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Italian, merchant-steamer, struck on a rock near Finis

The case was investigated, and the captain was susterre; about 26 lives lost.. ... about 21 March, 1869 pended for two years.

.18 April, 1873 Carnatic, Peninsular and Oriental steamer, wrecked off Wawasset, steainer, burned in Polomac river ; 75 lives Shadwan in the gulf of Suez; about 25 lives lost,


...8 Aug 13 Sept. George Wolfe, steamer, explosion in Mississippi river; 30 Oneida, American vessel, run down by collision with P.

lives lost.

.. 23 Aug. & 0. steamer Bombay of Yokohama; about 115 lives Eden, ship, with 150 tons of gunpowder, sailing for l'al. lost (captain of Bombay suspended for six months),

paraiso; set on fire by her mad captain, and blew up;

24 Jan. 1870 the crew in the boat were rescued by the Juanita), City of Boston, sailed from New York, long missing; a

7, 8 Nov. board stating that she was sinking found in Cornwall, Nagpore, from Calcutta, took fire and ran into Kings.

11 Feb.

town harbor, doing much damage till it went to pieces; Normandy, S. W. company's steamer, by collision with

the captain of the Echo and some sailors were drowned, the steamer Mary, off the Isle of Wight, sunk; the

9 Nov. captain, C. B. Harvey, and 33 others perish. .17 March, Lochearn, lost through collision with the Ville de Harre H.M.S. Slaney, wrecked by a typhoon near Hong Kong; (which see), 22 Nov. ; quitted by her crew......28 Nor. about 42 lives lost...

.9 May, Ella, London and Hamburg steamer ; crew, 32 ; left H.M.S. Captain, ironclad, sank in a squall of Finisterre Thames 14 Dec.; supposed to have foundered in a gale, (sce Navy of England)... ........7 Sept.

16 Dec. Cambria, iron screw-steamer, lost in a storm off Inish- Queen Elizabeth, Glasgow steamer, from India; went

trahul island, N.W. Ireland, about 170 lives lost. 19 Oct. ashore near Tarifa; about 20 perished; middle of Varuna, steamer, from New York for Galveston, foun

March. 1874 dered on Florida coast; all the passengers (36 in num- Tacna, steamer, from Valparaiso, foundered; about 19 ber) and all the oflicers and crew, except mate and 4 lost (see Chili).

March, men, perished..

..20 Oct. Liberia. British and African Steamship Co., wrecked Saginaw, U.S. steamer; wrecked on Ocean Island. 29 Oct. by collision with Barton steamer, off Scilly isles; prubT. L. McGill, steamer, burned on Mississippi river; 58 ably all lost on board both vesels...... about 13 April, lives lost.

... 14 Jan. 1871 British Admiral, emigrant-ship, wrecked on King's H. R. Arthur, steamer, exploded on Mississippi river; 87 island, Bass's strait; about 80 out of 89 lost...23 May, lives lost.

28 Jan. Pat Rogers, steamer, burned on Ohio river; 50 lives lost, Kensington, steamer, and bark Templar, in collision of

26 July, Cape Hatteras; both wrecked and many lives lost,

Milbanke, iron steamer, laden with zinc from Cartha. 27 Jan.

gena ; sunk through collision with Hankow steamer Queen of the Thames, magnificent vessel, sailed from Lon

off Dungeness; 14 perish; 1.30 A.M.. .28 July, don to Sydney by the Cape in 58 days; returning, was Calcutta, ship, from Shields to Aden, look fire; nearly all lost by striking on sands off Cape Agultras, Africa; 4

. about 11 Sept. lives and valuable cargo lost; the captain was censured, Malvern, bark, from Sunderland, foundered off Singa18 March, pore; all hands Jost...

.23 Sept. Cornwall, wrecked by collision with the Himalaya Kingsbridge, iron ship, sunk off the Lizard, by collision steamer off Hartlepool...

.....19 March,

with the Candahar, iron ship; the master, his wife Megara, government iron screw-steamer, sailed with

and daughter, and 8 of the crew perish ........ 14 Oct. about 400 on board for Australia, Feb. 1871; sprang a Maju, iron ship, of London, new clipper; wrecked off the leak, 8 June, when it was discovered that her bottom

Hebrides in a gale; crew, about 24, lost. ..20 Oct was nearly worn away by corrosion; she was beached Chusan, from Glasgow for Shanghai, sunk in a gale off on St. Paul's Isle, in the Indian ocean, 16 June; huts Ardrossan; about 7 lost........

