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EMPERORS.

1831. Population of Western Australia in 1859, 14,837 ; of Scotsmen who came over after the accession of James Jan. 1862, 15,555; Jan. 1877, about 27,321. Governor 1. occasioned the building of Westminster, and united it John Stephen Hampton, appointed 1861 ; sir Benjamin with London.Howel's Londinopolis. See Palace of C. C. Pine, May, 1868; Frederick A. Weld, 1869; Will-Westminster and Parliament. iam C. F. Robinson, 1874; major-gen. sir Harry St. Earl Grosvenor created marquess of Westminster, 1831; George Ord, 1877; sir W. F. Robinson, 1880.

the marquess created duke

1874

Westminster Industrial Exhibition, opened 24 May; Western Church (called also the Latin or Ro

closed....

......9 Aug. 1879 MAN) broke off communion with the Greek or Eastern Church, 653; see Greek Church. Its history is mainly

Westminster Abbey. Christopher Wren, in comprised in that of the popes and of the European his survey of the present edifice, found nothing to counkingdoms; see Popes. This church was disturbed by tenance the belief that it was erected on the ruins of a the Arian heresy about 345 and 500; by Pelagianism, pagan temple. The erection of the first abbey, in the about 409; by the introduction of image-worship about seventh century, is ascribed to St. Sebert, king of Essex. 600; by the injunction of the celibacy of the clergy and the church becoming ruinous, splendidly rebuilt by Edthe rise of the monastic orders, about 649; by the con

ward the Confessor (1055_65) and filled with monks tests between the emperors and the popes respecting

from Exeter (Pope Nicholas II. constituted it the place

for the inauguration of the kings of England); dedi. ecclesiastical investitures, between 1073 and 1173; by

28 Dec. 1065 the rise and progress of the Reformation in the fifteenth Rebuilt in a magnificent style by Henry III. ..1220-69 and sixteenth centuries; by the contests between the In the reigns of Edward II., Edward III., and Richard

II., the great cloisters, abbot's house, and principal Jesuits and Jansenists in the seventeenth and eighteenth monastic buildings, erected...

1300-1400 centuries; and by the progress of mockern philosophy The western parts of the nave and aisles rebuilt between and rationalism, and by ultramontanism, in the nine- The west front and the great window built by Richard

1340 and 1483 teenth; see Roman Catholics.

III. and Henry VII. ; the latter commenced the chapel Western Empire. The Roman empire was the abbey dissolved and made a bishopric.

which bears his name; the first stone laid... 24 Jan. 1502-3

1540 divided into Eastern and Western by Diocletian in 296; Made a collegiate church by Elizabeth..

1560 but was reunited under Constans in 340. It was again Made a barrack for soldiers (Mercurius Rusticus)... July, 1643 divided into Eastern and Western by Valentinian and The great west window and the western towers rebuilt

1714-60 Valens, the former having the Western portion, or The choir iujured by fire.

in the reigns of George I. and II.

..9 July, 1803 Rome, 364; see Eastern Empire, Italy, and Rome. Mr. Wyatt commenced restoring the dilapidated parts, at

an expense of 42,0001., in.

1809 A fire, without any serious injury

..27 April, 1829 364. Valentinian, son of Gratian, takes the Western, and his The evening services for the working classes, when a brother Valens the Eastern empire.

sermon was preached by the dean, Dr. Trench, com367. Gratian, a youth, son of Valentinian, made a colleague in

menced on..

.3 Jan. 1858 the government by his father.

The 800th anniversary of the foundation celebrated, 375. Valentinian II., another son, also very young, is, on the

28 Dec. 1865 death of his father, associated with Gratian, who is as- 70001. voted by parliament to restore the chapter-house sassinated by his general, Andragathius, in 383. Val- (G. Gilbert Scott employed), 1 May, 1866; re-opened, entinian murdered by one of his officers, Arbogastes,

29 April, 1872 in 392.

Lectures in the Abbey on foreign missions; prof. Max 392. Eugenius, a usurper, assumes the imperial dignity; he Müller, a layman, 3 Dec. 1873; principal Caird, of and Arbogastes are defeated by

Scotch church, 30 Nov. 1874; rev. Robert Moffat, father394. Theodosius the Great, who becomes sole emperor.

in-law of Livingstone..

..30 Nov. 1875 (Andragathius threw himself into the sea, and Arbogas- Sir Charles Lyell, sir Wm. Sterndale Bennett, and bishop tes died by his own hand. )

Connop Thirlwall buried in the Abbey.

1875 395. Honorius, son of Theodosius, reigns, on his father's death, in the West, and his brother Arcadius in the East.

Westminster Aquarium, see Aquarium. Honorius dies in 423.

