.

2 Jan. 1863

Grant meets Sherman, M'Clernand, and Porter at the Vicenza (the ancient Vicentia, N. Italy) was the month of White River, and consults with them as to seat of a republic in the twelfth century. It greatly

further operations against Vicksburg. ..... 18 Jan. suffered by the ravages of Alaric, 401, and Attila, 452. Occupation of Young's Point, 9 miles above Vicksburg,

on the opposite bank.....

..21 Jan. Having joived the Lombard league, it was sacked by The Queen of the West captured in the Red River by the Frederic II. 1236. After many changes it was subjected

confederates ...

13 Feb. to Venice, and with it fell under the French domination, Confederates destroy the Indianola below Vicksburg.

24 Feb 1796; and was given to Austria in 1814. Having re- Porter sends his “Dummy" past Vicksburg; in the volted, it was retaken by Radetzky, 11 June, 1848. It panic which follows the confederates destroy the

Queen of the West, and annihilate the Indian:na, was annexed to the kingdom of Italy, Oct. 1866.

which they had raised...

24 Feb Vice-president of the Board of Trade. This Grant arrives at Young's Point, 2 Feb.; reopens the

work on Williams's canal; the leveo breaks, and the office was abolished in 1867, and a secretary with a seat

project is abandoned..

.8 March, in parliament substituted.

The Lake Providence route (for getting below Vicksburg

420 B.C.



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oa the west bank) opened, but immediately abandoned, A representative constitution granted...

1855 10 March, 1863 Sir Henry Barkly appointed governor..

1856 The Yazoo Pass route (for obtaining a foothold on the The parliament was opened......

26 Nov. 1857 high land above Haines's Blust) abandoned.. 23 March, The production of gold was still very great.

1859 The steele's Bayou route (for turning Fort Pemberton Four administrations had been formed in.

1857-1860 by way of Cypress Bayou, Steele's Bayou, Big Sun. Exhibition of the products of the colony opened by the tlower River, and Deer Creek, thus reaching the rear


1 Oct. 1861 of Vicksburg) tried and abandoned...

... Feb. Sir Charles Darling appointed governor, May; arrives, After the failure of these experiments, Grant advances

10 Sept. 1363 to New Carthage, 29 March, and sends transports Great opposition to reception of convicts in any part of past the Vicksburg batteries..

16-22 April,

Australia; a ship containing them sent back. ....Oct. 1894 Grierson's raid from Le Grange, Tennessee, to Baton Important land act passed..

.22 March, 1865 Rouge, Louisiana...

.17 April-2 May, The assembly passes the new government tariff, Jan., Porter attacks Grand Gulf, but the troops fail to make a which is rejected by the legislative council; the govlanding

..... 29 April,

eruor raises money for the public service irregularly, M'Clernand lands at Bruinsburg, below Vicksburg, 30

July, April, followed by M.Pherson, and defeats two confed- The crisis still continues; appeal to the queen proposed, erate brigades under Bowen at Port Gibson....2 May,

Oct. Confederate evacuation of Grand Gulf... ......3 May,

Parliament prorogued....

Dec. Sherman reaches Hard Times, and joins Grant's army, Sir Charles Darling recalled.

26 Feb. 1866 6-8 May, Ministerial difficulties: Mr. M.Culloch becomes premier, Battle of Raymond; M.Pherson defeats Gregg and Walk

April, er. National loss, 410; confederate, 823......12 May, The assembly votes 20,0001. to lady Darling; sir Charles Capture of Jackson, after a brief conflict, by Sherman and


. May, M·Pherson. National loss, 265; confederate, 845,

New governor, sir John H. T. Manners Sutton (viscount 14 May, Canterbury in 1869), arrived.

13 Aug. Battle of Champion's Hill, or Baker's Creek. Pember- Intercolonial exhibition opened..

. 25 Oct. con crossed the Big Black, and took position on Vote of 20,0001. to lady Darling rejected by legislative Baker's Creek, about 25 miles west of Jackson; here


. 20 Aug. 1867 he was defeated by Grant...

.16 May,

Ministerial crisis; dispute continues between the assem. Battle of the Big Black; on the banks of this river Pem

bly and the council..

..Oct. berton made a brief stand, and was defeated by M'Cler- Duke of Edinburgh arrives; great rejoicings....23 Nov. pand..

...17 May, An address presented to him by Mr. Edward Henty, the Pemberton enters the fortifications of Vicksburg. 17 May,

first settler, and others.... Grant invests Vicksburg; Sherman establishes himself Parliament dissolved.

.30 Dec. on the Yazoo; Porter opens communications for Grant's New parliament; ministry resigned because the gov. army by the Yazoo....

..18 May, ernor objected to insertion of the Darling grant in the First assault on Vicksburg repulsed... ..19 May,

appropriation bill...

.12 March, 1868 Second assault on Vicksburg repulsed..

.22 May,

First woollen and paper manufactories established. May, Grant's army re enforced to nearly 70,000 men ....June, The M.Culloch ministry arrange the Darling affair, July, Surrender of Vicksburg, with 27,000 men, 128 pieces of The M Pherson ministry announced..

Oct. 1869 artillery, and 80 siege guns.

. 4 July, Mr. M'Culloch forms a ministry including Mr. M'Pher. [In the battles around Vicksburg before its surrender, the son, April; is knighted..

. May, 1870 confederate loss in killed, wounded, and captured was about Mr. M'Culloch resigns.

