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LETTER TO M. LAFITTE.

ing.

ures.

Wilmot Proviso. When a bill was pending in “MONSIEUR LAFITTE, -I remitted to you in 1815, at the congress to authorize the president to purchase territory moment of my departure from Paris, a sum of nearly six mill. in connection with negotiations for peace with Mexico, ions, for which you gave me a double receipt. I have can. celled one of these receipts, and I have charged comte

de Mon. David Wilmot of Pennsylvania offered an amendment, tholon to present to you the other receipt, in order that you 8 Aug. 1846, providing, “ that as an express and fundamay, after my death, deliver to him the said sum with inter mental condition to the acquisition of any territory from est at the rate of five per cent., from the 1st of July, 1815, deducting the payments with which you have been charged in

the republic of Mexico, neither slavery nor involuntary virtue of my order. I have also remitted to you a box con- servitude should ever exist in any part of said territory.” taining my medallion. I beg you will deliver it to comte This “ proviso” was adopted by the house of representaMontholon.

It became the doctri** This letter having no other object, I pray God, Monsieur lives, but rejected by the senate. Lahtte, that he may have you in his holy and worthy keep. nal foundation of the free-soil party in 1848, and of the

republican party in 1856.

"NAPOLEOX. “Longwood, in the Island of St. Helena, 25 April, 1821.”

Wilmot's Act (sir E.), 3 & 4 Vict. c. 77 (1840) re

lates to schools. The following Will OF NAPOLEON III. was published in the Times, 30 April, 1873:

Winchester (Hampshire), a most ancient city,

“ April 24, 1865. whose erection may reasonably be ascribed to the Celtic “This is my will. I commend my son and my wife to the Britons, with the fabulous date 392 B.C. It was made high constituied authorities of the state (aux grands corps de the capital of the West Saxon kingdom under Cerdic, l'état), to the people, and the army. The empress Eugénie possesses all the qualities requisite for conducting the regency about 520; and of England by Egbert, 827; it became well, and my son displays a disposition and judgment which the residence of Alfred, 879--991. In the reign of Willwill render him worthy of his high destinies. Let him never iam I. London began to rival it; and the destruction of forget the motto of the head of our family, “Everything for the French people.' Let him fix in his mind the writings religious houses by Henry VIII. almost ruined it. Ser. of the prisoner of St. Helena; let him study the emperor's eral kings resided at Winchester, and many parliaments deeds and correspondence; finally, let him remember, when circumstances so permit, that the cause of the peoples is the exist in the national denomination of measures of quan

were held there. Memorials of its ancient superiority cause of France. Power is a heavy burden, because one can. not always do all the good one could wish, and because tity, as Winchester ell, Winchester bushel, etc., the use your contemporaries seldom render you justice, so that, in of which has but recently been replaced by imperial measorder to fulll one's mission, one must have faith in, and con

The cathedral church was first founded and ensciousness of, one's duty. It is necessary to consider that from heaven on high those whom you have loved regard and dowed by Cynegils, or Kenegilsus, the first Christian protect you; it is the soul of my illustrious uncle ihat has king of the West Saxons. Becoming ruinous, the presalways inspired and sustained me. The like will apply to ent fabric was begun by bishop Walkelyn, the 34th my son, for he will always be worthy of his name. Mleave to bishop, 1073. The church was first dedicated to St. the empress Eugenie all my private property. It is my desire that on the majority of my son she shall inbabit the Elysée Amphibalus, then to St. Peter, and afterwards to St. and Biarritz. I trust that my memory will be dear to her, Sw in, once bishop here. Dedicated to the Holy and that after my death she will forget the griefs I may have Trinity by Henry VIII. St. Birinus was the first bishop caused her. With regard to my son, let him keep as a talisman the seal I used to wear attached to my watch and which of the West Saxons, his seat Dorchester, 636; Wina, in comes from my mother; let him carefully preserve every: 660, was the first bishop of Winchester. The see is thing that comes to me from the emperor, my uncle, and let valued in the king's books at 27931. 4s. 2d. annually, him be convinced that my heart and my soul remain with him. I make no mention of my faithful servants.

Present income, 10,5001. convinced that the empress and my son will never abandon Taken by the Danes, 871-3; raraged by Sweyn.... them. I shall dic in the Catholic, Apostolic, and Roman re- William Rufus buried here. ligion, which my son will always honor by his piety. Done, Hospital of Holy Cross, founded by bishop Henry de written, and signed with my hand at the palace of the Tuiler- Blois...

1132 ies, the 24th of April, 1865.

Winchester school, founded by bishop William of Wyke"NAPOLEON.” ham..

. 1382-7 The WILL OF PRINCE Louis NAPOLEON was written with his Winchester several times taken and retaken, 1641-3; own hand, and signed 26 Feb. 1879, the night before he sailed taken by Cromwell and the castle dismantled.. for South Africa (where he was killed while on a reconnoi. Charles II. began a palace here by Wren.

1683 tring party, 1 June, 1879). He states that he dies in the Cath. Charitable Society of Natives founded.