At 423. Usurpation of John, the Notary, defcated and slain near the dissolution of monasteries, Westminster Abbey was

Westminster Bishopric AND DEANERY. Ravenna. 425. Valentinian III., son of the empress Placidia, daughter valued at 39771. per annum; king Henry VIII., in 1539,

of Theodosius the Great; murdered the instance of erected it into a deanery, and in 1540 into a bishopric,

his successor, 455. Maximus: he inarries Eudoxia, widow of Valentinian, and appointed Thomas Thirlby prelate. He was trans

who, to avenge the death of her first husband and the lated to Norwich in 1550, and with him ended the guilt of her second, invites the African Vandals into bishopric of Westminster; Middlesex, his diocese, being

Italy, and Rome is sacked. Maximus stoned to death. 455. Marcus Mæcilius Avitus; forced to resign, and dies in his restored to London. The dean presided until the accesflight towards the Alps.

sion of Mary, who restored the abbot. Elizabeth dis457. Julius Valerius Majorianus; murdered at the instance of placed the abbot, and erected the abbey into a collegiate

his minister, Ricimer, who raises 461. Libius Severus to the throne, but holds the supreme tinues. On the revival of the order of the Bath, in

church of a dean and twelve prebendaries, as it still conpower; Severus poisoned by Ricimer. 465. (Interregnum. Ricimer retains the authority, without 1725, the dean of Westminster was appointed dean of assuming the title of emperor.)

that order, which honor has been continued. Dr. Nicho467. Anthemius, chosen by the joint suffrages of the senate and las Wiseman was created archbishop of Westminster by

army; murdered by Ricimer, who dies soon after. 472. Flavius-Anicius Olybrius; slain by the Goths soon after the pope Pius IX., 30 Sept. 1850 ; see Papal Aggression. his accession.

Dr. Wiseman died 8 Feb. 1865; Henry Manning was 473. Glycerius; forced to abdicate by his successor, 474. Julius Nepos: deposed by his general, Orestes, and re- Penrhyn Stanley, an eminent dean, died 18 July, and

Dr. Arthur

consecrated his successor 8 June following. tires to Salonæ. 475. Romulus (called Augustulus, or Little Augustus), son of was buried in the abbey, 25 July, 1881.

Orestes. Orestes is slain, and the emperor deposed by 476. Odoacer, king of the Heruli; takes Rome, assumes the

Westminster Bridges. The handsome old style of king of Italy, and completes the fall of the bridge was begun (after a design of M. Labelye), 13 Western empire.

Sept. 1738; the first stone laid, 29 Jan. 1738-9; opened (See Italy, Rome, and Germany.)

for passengers, 18 Nov. 1750; cost 426,6501. It was built Westminster, so called on account of its western of Portland stone, and crossed the river where the situation with regard to St. Paul's cathedral, or from breadth is 1223 feet. there being formerly a monastery named East Minster Owing to the sinking of several of its piers, most of the on the hill now called Great Tower-hill. This city balustrades on both sides were removed, to relieve the joins London at Temple Bar. Formerly Westminster

structure of its weight. was called Thorney, or Thorney Island ; and in ancient By 16 & 17 Vict. c. 46, the estates of its commissioners

were transferred to her majesty's commissioners of times Canute had a palace here, burned in 1263. West- works, who were empowered to remove the then exist. minster and London were one mile asunder in 1603, ing bridge, and build a NEW BRIDGE (near the old one), when the houses were thatched, and there were mud The contract required the completion of the works by

4 Aug. 1853 walls in the Strand. It is said that the great number

1 June, 1857 The goy

The works were suspended for a time in consequence of 1648, between France, the emperor, and Sweden ; Spain the failure of Messrs. Mare, the contractors.

continuing the war against France. By this peace erament eventually undertook the building, which they intrusted to Mr. Thomas Page, the engineer. (ending the Thirty Years' war) the principle of a balance One half of the new bridge was opened for use early in of power in Europe was first recognized; Alsace given 1860; the whole on......

...... 24 May, 1862 to France, and part of Pomerania and some other disWestminster Confession or FAITH AND CATE- | tricts to Sweden; the Lower Palatinate restored to the CHISMS were drawn up by the “ Assembly of Divines" elector palatine; the religious and political rights of the (partly consisting of laymen), who sat by authority of German states established; and the independence of the parliament, in Henry VII.'s chapel, Westminster, from Swiss Confederation recognized by Germany. 1643 to 1647. These have ever since been the doctrinal

Weymouth (Dorsetshire) was given by Henry I. standards of Scotch Presbyterians.

to St. Swithin's, Winchester. Taken from Charles I. Westminster Hall (London), first built by Will- by the parliamentarians, 1644; visited and brought into iam Rufus in 1097, for a banqueting-hall; and here, in note by George III., 1789. First Dorset industrial ex1099, on his return from Normandy," he kept his feast hibition was opened here, 25 July, 1878. of Whitsuntide very royally." The hall became ruinous before the reign of Richard II., who repaired it in 1397, the Norwegians in the ninth century.Lenglet