..20 Oct. were erected, and the crew settled, and stores landed; Cutter of H.M.S. Aurora swamped in the Clydo; 15 lost, lieut. Jones was taken on board a Dutch vessel, 16

19 Xor. July; the Oberon brought provisions, 26 Aug; the La Plata, steamer (capt. Dudden), 1600 tons, sailed from crew were carried off during a storm, the stores being Gravesend with telegraph cable for Brazíl, 26 Nov.; left behind, by the Malacca...

....3 Sept.

foundered in a gale in the Bay of Biscay; 17 escape [The vessel was reported unfit for service in 1867;

out of 85.

.29 Nov. capt. Thrupp was tried and acquitted of blame, 11 Cospatrick, emigrant-vessel (capt. Emslie), on her way to Nov.; sir Spencer Robinson and various admiralty Auckland, New Zealand ; took fire, midnight, 17-18 officials were censured by a government commission, Nov.; only 5 or 6 (out of 476) escaped; picked up, 27 6 March, 1872.)

Nov., arrived at St. Helena

.6 Dec Rangoon, Peninsular and Oriental steamer, valued at Japan, Pacific Mail steamer, from Yokohama; took tire 78,0001., wrecked on Kadir rock, off Point de Galle;

off Hong Kong; many lost...

.17 Dec. cargo lost; no lives...

....1 Nov

Delfine, steamer, struck on sunken rock, west coast City of New London, steamer, burned near New Londou, of Africa ; nearly all lost.. Conn.; 12 lives lost.

22 Nov. Scorpio, steamer, from Cardiff to Charente; not heard of Norfolk Hero, fishing lugger, lost off Norfolk coast. 2 Dec.

30 Dec...

.4 Dec. Delaware, large steamer, wrecked off Scilly rocks; only Cortes, of London, foundered in Bay Biscay; laden 2 out of 47 saved...

.20 Dec.

with coal for Aden; capt. E. King ; about 25 lost, America, steamer, from Buenos Ayres to Montevideo,

16 Dec. burned; 60 lives lost....

.23 Dec. Hong Kong, steamer, wrecked on sunken rock pear Severe gales; many wrecks, and lives lost.

Aden; about 12 lost..

22 Feb. 1875 Oceanus, steamer, Mississippi river, boiler explosion; 40 Stuart Hahnemann, sailed from Bombay, 4 April; cap. lives lost.

11 April, 1872 sized; about 40 drowned (some rescued by Blanılina, Bienville, steamer, of Pacific Mail line, burned at sea;

Austrian barque, 27 April)....

..14 April, 127 persons on board, many lives lost.. ....15 Aug Schiller, Hamburg mail-steamer, wrecked in a fogon America, steamer, of same line, burned in port, in Japan, rocks off the Scilly isles; about 331 drowned... 7 May, several lives lost...

24 Aug

Cadiz, London steamer; wrecked on Wizard rock, Brest; Melis, steamer, sunk in collision, on Long Island Sound; about 62 lost

1.8 May, 50 lives lost,

Vicksburg, steamer, left Quebec, 27 May; struck on ice, Missouri, steamer, New York to Havana, burned at sea;

30 May; sank, 1 June; between 40 and 50 lost, 32 lives lost. ....22 Oct

1 June, Kinsale, steamer, off Waterford ; Albion, schooner, off Strathmore, emigrant.vessel, wrecked in a fog near the Looe; Dee, schooner, etc..

22, 23 Nov.

Crozet isles, South Indian ocean, on way to New ZeaRoyal Adelaide, emigrant-vessel; went ashore on Chesil

land; 45 out of 89 lost......

.1 July, beach, between Weymouth and Portlaud5 lost. 25 Nov. Boyne, mail-steamer, from Brazil, ran on a rock during Germania, mail packet, wrecked off La Rochelle; about a fog, 15 miles off t'shant; 2 lives lost...