1699 olic religion; expresses his love for bis country, his mother Winchester Cross restored...

1866 the empress, and his friends; and his gratitude to the queen New Guildhall opened by lord-chancellor Selborne, and royal family of England, and to the English people for

11 May, 1873 their cordial hospitality. He constitutes his mother sole leg- RECENT BISHOPS (prelates of the Order of the Garter). atee; bequeaths legacies and memorials to prince J. N. Murat, 1781. Brownlow North; died 12 July, 1820. M. F. Pietri, baron Corvisart, M. Rouher, and others; and as

1820. George Pretyman Tomline; died 1827. signs to Victor, the eldest son of prince Napoleon Jerome, the

1827. Charles Richard Sumner; resigned 1869; died 15 Aug. task of coutinuing the work of Napoleon I. and Napoleon III.

1874. Executors, MM. Rouher and Pietri.

1869. Samuel Wilberforce; clected Nov.; killed, through the Willughby Society, devoted to the study of fall of his horse, 19 July, 1873. birds; founded in 1879; was named after Francis Will- 1873. Edward Harold Browne; translated from Ely, Aug. ughby (1635–72), who wrote “ Ornithologia,” published Winchester (Va.). This town is situated in the 1676.

Shenandoah valley. During the American civil war Wilmington (N. Carolina, U. S.) was held by the there were several conflicts here of greater or less imconfederates; resisted severe attacks of the federals in portance. Here, on 23 March, 1862, gen. Shields repulsed

* Stonewall " Jackson. Jackson attacked gen. Banks at Dec. 1864. Fort Fisher was taken by assault on 15 Jan., and Wilmington was evacuated by ihe confederates, 22 this place: 25. May, and forced him to retreat. Gen.

Milroy held the town with 7000 men at the time of Lee's Feb. 1865.

invasion, June, 1863.. On the approach of the confedWilmington Administration, succeeded that of erates he retreated 15 June, and a column of the enemy sir Robert Walpole, Feb. 1742.

gaining his rear, while another attacked in front, he was Earl of Wilmington, first lord of the treasury.

refeated, his whole force dispersed, and 2300 captured. Lord Hardwicke, lord chancellor.

In the autumn of 1864, gen. Sheridan, commanding the Earl of Harrington, president of the council. Earl Gower, lord priry sral.

army of the Upper Potomac, held a strong position near Mr. Sandys, chancellor of the exchequer.

the railroad from Harper's Ferry towards Winchester. Lord Carteret and the duke of Newcastle, secretaries of state. The confederate general Early commanded a large force Earl of Winchilsca, first lord of the almirally.

in the valley of the Shenandoah, and on 18 Sept. was Duke of Argyll, commander of the forces and master-general of the ordnance.

posted on the Opequan Creek near Winchester. SheriMr. Henry Pelham, paymaster of the forces.

dan gained the rear of the confederates, and on 19 Sept. deWith several of the household lords.

feated them, capturing 4500 prisoners. On the confederate (On lord Wilmington's death, 26 July, 1743, Mr. Pelham became prime minister; and in Nov. 1744, he formed the side gens. Rodes and Gordon were killed; on the nation** Broad-bottom” administration; sec Pelham.]

al, gen. D. A. Russell was killed, and gens. Upton, Mclo

I am

1013 1100

1645

tosh, and Chapman were wounded. The national loss The Little Park, on the north and east sides of the castle,

contains about 500 acres. The gardens are elegant, was over 3000. The confederate loss in killed and

and bave been considerably improved by the addition wounded was 3500.

of the house and gardens of the duke of St. Albans, Winchester School, the oldest of our great schools,

purchased by the crown.

Cumberland Lodge partially destroyed by fire; pictures “ Seinte Marie College of Wynchestre," the charter of

burned.

..14 Nov. 1869 which is dated Oct. 1382, was founded in 1387 by William Albert Institute, Windsor, opened by the prince of (Long) of Wykeham, bishop of Winchester, who had es- Wales...

...10 Jan. 1880 tablished a school here in 1373, The ancient statutes

About 52,000 volunteers reviewed by the queen..9 July, 1881 were revised in 1855 ; and still further altered by the Windsor Knights, see Poor and Knights. Public Schools act of 1868. In Nov.-Dec. 1872 there

Windward Isles (West Indies) ---Barbadoes, St. was much published correspondence respecting the tund- Vincent, Grenada, Tobago, and St. Lucia (which see). ing—the excessive punishment of the boys by boy pre-Governor, Rawson W. Rawson, 1868; J. Pope Hennessy, fects.