. Whales

Whale-fishery, it is said, was first carried on by raised the walls, altered the windows, and added a new

were killed at Newfoundland and Iceland, for their oil roof, as well as a stately porch and other buildings. In only, 1578; the use of their fins and bones was not yet 1236, Henry III., on New Year's Day, caused 6000 poor known, consequently (a writer adds) no stays were worn persons to be entertained in this hall

, and in the other by the ladies. The English whale-fishing commenced rooms of his palace, as a celebration of queen Eleanor's at Spitzbergen in 1598 ; but the Dutch had been previcoronation; and here Richard II., held his Christmas festival in 1397, when the number of the guests each day ously fishing there. The fishery was much promoted by the feast lasted was 10,000.–Stow. The courts of law 2000 whales have been killed annually on the coast of

an act of parliament passed in 1749. From 1800 to were established here by king John.- Idem. Westmin-Greenland, cte. The quantity of whale-oil imported in ster Hall was stated to be the largest room in Europe un

1814 was 33,567 tuns; in 1826, when gas-light became supported by pillars (except a hall of justice at Padua); general, 25,000 tuns; in 1840, about 22,000 tuns; in 1850, it is 270 feet in length, 74 feet broad. The hall under-21,360 tuns; in 1861, 19,176 tuns; in 1864, 14,701 tuns ; went a general repair in 1802. Concurrently with the in 1867, 15,945 tuns; in 1871, 24,679 tuns; in 1872, erection of the palace of Westminster, many improve- 18,719 tuns; in 1877, 19,365 tuns. ments and alterations have lately been made in this Labrador, 9 feet 6 inches long, placed in the Westmin

A living whale from magnificent hall. The Volunteer Rifle Corps were ster Aquarium, 26 Sept.; died 29 Sept. 1877. White drilled in the hall in the winter of 1859, and since.

whale (Beluga), arrived 28 May; died in the latter part Westminster Hospital, founded 1719, char- of June. tered, 1836.

Wharncliffe Meetings of public companies (held Westminster Palace, see under Palace of West- to give enlarged powers under certain prescribed condiminster, and Parliament.

tions) are so called because the standing orders of the “Westminster Review," liberal in religion house of lords, under which they are held, were introand politics, first appeared, 1824, as the organ of the duced by Lord Wharncliffe, about 1846. philosophic radicals, termed the Westminster school, Wheat. The Chinese ascribe to their emperor friends of Jeremy Bentham ; see Utilitarianism. Ching-Noung, who succeeded Fohi, the art of husbandry,

Westminster School, or Sr. PETER'S COLLEGE, and method of making bread from wheat, about 2000 was founded by queen Elizabeth in 1560, for the educa- years before the Christian era. Wheat was introduced tion of forty boys, denominated the queen's scholars, into Britain in the sixth century, by Coll ap Coll Frewi. who are prepared for the university. It is situated

-Roberts. The first wheat imported into England of within the abbey enclosure. Besides the scholars on the which we have a note was in 1347. Various statutes foundation, many of the nobility and gentry send their have regulated the sales of wheat, and restrained its imsons to Westminster for instruction. A proposal in 1860 portation, in order to encourage its being raised at home. to remove the school was disapproved of in 1861.

In 1862 attention was drawn to the probable utility of Westminster Schools, United, comprise Emanuel and St. Mar. considering the pedigree of wheat. In 1871 it was esti

garet's hospitals, and rev. James Palmer's and Emery Hill's mated that 3,571,894 acres in the United Kingdom were school charities, which were abolished by the endowed devoted to wheat; in 1876, 3,124,342; see Bread and school commissioners, 27 June, 1873. New schools are to Corn Laws. Greatest producers (in order), United be erected.

States, Russia, France, Great Britain, etc. The wheat Westminster, STATUTES OF, are 3 and 13 Edward crop of the United States for 1880 was 480,819,723 I., 1275–90; see Acts of Parliament,

bushels. The following table shows the value, in dolWestmoreland. This county and Cumberland lars, of the exports of wheat and flour from the United were granted as a fief to Malcolm of Scotland by Edward States in the several years named: the Elder in 945; but resumed by Henry III. in 1237. Year.

Flour.

Wheat. Neville, earl of Westmoreland, revolted against Eliza- 1821..

$4,298,043 $178,314 beth in 1569, and was attainted in 1570.

6,085,953 1840..

10,143,615 Westphalia (Germany). This duchy belonged in 1850..

1,683,483

7,098,570 643,745 former times to the dukes of Saxony, and afterwards be- 1860..

15,448,507 4,076,704 came subject to the archbishop of Cologne, On the

21,169,593 47,171,229 1879..

29,567,713 secularization, in 1802, it was made over to Hesse-Darm

130, 701,079 stadt; and in 1814 was ceded for an equivalent to Prussia. The kingdom of Westphalia, one of the tem

Wheat.

Flour. porary kingdoms of Bonaparte, composed of conquests 1854..