13 Aug. 24 perished...

21 Dec. Mistletoe, Mr. Heywood's pleasure yacht; sunk by col. Northfleet, vessel ladea with railway iron for Van Die

lision with H. M.'s steamer Alberta (the queen on men's Land, and railway navigators, run into by a foreign board); in the Solent, near Isle of Wight; Miss Annie steamer (probably the Murillo,* a Spanish vessel) off

Peel and two others drowned...

.18 Aug. Dungeness, about 10.30 P. M. ; about 300 lost, ..22 Jan, 1873 (Coroner's inquest on Nathaniel Turner ; verdict, Chacabuco, iron ship, sunk in the Channel, 15 miles from

accidental death, with a note alleging error of navigat. Orme's head, by collision with the Torch, steamer; 24 ing oflicers, 10 Sept. ; another inquest closed, without lost...

1 March, verdict, 7 Dec. 1875; capt. Welch, of the Alberta, was Boyne, bark, wrecked off Mohilo bay, Cornwall; about reprimanded; 30001. paid to Mr. Heywood, and others 20 lost.

1 March, compensated; announced, April, 1876.] Atlantic, steamer, of White Star Company, struck on

(See under Navy of England.) Meagher rock, west of Sambro; said to have fallen H.M.S. Vanguard, double-screw ironclad, 3774 tons, cost short of coals steaming for Halifax; 442 (including about 350,0001. (capt. Dawkins), struck by ram of the capt. Williams) saved; about 560 lost, 1 April, 1873; Iron Duke, during a fog off the coast of Wicklow; crew many on the rigging perished through cold and want.

(about 400) saved; 50 min. past noon... ..1 Sept. Equinox, steamer, foundered on Lake Michigan; 26 lives lost..

.9 Sept. * This vessel was captured near Dover, 22 Sept., and con Pacific, steamer, from Victoria, British Columbia, to Cal. demned by the court of admiralty to be sold (the oficers ifornia; foundered off Cape Flattery; above 150 lost, severely censured), 4 Nov. 1873.

about 4 Nov.


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City of Waco, steamer, burned off Galveston bar; about Childwall Hall, Hull steamer, wrecked near cape St. 70 lives lost..

.9 Nov. 1875 Vincent, Portugal; about 14 lost..... .11 April, 1878 Deutschland, fine Atlantic steamer, from Bremen to New The German ironclad, Grosser Kurfürst, sunk by collision

York, during a gale, went on sand-bank, the Kentish with König Wilhelm; about 300 lost..........31 May, Knock, at mouth of the Thames; about 70 lost (many Princess Alice (which see), run into by the screw-steamer emigrants).

......6 Dec.

Bywell Castle, in the Thames, near Woolwich, and [The Liverpool, tug steamer, saved a great many sunk; between 600 and 700 lost; about 7. 40 P. M.3 Sept. lives ; on investigation it was shown that there had Fanny, coastguard cruiser, run down by National been no delay in helping, and no robbery, 31 Dec. The

steamer Helvetia, off Tuskar, Irish channel; 17 lost,

31 Oct. captain censured for error in navigation, and want of judgment.)

Much damage and loss of life by gales........8-10 Nov. Goliath, old man-of-war, fitted up as a training-ship for Pomerania, Hamburg. American mail-steamer, sunk off

poor boys; burned through a lamp falling on the dirty Folkestone, by Moel Eilian, iron bark, of Carnarvon; floor of the lamp room; about a dozen lives lost out of

162 saved by boats ; about 48 missing; a little after about 500; the boys were highly commended for their midnight....

25 Nov. courage and discipline under the command of captain Emily B. Souder, steamer, two days out, from New York Bourchier...

.22 Dec.

for San Domingo, foundered ; 9 lives lost......10 Dec. Many wrecks autumn and winter, 1875.

Mesopotamia, steamer, run ashore at Peniche, coast of Warspite, old training-ship of the Marine Society's boys, Portugal; 8 perished....

.18 Dec. on ihe Thames between Woolwich and Charlton, burn- Byzantin, French steamer, sunk (losing above 200 lires)

ed; no loss of life; good discipline shown......3 Jan. 1876 by collision with English steamer Rinaldo, in DarStrathclyde, Glasgow steamer, sunk by collision with

danelles, during a fearful gale....