Feb. 1875; capt. Strahan, Nov. 1876; sir Henry Bulwer, Winding-up Acts (to facilitate the winding-up the April, 1880. affairs of joint-stock companies which are unable to meet

Wine. “ Noah planted a vineyard, and drank of the their engagements) were passed in 1848, 1849, 1857, and wine,” 2347 B.C. (Gen. ix. 20); see Vine. Ching-Noung, 1862.

emperor of China, is said to have made rice-wine, 1998 Windmills are of great antiquity, and stated to be B.C. The art of making wine is said to have been brought of Roman or Saracen invention. They are said to have from India by Bacchus Christ changed water into wine been originally introduced into Europe by the knights of at the marriage of Cana in Galilee, A.D. 30 (Jobu ii. St. John, who took the hint from what they had seen in 3-10). the crusades.--Baker. Windmills were first known in Wine sold in England by apothecaries as a cordial in Spain, France, and Germany, in 1299.- Anderson. Wind

1300, and so continued for some time after, although saw-mills were invented by a Dutchman in 1633, when there is mention of “wine for the king'' so early as

John. one was erected near the Strand, in London.

The price regulated by statute, 5 Richard II....... 1381 Windows. There were glass windows in Pompeii, The price was 128. the pipe in:

1400 A.D, 79, as is evident from its ruins. It is certain that A hundred and fifty butts and pipes condemned, for be.

ing adulterated, to be staved and emptied into the windows of some kind were glazed so early as the third

channels of the streets by Rainwell, mayor of London century, if not before, though the fashion was not intro- (Stow's Chron.)...

1427 duced until it was done by Benedict Biscop, about 650. An act for licensing sellers of wine in England passed, Windows of glass were used in private houses, but the By the Methuen treaty, Portuguese wines were highly

25 April, 1661 glass was imported, 1177.— Anderson. In England, in

favored, and French wines discouraged by heavy 1851, about 6000 houses had fifty windows and upwards

duties...

1703 in each ; about 275,000 had ten windows and upwards;

Winc duties to be 28. 9d. per gallon on Cape wine, and 53. 6d, on all other wines..

1831 and 725,000 had seven windows, or less than seven.

In the year ending 31 March, 1856, the customs duties on Window.tax first enacted in order to defray the expense

wines produced 1,856,1201. ; in 1858, 1,733, 7291. ; 1867, of and deficiency in the recoinage of gold..

1695

1,391, 1921. ; 1876, 1,755,7101. The tax increased, 5 Feb. 1746-7; again in 1778; and

By the French treaty of commerce, the duty on wines was much reduced.

.Jan. 1860 again on the commutation-tax for tea.... .1 Oct. 1784 The tax again increased in.....

.1797, 1802, and 1808

Licenses granted to refreshment houses by an act Reduced..

1823

passed in.. The revenue derived from windows was in 1840 about a

The Oporto Wine Company (a monopoly) established in

1865 million and a quarter sterling; and in 1850 (to 5 April),

1756, and abolished. 1,832,6S41.

Commission on the wine duties appointed by the comThe tax repealed by act 14 & 15 Vict. c. 36 (which act im.

... April, 1879 posed a duty upon inhabited houses in lieu thereof).

WINE IMPORTED INTO UNITED KINGDOM. 24 July, 1851

Gallons.

Gallons. Windsor Castle (Berkshire), a residence of the 1800..

3,307, 460 1861.

11,052, 436 British sovereigns, begun by William the Conqueror, and 1815.

4,306,528 1864.

15,451,593 1830.

6,879,558 1868. Edward III., who

16,953, 429 enlarged by Henry I. about 1110.

1839.
9,909,056 1869.

17,184,330 was born here, 13 Nov. 1312, caused the old building, 1845.

8,469,776 1870..

17,774,782 with the exception of three towers at the west end, to be 1850.

9,304,312 1871,

18,224,899

1854. taken down, and re-erected the whole castle under the

10,875,855 1875.

18,429, 305 1857. 10,336,485 1876.

19,950,723 direction of William of Wykeham, 1356, and built St. 1859.

8,195,513 | 1879.

15, 162,857 George's chapel. He assessed every county in England to send him workmen. James I. of Scotland was im

Winter, see Frosts. prisoned here, 1406-23. Several additions were made by

Winter Assizes Act, 39 & 40 Vict. c. 57 (11 Aug. Henry VIII. Elizabeth made the grand north terrace; 1876), gives power, by order in council, to unite counties and Charles II. repaired and beautified it, 1676-80. for the purpose of winter assizes, for more speedy trials

of prisoners. The chapel repaired and opened...

.Oct. 1790 The castle repaired and enlarged, 1824-8; George IV. Wire. The invention of drawing wire is ascribed to took possession

...8 Dec. 1828 Rodolph of Nuremberg, about 1410. Mills for this purRoyal stables built...

1839 A serious fire in the prince of Wales's tower, owing to

pose were first set up at Nuremberg in 1563. The first some defect in the heating apparatus. 19 March, 1853 wire-mill in England was erected in Mortlake in 1663.Our sovereigns have here entertained many royal per- Mortimer. sonages, as the emperor and empress of the French, in

April, 1855 Wirtemberg, see Würtemberg. Here died the prince-consort,

14 Dec. 1861 Wisconsin, a northwestern state of the United The Albert memorial chapel, on the site of Wolsey chapel, was opened..