.14 June, 10,000; Grant estimates his loss as 8575. After the capture the federation of the Australian colonies, proposed by of Vicksburg, Sherman, with the bulk of Grant's army, ad. Mr. Gavan Duffy in 1857, revived by him and discussed vanced against Johnston, and compelled the latter to evacuate in the legislative assembly.

June, Jackson, 16 July, 1863. Johnston, after the first battle of Industrial Museum at Melbourne, opened. ....8 Sept. Jackson (14 May), had in vain endeavored to induce Pember- Mr. Duffy minister..

July, 1871 ton to join him and light a decisive battle outside of Vicks. He resigns on a vote against him.

.29 May, 1872 burg)

Mr. Francis forms a ministry..

..June, Victoria, formerly Port PhilliP (Australia), situ

Payment (3001. a year) to members of parliament begins,

Sir George Ferguson Bowen succeeds viscount Canter: ated between New South Wales and South Australia. In


Feb. 1873 1798, Bass, in his whale-boat expedition, visited Western Ministerial crises: Mr. Kerford premier; Mr. Service's Port, one of its harbors; and in 1802 Flinders sailed into budget; expenditure, 4,500,0001. ; deficit, about 340,Port Phillip Bay.

0001. ; be proposes a moderate free trade policy; re

duction of taxation and a loan; rejected by the parColonel Collins lands with a party of convicts with the liament; Mr. Kerford resigns, as sir William Stowell, intention of founding a settlement at Port Phillip, but

the acting governor, would not dissolve..

..Aug. 1875 afterwards removed to Van Diemen's Land..

1804 Mr. Graham Berry, premier; would continue protection Messrs Hume and Hovell, two stock-owners from New and tax the richer colonists heavily (a financial coup South Wales, explore part of the country, but do not d'état); defeated; resigns..

Oct. discover its great advantages..

1824 Sir James M'Culloch forms a coalition ministry, Oct.; Mr. Edward Henty (of a Sussex family), comes from proposing tax ou income, land, and realized property, Tasmania with cattle, sheep, shepherds, etc., and set

Nov. tles in Portland Bay; his brothers, Stephen, George, Passes his income tax bill with a majority of three, and John, follow soon.


announced June, 1876 Mr. John Batman enters between the heads of Port Phil. Dispute of government with Messrs. Stevensons, respect. lip, and purchases a large tract of land from the abo.

ing their alleged undervaluing goods for payment of rigines for a few gewgaws and blankets; he shortly duties; their letters opened..

. March-June, after, with lifteen associates from Hobarton, took pos. Elections; triumph of protectionists; sir James M.Cul. session of 600,000 acres in the present Geelong country, loch resigns; Mr. Berry again premier, May; a land.

May, 1835
tax enacted..

.Oct. 1877 The Launceston associates, and Mr. John Pascoe Falkuer, Legislative council rejects Mr. Berry's appropriations, ascend the Yarra Yarra (or crerllowing) river, and en

defence, and exhibition bills..

..end of Oct. 1877 camp on the site of Melbourne..

County court and other judges dismissed by the council; The colonists (450 in number) possess 140,000 sheep, sir G. Bowen, the governor, supports the ministry, Jan. 1878

2500 cattle, and 150 horses; sir R. Bourke, governor The lower house overrules the council; orders public of New South Wales, visits the colony, determines the creditors to be paid on its sole vote......about 13 Feb. sites of towns, and causes the land to be surveyed and Berry ministry and the lower house predominant, resold, setting asido many contending claims; he ap.

March-Aug. points capt. Lonsdale chief-magistrate (see Melbourne), 15.37 The marquess of Normanby appointed governor.... Feb. 1879 The colony named Victoria, 1839 Mr. Berry's fruitless visit to England.

Feb. Mr. C. J. Latrobe appointed lieutenant-governor under He introduces a reform bill, Sept. ; which is withdrawn, sir G. Gipps...

Dec. Its prosperity brings great numbers to it, and induces Parliament dissolved about 9 Feb.; elections give ma.

much speculation and consequent embarrassment and jority against Mr. Berry, 28 Feb.; bis cabinet resign, insolvency.

....1841-2 2 March; new ministry under Mr. James Service, The province declared independent of New South Wales;

3 March, 1880 a reward of 2001. offered for the discovery of gold in Mr. Service's Reform bill rejected, 24 June; dissolution Victoria, which was soon after found near Melbourne, of the assembly, 29 June; the ministry resigns, 14 July, and was profitably worked..... Aug. 1851 Mr. Berry forms a cabinet

28 July, 7000 person

were at Ballarat, Oct.; 10,000 round Mount Ned Kelly and some of his gang of bush-rangers after Alexander.


committing many murders and robberies (sinceantump From 30 Sept. to 31 Dec. 1851, 30,311 ounces of gold were of 1878) captured and sent to Melbourne..27, 28 June,

obtained from Ballarat; and from 29 Oct. to 31 Dec. International exhibition at Melbourne, opened....1 (ct. 94,524 ounces from Mount Alexander - total 124,835 Kelly hanged...

.11 Nov.

Population of the colony in 18:36, 221; in 1841, 11,738; Immense immigration to Melbourne (see Melbourne)... 1852 in 1846, 32,879: in 1851, 77,345; 31 Dec. 1852, about Sir Charles Hotham, governor..

...June, 1854 200,000; in March, 1857, there were 258, 116 males and

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