2,656, 455 qrs. 6.329,038 cwts. from Prussia, Hesse-Cassel, Hanover, and the smaller

29,955,532

6, 152,938 1862.

41,033,503 7,207,113 states to the west of the Elbe, was created by decree 18

1864..

23, 196,714 cwts 4,512,391 Aug. 1806, and Jerome Bonaparte appointed king 1 Dec. 1866..

23,156, 329 4,972,280 1807. Hanover was annexed to it, 1 March, 1810. The 1868..

32,639.768

3,093, 022 1871..

39,389,803

3,977,939 kingdom was abolished in 1813, and the countries were

1872.

42,127,726

4,388, 136 restored to their former rulers.

1874..

41,527, 638

6,236,044

54,269,800 7,377.303 Westphalia, or MUNSTER, PEACE OF, the treaties

7.828.079 signed at Osnaburg, 6 Aug., and at Munster, 24 Oct. I 1879..

W

1830...

1870..

IMPORTED INTO GREAT BRITAIN.

1861.

66

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1877..
1678..

49,905, 484

10,728, 252

59,591,795

VALUE OF WHEAT IMPORTED INTO THE UNITED KINGDOM. force of arms. The insurrection became general in 1854.. £11,693,737 | 1866.

£12,983,090 several counties. Many outrages were committed. 1855. 9,679,578 | 1867

24,985,096 1856. 12,716,349 1868.

22,069,353

Buildings were burned, the mails were rifled, and gov1857 9,563,099 1869. 19,515,758 ernment officers were insulted and abused.

At one 1858. 9,050,467 1870.

16,264,027 time there were 6000 or 7000 insurgeats under arms, and 1859. 8,713,532 1871.

23,318,883 7000 or 8000 more in reserve. 1860. 16,554,083 1872. 26,169,185

The president of the 1861. 19,051, 464 1873.

28,638,746 United States (Washington) finally called out the mili1862. 23, 203,800 1874.

25, 236,932 tary force of the country to put down the insurgents, 1863. 12,015,006 | 1875.

27,510,469

and was successful. Great leniency was shown to the 1864.. 10,674,654 | 1876.

23,178,011 1865. 9,775,616 1877.

33,885,437

offenders, and the excitement died away. Average Annual Price per Quarter in England and Wales.

Whist, a game at cards, became general at the end

of the seventeenth century.
8. d.
8. d.
$. d.

$. d. 1801 119 6 1835 39 4 1866 49 11 1873 58 8

" Whist," a poem

1791 1805 89 9 | 1840 66 4 | 1867 64 5 1874 55 8 Laws by " Cavendish," compiled..

about 1861 1810

106 5 1845 50 10 1868 63 9 1875 45 2 Edmund Hoyle, who published his “Short Treatise," 1815 65 71850 40 3 1869 48 2 1876 46 2 about 1742, died in 1769, aged 97; lord Peterborough 1820 67 10 1855 74 8 1870 46 10 1877 56 9 introduced short whist early in the present century; 1825 68 6 1860 53 3 1871 56 81878 46 5 the laws were revised in..

1864 1830 66 4 | 1865 41 10 | 1872 57 0 1879 43 10 James Clay, M.P., an eminent player, died...... 26 Sept. 1871 Wheel, BREAKING ON THE. A barbarous mode of

White Doves, a South Russian religious sect, said death, of great antiquity, ordered by Francis I. for rob- to be wealthy and superstitious, strongly advocating celbers, about 1535; see Ravaillac.

ibacy; under a chief named Koudrine. Members were

tried for moral offences about April, 1876. Wheel-work, see Spinning, Looms, Automaton.

White Flag, see Flag. Whigs. In the reign of Charles II. the name Whig was a term of reproach given by the court party to

White Friars, see Carmelites, White. their antagonists for holding the principles of the White Hats, a party in the Low Countries formed "whigs," or fanatical Covenanters in Scotland; and in about 1377, against Louis, count of Flanders. The strugreturn the name Tory was given to the court party, gle lasted till 1384, when it was settled by Philip, duke comparing them to the Tories, or popish robbers in Ire- of Burgundy. land.---Baker. The distinction arose out of the dis

White Hoods, see Catechumens. covery of the Meal-tub plot (which see) in 1678. Upon bringing up the meal plot before parliament, two parties

White Horse, see Ashdown. were formed : those who doubted the plot styled those White House (Washington), the residence of the who believed in it Whigs; these styled their adversa- presidentt, gives name to the United States government, ries Tories. In time these names, given as marks of as St. James's palace does to that of Great Britain. The opprobrium, became honored distinctions.Hume. The corner-stone was laid 1792; building first occupied, by Whigs brought about the revolution of 1688-9, and es- president Adams, 1800; burned by the British, 1814; tablished the Protestant succession. They were chiefly restoration completed, 1818. instrumental in obtaining the abolition of the slave-trade