30 Nov. 1875

States was organized as a territory in 1836; and received Winulsor Forest, situated to the south and west of the into the Union 29 May, 1848.

town of Windsor, was formerly 120 miles in circumfer. ence; in 1607 it was 774 miles round, but it has since

Wissembourg, or WEISSENBURG, N. E. France, in been reduced in its bounds to about 56 miles.

the department of the Lower Rhine, situate on the right surveyed in 1789, and found to contain 59,600 acres. bank of the river Lauter, the boundary of France and Virginia Water and the plantations about it were taken

the Palatinate. It was formerly an imperial city of out of the forest. The marshes were drained and the trees planted for Alsace, and was seized by Louis XIV. in 1673, and an

William, duke of Cumberland, about 1746; and much nexed to France by the treaty of Ryswick, 1697. The was done by George IV., who often resided at the lodge.

“lines ” of Wissembourg, erected by Villars 1705, were On the south side is Windsor Great Park; it contains

taken by the Austrians and retaken by the French 1793, about 3800 acres.

after Hoche's victory at Geisberg. On 4 Aug. 1870, the

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crown-prince of Prussia crossed the Lauter and gained a niece or daughter acted strangely, and an old Indian brilliant but bloody victory over the French (a part of servant-woman was accused of having bewitched her. MacMahon's division), storming the lines, and the Geis- Fasting and prayer were resorted to, to break the "spell." berg. Gen. Abel Douay was mortally wounded, and The malady increased. The alarm spread over the whole about 500 prisoners were made. The killed and wounded community, and the idea seized the colonists that evil on both sides appear to have been nearly equal. The spirits, having ministering servants among them, overGerman army, composed of Prussians, Bavarians, and shadowed the land. Old and ill-favored women were Würtembergers, were, it is said, about 40,000 against suspected and accused of practising sorcery. Even the about 10,000 French, who fought with desperate bravery. lady of governor Phipps did not escape suspicion. Many

Witchcraft. The Jewish law (Exodus xxii. 18), excellent persons, suspected, were imprisoned, and Mr. 1491 B.C., decreed, “ Thou shalt not suffer a witch to Burroughs, a minister, was executed. Men of strong live.” Saul, after banishing or condemning witchcraft, minds and scholarly attainments were thoroughly deconsulted the witch of Endor, 1056 B.C. (1 Sam. xxviii.). luded. For six months the dreadful delusion prevailed, Bishop Hutchinson's historical “ Essay on Witchcraft”

► and during that time 20 persons suffered death, 55 were was published in 1718. Pope Innocent VIII. issued a tortured or frightened into a confession of witchcraft, bull against witchcraft in 1484. Thousands of innocent and when a special court was convened in October, persons were burned, and others killed by the tests ap- 1692, no less than 150 accused persons were in prison. plied.

A sudden reaction took place, and many of the accusers

shrunk abashed from the public gaze. Many Templars burned at Paris for witchcraft, etc., 1309. Joan of Arc burned at Rouen as a witch, 30 May, 1431. About five hundred witches burned in Geneva in three of the wise men, the great council of the Anglo-Saxons.

Witena-mot, or WITЕNA-GEMOT, the assembling months, 1515. Many burned in the diocese of Como in a year, about 1524. A witеna-mot was called in Winchester by Egbert, 800, A great number in France, about 1520, when one sorcerer con- and in London, 833, to consult on the proper means to

fessed to having 1200 associates. Nine hundred burned in Lorraine, 1580–1595.

repel the Danes; see Parliament. One hundred and fifty-seven burned at Würzburg, old and Witepsk (in Russia), where a battle was fought beyoung, learned and ignorant, between 1627 and 1629.

tween the French under marshal Victor, duke of BelluGrandier, the parish priest at Loudon, burned on a charge of having bewitched a whole convent of nuns, 1634.

no, and the Russians, commanded by gen. Wittgenstein, In Bretagne, twenty poor women put to death as witches, 1654. The French were defeated after a desperate engageDisturbances commenced on charges of witchcraft in Amer: ment, with the loss of about 3000 men on both sides, 14 ica, in Massachusetts, 1648–9; and persecutions raged dread.

Nov. 1812. fully in Pennsylvania in 1683; see infra. At Salem, in New England, nineteen persons hanged (by the Witnesses. Two or more witnesses were required

Puritans) for witchcraft, eight more condemned; fifty con: by the law of Moses, 1451 B.C. (Deut. xvii. 6), and by fessed themselves to be witches and were pardoned, 1692; the early Christian church in cases of discipline (2 Cor.

see infra. Maria Renata burned at Wurzburg in 1749.

xiii. 1), A.D. 60. The evidence of two witnesses required At Kalisk, in Poland, nine old women, charged with having to attaint for high-treason, 25 Edw. III. 1352. In civil

bewitched and rendered unfruitful the lands belonging to that palatinate, were burned 17 Jan. 1775.

actions between party and party, if a man be subpænaed Five women condemned to death by the Brahmins, at Patna, as a witness on a trial, he must appear in court on pain for sorcery, and executed, 15 Dec. 1802.

of 1001. to be forfeited to the king, and 101., together WITCHCRAFT IN ENGLAND.

with the damages equivalent to the loss sustained by A statute enacted declaring all witchcraft and sorcery to be the want of his evidence to the party aggrieved. Lord

felony without benefit of clergy, 33 Hen. VIII. 1541. Again, Ellenborough ruled that no witness is obliged to answer

5 Eliz. 1562, and 1 James I. 1603. The 73d canon of the church prohibits the clergy from casting questions which may tend to degrade himself, 10 Dec. out devils, 1603.

1802. New act relating to the examination of witnesses Barrington estimates the judicial murders for witchcraft in passed 13 Geo. III. 1773. Act to enable courts of law to

England in 200 years at 30,000. Matthew Hopkins, the switch-finder,” causes the judicial order the examination of witnesses upon interrogations murder of about 100 persons in Essex, Norfolk, and Suffolk, and otherwise, 1 Will. IV. 30 March, 1831.

1645-7. Sir Matthew Hale burned two persons for witchcraft in 1664.

Wives, see Marriage. By the Divorce and MatriSeventeen or eighteen persons burned at St. Osyths, in Essex, monial Causes act, passed in 1857, the condition of marabout 1676.

ried women have been much benefited. When ill-used Two pretended witches were executed at Northampton in they can obtain a divorce or judicial separation; and

1705, and five others seven years afterwards. In 1716, Mrs. Hicks, and her daughter, aged nine, were hanged while in the latter state any property they may acquire at Huntingdon.

is secured to them personally, as if unmarried. By anNorthamptonshire and Huntingdon preserved the supersti- other act passed in 1857, they are enabled to dispose of

tion about witchcraft later than other counties. In Scotland, thousands of persons were burned in the period reversionary interests in personal property or estates.

of about a hundred years. Among the victims were per. An act to amend the law relating to the property of sons of the highest rank, while all orders in the state con married women was passed 9 Aug. 1870. By it the sepcurred. James I. eren caused a whole assize to be prosecuted for an acquittal. The king published his Dæmonologie arate earnings of a wife were secured to her own use, as in Edinburgh, 1597. The last sufferer in Scotland was at well as personal and freehold property bequeathed to

her. She may maintain an action at law, and acquires The laws against witchcraft had lain dormant for many years, other rights. The husband is declared not liable for

when an ignorant person attempting to revive them (by finding a bill against a poor old woman in Surrey for the debts contracted by his wife prior to marriage, and she

practice of witchcraft), they were repealed, 10 Geo. II. 1736. may be sued for them. This act was amended in 1874. Credulity in witchcraft still abounds in the country, districts Husband and wife may be jointly sued for her debts be

of England. On 4 Sept. 1863, a poor old paralyzed Frenchman died in consequence of having been ducked as a wiz. fore marriage. By the Matrimonial Causes act, 1878, a ard at Castle Hedingham, Essex, and similar cases have since magistrate can grant judicial separation, with mainteoccurred.

nance, to a wife suffering from her husband's ill-usage. Ann Turner, old; killed as a witch by a half insane man at Long Compton, Warwickshire, 17 Sept. 1875.

House of lords decide that the husband is not responsible

for his wife's debts if he allow sufficient for dress, etc. Witchcraft, SALEM. A curious chapter in the

(Debenham v. Mellon)..

.....27 Nov, 1850 history of popular delusions is the record of that which is known in American history as Salem witchcroft.

Wives' Poison, or WATER TOFANA, see Poison

ing. The people of Massachusetts, from the rulers to the

Wizard of the North, a name given to sir most humble, generally believed in witchcraft. It had taken strong hold upon their feelings, and in the early Walter Scott, on account of his romances; also to Mr. spring of 1692 excitement suddenly broke out at Danvers Anderson, the conjuror, who died 3 Feb. 1874; see (part of Salem), Mass., and spread like an epidemic. It Covent Garden. commenced in the family of the parish minister. His Werth sur Sauer, a town in the department of

Dornoch in 1722.

the Lower Rhine, N.E. France. After storming Wis- Louise, founded at the Society of Arts, in 1871, to prosembourg (which see) on 4 Aug. 1870, the crown-prince

mote the better education of women; said to be lan. guishing in..

.....Oct. 1877 of Prussia, with the 3d army (about 150,000), marched University of London; senate vote for granting degrees rapidly forward and surprised part of the French army to women, 28 Feb.; convocation vote against it, 8 under marshal MacMahon, including the corps of Can

May, and July, 1877; vote for a supplemental charter robert and part of that of Failly (about 47,000), and de

granting it (242–132), 15 Jan. ; charter granted,

28 March, 1878 feated it in a long, desperate, and sanguinary engage- Great meeting for female suffrage; St. James's Hall, ment near this place, 6 Aug. The battle lasted from 9 6