White League, formed in Louisiana and other and slavery, the repeal of the Test and Corporation act, southern states of North America, to resist the aggresCatholic emancipation, parliamentary and municipal re- sions of the emancipated negroes and their friends, termform, the repeal of the corn laws, and similar measures. ed “ carpet-baggers;" see New Orleans, 1874. The Whig Club was established by Charles James Fox; one of its original members was the great Francis, duke

White Plains (New York state, U.S.), where a battle of Bedford, who died in 1802. For the principal Whig

was fought 28 Oct. 1776, between the revolted Americans ministries, see Godolphin, Halifax, Walpole, Rocking- and the British forces under sir William Howe. It terhum, Grenville, Grey, Melbourne, Russell, Palmerston, and minated in the defeat of the Americans, both sides sufGladstone.

fering considerable loss in killed, wounded, and prisoners. Whip, the popular title of the patronage secretary

White Sheep, a name given to the Turcomaus of the treasury, whose duty it is to collect members to who conquered Persia about 1468, and persecuted the make a house on important occasions, etc.

Sir Wm. Shiites, but were expelled by Ismail, who founded the Hayter, the Liberal " whip,” 1850-8, received a testi- Sophi dynasty in 1501. monial for his energetic services, early in 1861. The White Tower, the keep or citadel in the Tower of right hon. Wm. P. Adam, an able whip, died governor of London, a large, square, irregular building, erected in Madras, 24 May, 1881.

1070 by abbot Gundulph, afterwards bishop of RochesThe management of the house of commons by bribery is said ter. It measures 116 feet by 96, and is 92 feet in height: to have begun with Clifford of the " Cabal” ministry, and the walls, which are 11 feet thick, having a winding continued by Whigs and Tories. Mr. Roberts (under Henry staircase continued along two of the sides, like that in Pelham), is said to have paid members sums of 10001., 5001., etc., to each at the close of a session for their sup

Dover Castle. It contains an extensire armory. Withport.-Wraxall.

in this tower is the ancient chapel of St. John, originally Whiskey, the spirit distilled from malt and other used by the English monarchs. The turret at the northeast corn in Scotland and Ireland, of which about eight angle, the highest of the four by which the White Tower millions of gallons have been distilled annually in the is surmounted, was used for astronomical purposes by former, and upwards of nine millions of gallons in the Flamsteed previous to the erection of the royal observlatter. The duty upon this article once produced annu- atory at Greenwich. ally about three millions. The distillation of whiskey is Whitebait Dinner, when the cabinet ministers referred to the sixteenth century; but some authors met at the end of each session, is said to have begun at state it to have been earlier; see Distillation. In 1855 the end of the last century, through sir Robert Preston the duties on spirits distilled in Scotland and Ireland and Mr. George Rose inviting Mr. Pitt and his colleagues were equalized with those distilled in England. Wom- to dine at Dagenham, and afterwards at Greenwich. en's Whiskey War, see United States, 1874.

Another account dates its origin in 1721. The annual Whiskey Insurrection, a popular outbreak in whitebait dinner, stopped by the Gladstone ministry, Western Pennsylvania, in the summer of 1794, on was revived by the Disraeli ministry, 1 Aug. 1874, and account of the imposition of duties on domestic distilled continued by the Gladstone, 1 Sept. 1880. The whitespirits. The people of Western Pemsylvania, where bait (clupea alba) is a subject of controversy. Albert large quantities of whiskey were manufactured, resisted | Giinther, of the British Museuin, in his “ Catalogue of the collection of the revenue by excise officers with | Fishes," says the whitebait is “a purely nominal spe

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cies," and that all the examples which he has examined Whitsuntide, a festival appointed to commemwere young herrings (1868).

orate the descent of the Holy Ghost upon the apostles : At the inquiry in June, 1878, James Henry Cannon, fisherman, the newly baptized persons, or catechumens, are said to claimed the discovery of the fish for his grandfather, Rich have worn white garments on Whit-Sunday. This feast ard, who named it 1780. It was mentioned in a letter in is movable, being always exactly seven weeks after the life of lord Malmesbury, 2 July, 1763.

Easter. Rogation week (which see) is the week before Whiteboys, a body of ruffians in Ireland, so called Whit-Sunday. Whit-Sunday, 1881,5 June; 1882,28 May; on account of their wearing linen frocks over their coats. 1883, 13 May ; 1884, 1 June; 1885, 24 May. They committed dreadful outrages in 1761, but were sup- Whitsuntide, a Scotch quarter-day, is always on 15 May, as pressed by a military force, and their ringleaders exe

settled by an act of 1693, but local usage varies. cuted in 1762. They rose and were again suppressed in 1786-7. The Insurrection act was passed on their ac

Whittington's Charities. Sir Richard Whit

tington, a citizen and mercer of London, served the office count in 1822.

of lord mayor three times, the last in 1419. Many false Whitechapel, a parish in East London, was part stories are connected with his name, and his munificent of Stepney till 1329. The church, built in 1673, was re- charities are little known. He founded his college, placed by one consecrated 2 Feb. 1877, which was burned dedicated to the Holy Ghost and the Virgin Mary, in 26 Aug. 1880.

1424; and his almshouses in 1429; the latter, originally Whitechapel Murder. Henry Wainwright, a built in London, now stand on Highgate hill (built 1808) brushmaker, murdered Harriet Lane, his mistress, on

near the supposed site of the supposed famous stone his premises, 215 Whitechapel road, and buried the which commemorated the legend of his return to Lonbody, Sept. 1874.

don, after leaving it in despair. While conveying the mutilated remains to be concealed in his cellars in Southwark, Wainwright and Alice Day

Whitworth Foundations. Mr. (afterwards sir) were apprehended; through the courage and activity Joseph Whitworth, the eminent engineer, in a letter to of Alfred Philip Stokes, 11 Sept. Day was discharged; the first lord of the treasury, dated 18 March, 1868, ofHenry and his brother Thomaswere committed for trial,

fered to found 30 scholarships of the annual value of 100%.

13 Oct. 1875 Nine days' trial before chief justice Cockburn; Henry each, to be applied for the further instruction of young

convicted of murder; Thomas as accessory after the men, natives of the United Kingdom, selected by open fact (seven years' penal servitude), 22 Nov.-1 Dec.;

competition for their intelligence and proficiency in the Henry executed..

.21 Dec. 1875 12321. subscribed for Henry's family.

theory and practice of mechanics and its cognate sciences, 301. awarded to Stokes.

with a view to the promotion of engineering and meWhitefieldites. George Whitefield, the founder chanical industry in this country; and he expressed of the Calvinistic Methodists,born 1714, was the son hopes that means might be found for bringing science of an innkeeper at Gloucester, where he received his and industry into closer relation with each other than first education. He was admitted a servitor at Oxford at present obtains here. This offer was accepted by the in 1732, became a companion of the Wesleys there, and lords of the committee of the privy council, 28 March, aided them in establishing Methodism. He parted

1868. In 1875, sir Joseph assigned an estate to support from them in 1741, on account of their rejection of the

these scholarships. doctrine of election. He was the most eloquent preacher Who? Who? Administration, Derby's, earl of his day. His first sermon was preached in 1736, and of, Feb. 1852 (which see). he commenced field-preaching in 1739. He is said to “Whole Duty of Man” (the authorship doubthave delivered 18,000 sermons during his career of 34 fully attributed to archbishops Sancroft, Frewen, and years. He visited America in 1737, 1739, and 1744. His Sterne; to bishops Fell and Chapel; to Dorothy, lady followers are termed “the countess of Huntingdon's con- Packington, and others); first published, 1659.— Lowndes. nection,” from his having become her chaplain in 1748, It is attributed by some to John Ischam. and from her energetic support of the sect by establishing a college at Trevecca, 1767. There were 109 chap

Wickliffites, the followers of John Wickliffe (born els of this connection in 1851; but many of his followers 1324), a professor of divinity in the university of Oxford have joined the Independents. He died 30 Sept. 1770, and rector of.Lutterworth in Leicestershire. He was a and the countess died 17 June, 1791 ; see Tabernacle.

forerunner of the reformatiou of the English church from Whitehall (London), built by Hubert de Burgh, of the pope, transubstantiation, the celibacy of the clergy,

popery, being among the first who opposed the authority earl of Kent, before the middle of the thirteenth cen

etc. Wickliffe, protected by John of Gaunt, Edward's tury. It afterwards devolved, by bequest, to the Black son and Richard's uncle, was virulently persecuted by Friars of Holborn, who sold it to the archbishop of York, the church, and only saved from martyrdom by a parwhence it received the name of York place, and contin-alytic attack, which caused his death, 31 Dec. 1384, in his ued to be the town residence of the archbishops till taken 60th year. The Council of Constance, in 1414, decreed by Henry VIII. from cardinal Wolsey, in 1530. At this his bones to be disinterred and burned, which was done period it became the residence of the court. Queen by the bishop of Lincoln, and his dust was cast into the Elizabeth, who died at Richmond in 1603, was brought river Swift, 1415. Wickliffe's English version of the from thence to Whitehall, by water, in a grand proces- Bible was commenced in 1380 ; a noble edition of it was sion. It was on this occasion, Camden informs us, that printed at Oxford in 1850 ; see Lollards. the following quaint panegyric on her majesty was written :

Widows. The Jewish law required a man's brother

to marry his widow (1490 B.c.). For the burning of “ The queen was brought by water to Whiteball, At every stroke the oars did tears let fall.

widows in India, see Suttees. Among the numerous asMore clung about the barge: fish under water

sociations in London for the relief of widows are, one for Wept out their eyes of pearl, and swam blind after.