6 May, 1880 A.M. till 4 P.M. The chief struggles occurred in the Wonders of the World. 1. The pyramids of country round Reichshoffen and in the village of Egypt. 2. The mausoleum or tomb built for Mausolus, Fræschweiller; the French are said to have charged the king of Caria, by Artemisia, his queen. 3. The temple German line eleven times, each time breaking it, but of Diana, at Ephesus. The walls and hanging garalways finding a fresh mass behind. The ridge on dens of the city of Babylon. 5. The vast brazen image which Wærth stands was not captured until the French of the sun at Rhodes, called the Colossus. 6. The ivory were taken in flank by the Bavarians and Würtem- and gold statue of Jupiter Olympus. 7. The pharos or bergers. Nearly all MacMahon's staff were killed, and watch-tower, built by Ptolemy Philadelphus, king of the marshal himself, unhorsed, fell fainting into a ditch, Egypt; see separate articles. from which he was rescued by a soldier. He then, on

Wood Pavement was laid down at Whitehall in foot, directed the retreat towards Saverne, to cover the 1839; and in Oxford street, the Strand, and other streets. passes of the Vosges. The victory is attributed to the The principal part was soon taken up. In Nov. 1872, very great numerical superiority of the Germans as well the Improved Wood-pavement Company put forth a proas to their excellent strategy. The French loss has spectus; and in May, 1876, wood had been largely laid been estimated at 5000 killed and wounded, and 55,000 down, and was said to be the best pavement in London. prisoners, 2 eagles, 6 mitrailleuses, 35 cannon, and much baggage. The Germans are stated to have had above Oxford street was paved by Henson's Street-paving Com

pany with a compound of wood, asphalt, félt, and Port8000 men put hors de combat. It was admitted that

land cement in 1876; with wood.

1878 MacMahon had acted as an able and brave commander. Bond street and many other streets paved with wood. .1879-81

Wolverhampton (Staffordshire), an old town for- Wood-cuts, see Engraving on Wood. merly named Hamton, owes its present name to the foundation of a college here by Wulfrana, sister of king of woods, forests, and land rerenues was constituted in

Woods, Forests, etc., see Forests. The board Edgar, and widow of Aldhelm, duke of Northampton, 1810.

The oversight of works and public buildings was 996. The queen was present at the inauguration the

added to its duties in 1832, but transferred to a separate prince - consort's statue here, 30 Nov. 1866; and the board of commissioners in 1851. In 1874 the annual church congress was opened here, 1 Oct. 1867. Wolver- revenue of the crown woods and forests was 487,695l.; hampton is eminent for its manufactures in metal.

expenditure, 35,875l. Statue of C. P. Villiers (its M.P., 1835-7) was uncovered, 6 June, 1879.

Wood's Half-pence, for circulation in Ireland

and America, were coined by virtue of a patent, passed Wolves were once very numerous in England. 1722–3. Against them, Dr. Jonathan Swift, by his Their heads were demanded as a tribute, particularly “Drapier's Letters," raised such a spirit that Wood was 300 yearly from Wales, by king Edgar, 961, by which virtually banished the kingdom. The half-pence were step they were falsely said to be totally destroyed.- | assayed in England by sir Isaac Newton, and proved to Carte. Edward I. issued his mandate for the destruc- be genuine, in 1724. tion of wolves in several counties of England, 1289. Ireland was infested by wolves for many centuries after Blenheim Park, originally stood a royal palace, in which

Woodstock (Oxfordshire). In Woodstock, now their extirpation in England; for there are accounts of king Ethelred held a parliament, and Alfred the Great some being found there so late as 1710, when the last translated “ Boethius de Consolatione Philosophiæ," 888. presentment for killing wolves was made in the county Henry I. beautified the palace; and here resided Rosaof Cork. Wolves still infest France, in which kingdom mond, mistress of Henry II., 1154. In it were born Ed8384 wolves and cubs were killed in 1828-9. They were mund, second son of Edward I., 1301, and Edward, eldest troublesome in the Vosges, Oct. 1875.

son of Edward III., 1330; and here the princess ElizaWomen. The employment of women is regulated beth was confined by her sister Mary, 1554. A splendid by the Factory and Workshop Regulation acts (which mansion, built at the expense of the nation for the duke see).

of Marlborough, was erected here to commemorate his (See Degrees, Female Medical School, Marriage, and Wives.) victory at Blenheim in 1704. At that time every trace Female medical society and obstetrical college founded,

of the ancient edifice was removed, and two elms were

about 1864 planted on its site; see Blenheim. Scott's romance, Female suffrage for members of parliament was pro- “Woodstock," was published June, 1826. Marshall's posed by J. S. Mill, and negatived by 196 against 73,

20 May, 1-867

History of Woodstock," 1873, Lily Maxwell, a shopkeeper at Manchester, voted for Wool. From the earliest times to the reign of Jacob Bright...

.26 Nov. First annual meeting of the Manchester national society

queen Elizabeth the wool of Great Britain was not only for women's suffrage.

30 Oct. 1868 superior to that of Spain, but accounted the finest in the Female suffrage decided to be illegal by the court of universe; and even in the times of the Romans a manucommon pleas..

7, 9 Nov. facture of woollen cloths was established at Winchester Women's Club and Institute, Newman street, London, W., opened..