the widows of musicians, instituted in 1738; for widows I think the bargemen inight, with easier thighs, Have rowed her thither in her people's eyes;

of naval men, founded in 1739; for widows of medical For howsoe'er thus much my thoughts have scann'd, men, 1788: a law society, for widows of professional genShe had come by water, had she come by land."

tlemen, 1817; and a society for artist's widows, 1827.Whitehall was partly burned, 9-10 April, 1691 ; totally WIDOWERS were taxed in England as follows: a duke, destroyed by fire, 4 Jan. 1697-8, except the banqueting- 121. 108.; lower peers, smaller sums; a common person, house, which had been added to the palace of Whitehall 1s.; 7 Will. III. 1695. by James I., according to a design of Inigo Jones, in

Wien, see Vienna. 1619. In the front of Whiteball Charles I. was behead

Wife, see Wives. ed, 30 Jan. 1649. George I. converted the hall into a chapel, 1723-4. The exterior of this edifice underwent

Wig, see Peruke. repair between 1829 and 1833.

Wigan (Lancashire). The king's troops, command

To gen.

To gen.

ed by the earl of Derby, were defeated and driven out from Doctors' Commons to Somerset House, was opened of the town in 1643 by the parliamentary forces under 24 Oct. 1874. sir John Smeaton. The earl was again defeated by col. The will of Peter the Grent, described in the " Mémoires de la Ashton, who razed the fortitications of Wigan to the Chevalière d'Eon" as a "plan for compassing European ground, same year; and once more, by a greatly superior

supremacy." left for his successors, and deposited in the

archives of the palaces of Peterhoff near St. Petersburg. It force commanded by col. Lilburne, 1651. In this last advocated “ approach as near as possible to Constantinople, engagement, sir Thomas Tildesley, an ardent royalist, was and towards the Indies; wars with Turkey and Persia; pos. slain; a pillar was erected to his memory in 1679. The

session of the shores of the Black Sea, and the Baltic;'etc.

The existence of the will (denied by the czars), was first ancolliers in the neighborhood struck, and acting riotously

nounced by M. Lesur in his " Progrès de la Puissance 17, 18 April, 1868, were quelled by the military. Ar- Russe," published at Paris in 1812.

In 1863,

Berkholz rangements were soon after made with the employers. of Riga asserted that the will was a forgery, probably dic.

tated by Napoleon I. Mr. W. J. Thoms, the antiquary, and The prince and princess of Wales at their visit, 4 June,

others, contend for the genuineness of the will, June, 1878. 1873, opened a new hospital, etc., and received a hearty

EXTRACTS FROM THE LAST WILL OF NAPOLEON I., EMPEROR welcome; see Railway Accidents, 2 Aug. 1873.

OF FRANCE. Wight, Isle of, the Roman Vecta, or Victis, was (He died 5 May, 1821, eleven days after he had signed these

It conquered by Vespasian in the reign of Claudius.

documents. The original in French occupies about twenty.

six pages in Peignot's * Testaments Remarquables," 1829. ] was conquered by the Saxons under Cerdic about 530 ;

" This day, 24 April, 1821, at Longwood, in the island of St. by the Danes, 787, and in 1001, when they held it for Helena. This is my testament, or act of my last will: . .. several years. It was invaded by the French, July, 1377, proof of my satisfaction for the attentions he has paid to me for

"I leave the comte de Montholon 2,000,000 francs as a and has several times suffered from invasion by them. these six years, and to indemnify him for the losses which my In 1442, Henry VI. alienated the islé to Henry de Beau- residence in St. Helena has occasioned him. I leave to the champ, first premier earl of England and then duke of comte Bertrand 500,000 francs. I leave to Marchand, my Warwick, and afterwards crowned him king of the Isle first valet-de-chambre, 400,000 francs; the services he has

performed for me are those of a friend. I desire that he may of Wight, with his own hands; but dying without heirs marry a widow, sister, or daughter of an officer or soldier male, his regal title died with him, and the lordship of of my old guard. To St. Denis, 100.000 francs. To Novarre,

100,000 francs. the isle returned to the crown. Charles I., after his flight

To Pijeron, 100,000 francs. To Archambaud,

50,000 francs. To Cuvier, 50,000 francs. To Chandelle, idem. from Hampton court, was a prisoner in Carisbrooke castle,

** To the Abbé Vignali, 100,000 francs. I desire that he in 1647. In the time of Charles II. timber was very may build his house near Ponte Novo de Rossino. To tho plentiful. In this isle is the queen's marine residence, comte Las Casas, 100,000 francs. To comte Lavalette, 100,000

francs. To the surgeon-in-chief, Larrey, 100,000 francs. Не Osborne house.

is the most virtuous man I have known. To gen. Brayer, Wild Birds' Protection Acts, passed 10 Aug.

100,000 francs.

“To gen. Lefevre Desnouettes, 100,000 francs. 1872, 24 July, 1876, and 7 Sept. 1880.

Drouet, 100,000 francs. To gen. Cambronne, 100,000 francs. Wilderness Battles, see United States, May, 1864, the children of the brave Labodoyère, 100,000 francs.