Jan. 1869

for the use of the emperors. Anderson. In later times Women's Disabilities Removal bill rejected by the com- wool was manufactured in England, and is mentioned

mons (220 to 94), 12 May, 1870; (222–143) 1 May, 1872; 1185, but not in any quantity until 1331, when the weave (223–155) 30 April, 1873; withdrawn, 1874; (187-152) April, 1875; (239-152) 26 April, 1876; hustled out, 6

ing of it was introduced by John Kempe and other artiJune, 1877; (219–140) 19 June, 1878; (217–103)

sans from Flanders. This was the real origin of our

1 March, 1879 now unrivalled manufacture, 6 Edw. III. 1331.-Rymer's Miss Garrett and Miss Davies elected members of the

Fædera, metropolitan school-board..

29 Nov. 1873 Women's hospitals founded : Soho, 1842; Marylebone... 1871 Duties on exported wool were levied by Edward I.. 1275 Medical school for women opened (see Physic)... Oct. 1874 The exportation prohibited

1337 Miss Merington elected guardian of the poor for Ken- Staples of wool established in Ireland, at Dublin, Watersington (the first case in London).. . April, 1876 ford, Cork, and Drogheda, 18 Edw. III...

1343 Women's whiskey war; see United States, 1874.

Sheep were first permitted to be sent to Spain, which Women permitted to be registered under Medical act” has since injured our manufacture (Stow).

1467 by 39 & 40 Vict. c. 41.,

...11 Aug First legislative prohibition of the export of wool from Woinen's Education Union, president the princess

Ireland.

1521

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66

RECENT BISHOPS.

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The exportation of English wool and the importation of The Royal Military Academy nearly destroyed by fire; Irish wool into England prohibited.. 1696 loss about 100,0001...

..1 Feb. 1873 The export forbidden by act passed..

1718 Visited by the shah of Persia.

.21 June, Bill to prevent the running of wool from Ireland to France. 1738 Subway beneath the Thames between North and South The duty on wool imported from Ireland taken off. 1739 Woolwich, begun....

... 23 Aug. 1876 Woolcombers' act, 35 Geo. III. ..

1794 The non-exportation law was repealed, 5 Geo. IV. 1824

Woolwich Infant, see Cannon, 1872. In 1851 we imported 83,311,975 lbs. of wool and alpaca; in 1856, 116,211,392 lbs.; in 1859, 133, 284,634 lbs. ; in

Worcester, successively an important British, Ro1861, 147, 172,841 lbs. ; in 1864, 206,473,645 lbs.; in man, and Saxon town, was burned by the Danes (1041) 1866, 239,358,689 lbs. ; in 1871, 323,036,299 lbs. ; in for resisting the tribute called Danegelt. William L. 1875, 365,065,578 lbs.; in 1877, 409,949, 198 lbs.; in

built a castle, 1090. The city was frequently taken 1879, 417,110,099 lbs. We imported from Australia, in 1842, 12,979,856 lbs. ; in

and retaken during the civil wars of the middle ages, 1856, 56,052, 139 lbs. ; in 1861, 68,506, 222 lbs. ; in 1866, and by Cromwell in 1651.- The BISHOPRIC was founded 113,773,694 lbs. ; in 1871, 182,710,657 lbs. ; in 1875, 238,- by Ethelred, king of the Mercians, 680, and taken from 631,824 lbs. ; in 1877, 281, 247,100 lbs. ; in 1879, 287,831,804 lbs.

the see of Lichfield, of which it composed a part. The

married priests of the cathedral were displaced, and Wool-combers in several parts of England have monks settled in their stead, 961. The church was rea procession on 3 Feb., in commemoration of bishop built by Wolstan, 25th bishop, 1030. The see has Blaise, who is reported to have discovered their art. yielded to the church of Rome four saints, and to the He is said to have visited England, and to have landed English nation five lord - chancellors and three lordat St. Blazy, in Cornwall. He was bishop of Sebaste, in

treasurers, It is valued in the king's books at 10491. Armenia, and is said to have suffered martyrdom in the 168. 31d. per annum. Present income, 50001. Diocletian persecution, 289.

The renovated cathedral opened..

.8 April, 1874 Woollen Cloth. Woollen cloths were made an Much excitement through the refusal of the dean and article of commerce in the time of Julius Caesar, and are chapter to permit the cathedral to be used as a concertfamiliarly alluded to by him; see Weaving.

room for the three choirs festival .......... Oct.-Nov.

The festival held as strictly religious services, The Jews were forbidden to wear garments of woollen

22, 23 Sept. 1875 and linen together....

...B.C. 1451 70 families of cloth - workers (from the Netherlands) 1781. Richard Hurd, died 28 May, 1808. settled in England by Edward III. (Rymer).

.A.D. 1331

1808. Folliott H. Cornwall, died 5 Sept. 1831. Worsted manufacture in Norfolk

1340 1831. Robert James Carr, died 24 April, 1841. A kind of blankets were first made in England (Camden), 1841. Henry Pepys, died '15 Nov. 1860.

about 1860. Henry Philpott (PRESENT bishop). Woollens made at Kendal..