To the children of gen. Muton Duvernais, 100,000 francs. To

To and Grant's Campaign in Virginia.

the children of gen. Girard, killed at Ligny, 100,000 francs. Wilhelmshafen, at Hippens, bay of Jahde, Olden- To the children of gen. Chartrand, 100,000 francs. To the chil

dren of the virtuous gen. Travost, 100,000 francs. burg, the first German military port, was inaugurated by Lallemand, the older, 100,000 francs. To gen. Clausel, 100,000 William, king of Prussia, 17 June, 1869. Since 1871, it francs. To Costa Bastilica, also 100,000 francs. To the baron has become the Chatham of Germany. By explosion de Menevalle, 100,000 francs. To Arnault, author of “ Marius,"

100.000 francs. of a gun on the Mars, eight men killed and twenty in

". To col. Marbot, 100,000 francs; I request him to continuo jured, 27 April, 1881.

to write for the defence and glory of the French armies, and Wilkes's Number 45, see North Briton, and also Bignon, 100,000 francs; I request him to write the history of

to confound the calumniators and the apostates. To the baron Warrants, General.

French Diplomacy from 1792 to 1815. To Poggi de Talaro,

100,000 francs. To the surgeon Emmery, 100,000. Williams's Library, see Libraries.

"These sums shall be taken from the six millions which I Willis's Rooms, see Almack's.

deposited on leaving Paris in 1815, and from the interest at

the rate of 5 per cent, since July, 1815; the account of which Willow-leaves, see Sun.

shall be adjusted with the bankers by the counts Montholon Wills and Testaments are of very high an

and Bertrand and by Marchand.

"These legacies, in case of death, shall be paid to the tiquity (see Gen. xlviii.). Solon introduced thein at widows and children, and in their default, shall revert to the Athens, 578 B.C. There are regulations respecting wills capital. I institute the counts Montholon, Bertrand, and in the Koran. Trebatius Testa, the civilian, introduced Marchand my testamentary executors. This present testacodicils to wills at Rome, 31 B.C. The power of be- with my arms.

ment, written entirely by my own hand, is signed and sealed queathing lands by the last will and testament of the

"NAPOLEON. owner was confirmed to English subjects 1 Hen. I.

“ 24 April, 1821, Longwood.” 1100; but with great restrictions and limitations respect- will of the emperor:

The following are part of the eight codicils to the preceding ing the feudal system, which were taken off by the

“On the liquidation of my civil list of Italy-such as money, statute of 32 Hen. VIII. 1541.-Bluckstone's Commentaries. jewels, plate, linen, coflers, caskets of which the viceroy is The first will of a sovereign on record is stated (but in the depositary, and which belong to me--I dispose of two mill

. error) to be that of Richard II. 1399; Edward the Con- ions, which I leave to my most faithful servants.

I hope

that without their showing any cause, my son Eugene Napo. fessor made a will, 1066. Various laws have regulated leon will discharge them faithfully.' He cannot forget the the wills and testaments of British subjects. All previous forty millions which I have given him in Italy, or by the statutes were repealed by the “Wills act,” 7 Will. IV. right (parage) of his mother's inheritance.

* From the funds remitted in gold to the empress Maria and 1 Vict. c. 26, 1837, and the laws with relation to Louisa, my very dear and well-beloved spouse, at Orleans, in wills amended.* The present PROBATE Court (which 1814, there remain due to me two millions, which I dispose see) was established in 1857. An office for the recep- of by the present codicil, in order to recompense my most tion of the wills of living persons was opened in Jan. of my dear Maria Louisa. I leave 200,000 francs to count Mon:

faithful servants, whom I beside recommend to the protection 1861; see Thellu sson's Will. In 1869 twemy probates tholon, 100,000 francs of which he shall pay into the chest of of wills or letters of administration were stamped for the treasurer (Las Casas) for the same purpose as the above, personal property, each exceeding a quarter of a million; to be employed according to my dispositions in legacies of

conscience. one had a stamp of 21,0001. The Wills Office, removed

“10,000 francs to the sub officer Cantillon (died July, 1869),

who has undergone a prosecution, being accused of a desire * By this act the testator must be above 21, not a lunatic to assassinate lord Wellington, of which he has been declared or idiot, not deaf and dumb, not drunk at the time of sign

Cantillon had as much right to assassinate that ing, not an outlawed or unpardoned felon. All kinds of prop- oligarch, as the latter had to send me to perish on the rock erty may be devised. The will must be written legibly and of St. Helena, etc., etc., etc. intelligibly, and signed by the testator, or by his direction, in tho presence of two or more witnesses, who also must sign. † These documents, dated from 15 to 24 April, deposited since A married woman may bequeath only her pin-money or sep- 1821 in England, have been given up to the authorities at arate maintenance, without the consent of her husband. Paris, at the request of the French government.

innocent.

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