1390 No cloth but of Wales or Ireland to be imported into Eng. Worcester, BATTLE OF, 3 Sept. 1651, when the land.

1463 Scots army which came to England to reinstate Charles Medleys, or mixed broadcloth, first made..

1614

II. was defeated by Cromwell, who called it his crowning Manufacture of fine cloth began at Sedan, in France, under the patronage of cardinal Mazarin..

1646 mercy. Charles with difficulty escaped to France, Broadcloth first dressed and dyed in England, by Brewer, More than 2000 of the royalists were slain, and of 8000 from the Low Countries ..

1667 prisoners most were sold as slaves to the American British and Irish woollens prohibited in France. 1677 All persons obliged to be buried in woollens, and the per.

colonists; see Boscobel. sons directing the burial otherwise to forfeit 51., 29

Wordsworth Society, formed “as a bond of Charles II....

1678 The manufacture of cloth greatly improved in England

union among those who are in sympathy with the genby Flemish settlers...

1688 eral teaching and spirit of Wordsworth,” and “to pro Injudiciously restrained in Ireland, 11 Will. III.. 1698 mote and extend the study of the poet's works," etc., The exportation from Ireland wholly prohibited, except to certain ports of England...

was inaugurated at Grasmere, Westmoreland, 30 Sept.

1701 English manufacture encouraged by 10 Anne, 1712, and 1880. President, Dr. Charles Wordsworth, bishop of St. 2 Geo. I.

1715 Andrews. Greater in Yorkshire in 1785 than in all England at the revolution. -Chalmers.

Workhouses, see under Poor. Value of woollen manufactures of all kinds exported in Working-men. Since the great exhibition of

1847, 6, 896,0381. ; in 1854, 9, 120,7591. ; in 1861, 11,118,6921. ; in 1864, 18,569,0891. ; in 1871, 27,182,3851. ; in

1851, much has been done to benefit the laboring classes 1875, 21.659,325l. ; in 1877, 17,303,2031. ; in 1879, 15,- by organization; see Artisan. 861,1661. International Woollen Exhibition at the Crystal Palace,

Working - men's clubs considered to have begun with

the Working-men's Mutual Improvement and RecreaSydenham, opened by the duke of Connaught, 2 June, 1881

tion Society, established in Lancaster by the instru. Woolsack, the seat of the lord high chancellor of mentality of the rev. H. Solly, in..

1 SCO England in the house of lords, so called from its being a

The Westminster Working. men's Club, in Duck lane.

originated with Miss Adeline Cooper; opened in. . Dec. large square bag of wool, without back or arms, covered The Working.men's Club and Institute Union, established with red cloth. Wool was the staple commodity of by lord Brougham and others

.4 June, 1862 England in the reign of Edward III., when the woolsack The Working - men's Club and Lodging-house, old Pye

street, Westminster, was opened.

..20 April, 1866 first came into use.

Working-men's Colleges, etc. The first, established in Woolwich (Kent), the most ancient military and

Sheffield, by working men. The second, in London,

by the rev. prof. Frederick D. Maurice, as princi. naval arsenal in England. Its royal dockyard, where

pal, in Oct. 1854 (died 1 April, 1872); a third in Cammen-of-war were built in the reign of llenry VIII., bridge; and, in 1855, a fourth at Oxford; all wholly for was closed 1 Oct. 1869. Here Harry Grâce de Dieu was the working classes, and undertaking to impart such

knowledge as each man feels he is most in want of. built, 1512; and here she was burned in 1552. The

The colleges engage to find a teacher wherever 10 or royal arsenal was formed about 1720, on the site of a 12 members agree to form a class, and also to have rabbit - warren; it contains vast magazines of great lectures given. There were eleven classes at the one guns, mortars, bombs, powder, and other warlike stores;

in Bloomsbury, London, in 1856; Mr. Ruskin gave les

sons in drawing. Some of these colleges hare been a foundry, with many furnaces, for casting ordnance; and found to be self-supporting. a great laboratory, where fireworks, cartridges, grenades, A Working - women's College, begun at Queen's square, etc., are made for the public service. The Royal Mili

Bloomsbury..

1864 tary Academy was erected in the royal arsenal

, but the The two colleges amalgamated as the “New College for

Men and Women;" inaugural meeting .. 12 Oct. 1874 institution was not completely formed until 19 Geo. II. Working women's College, Fitzroy street; inaugurated, 1745.

16 Oct

Aet to establish councils of conciliation, to adjust differ. The arsenal, storehouses, etc., burned (loss, 200,0001.),

ences between masters and workmen, passed, 20 Aug. 1867

20 May, 1802 The Arbitration (Masters and Workmen) act passed, Another great fire...... .30 June, 1805

6 Aug. 1872 Fatal explosion of gunpowder

... 20 Jan. 1813 Working-men's College, for South London, opened with The hemp-store burned down.

.8 July,
a lecture by prof. Huxley. .

4 Jan. 1863 Another explosion by gunpowder.

16 June, 1814 Workmen's International Exhibition proposed by ibe

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