...18 Dec, Hamburg ship Franconia, in Dover bay, in daylight; Arrogante, French ironclad battery, sunk of Hirères isles; about 17 lost. (Verdict of manslaughter against Kuhn, 47 drowned..

19 March, 1879 captain of Franconia.*]..

.17 Feb. Ava, British India Navigation Steam Company steamer, St. Clair, steamer, burned on lake Superior; 27 lives lost, sunk by collision with sailing ship Brunhilda, in the

10 July,

bay of Bengal; capt. Dickenson and about 70 perish, Mohawk, yacht, capsized in New York harbor...20 July,

24 April Edith, steamer, sunk by collision with the Duchess of City of London, Aberdeen steamer, run down and sunk

Sutherland (both owned by the London and Norih by the Vesta, in the Thames, near Barking Reach; no Western Railway Company) off St. John's Point, Ire.

lives lost...

13 Aug. land; 2 lives lost...

.8 Sept.

Champion, steamer, in collision with ship Lady Octavia, Shannon, mail steamer, struck on a shoal, 80 miles off Delaware capes, sank; 30 lives lost

.7 Nov. S.S. W. of Port Royal, Jamaica; no lives dost..8 Sept. Borussia, a Dominion steamer, left Liverpool, 20 Nov.; Western Empire, in Gulf of Mexico; a leak sprung, 13 sprung a leak in the Atlantic after leaving Corunna, í Sept. ; vessel left (10 lost)

.18 Sept.

Dec.; went down; about 160 lost; 10 out of 184 saved Great Queensland, with impure patent gunpowder, and

by the boats.

...2 Dec. ordinary gunpowder; 569 persons on board; sailed for Valentine, foundered in a gale near Falmouth; about 16 Melbourne, 5 Aug ; supposed to have exploded (pieces


.8 Feb. 1880 of wreck found), near Finisterre.........after 12 Aug. Many wrecks in the North Atlantic during terrific gales (Verdict of wreck commission against owners, 21

(see Atalanta).

12-16 Feb. July, 1877.]

Strathnairn, of Dundee; collision with Edith Hough, Loss of 12 American whaling - ships in Arctic ice, re

steamer, off [shant; all lost..

.13 Feb. ported by whaling-bark Florence; immense loss of life, Ilindoo, steamer, from New York; loaded with grain,

12 Oct.

which shifted; abandoned; three oflicers lost and St. Lawrence, troop-ship (capt. Hyde); ran aground in

much cattle.

.. 22 Feb. St. Helena's bay, Africa; no loss of life. ........8 Nov. Vingorla, steamer, sprung a leak 70 miles north of Bom Ambassador, steamer, sunk by collision with an Ameri. bay; captain and 65 persons perish; announced can ship, George Manson, returning from Calcutta; lat.

1 March, 58° 6' N., long. 73° 27' E.; 23 lost (crew 43)....25 Dec. Barita, British steamer, sunk in a fog by collision with Cairo, iron shin, bound for Australia; carried much gun

an Australian mail-steamer near Galatz; 16 perish, powder (said to have been wrecked off Tristan or Gough

9 April island); disappeared about middle of.. ..Jan. 1877 American, steamer (Union Steamship Company), capt. Seminole and Montgomery, steamers, in collision ofl cape

Maclean Wait, foundered off Cape Palmas; all passen. May, N. J., sinking the latter with loss of 13 lives.

gers and crew escaped (except about 6) in boats (picked 7 Jan.

up by vessels, and carried to Madeira, the Canaries, etc.), News received at Gloucester, Mass., of the loss of fourteen

23 April, Gloucester tishing schooners, with 50 lives.....11 Jan. Narragansett and Slonington, steamers, in collision on George Washington, steamer, foundered off cape Race;

Long Island Sound; Narragansett sunk; 30 lives lost, 25 lives lost.. ..5 Feb.

11 June, George Cromwell, steamer, lost off cape Race; 30 lives

Seawanhaka, steamer, burned in East river, New York lost, news received..

...16 Feb.
harbor; 50 lives lost....

.28 June, Cashmere, steamer (British India Steam Navigation Com. Hydaspes, sailing ship, sunk by collision with Centurion,

pany), wrecked off Guardafui; 7 drowned....12 July, screw-steamer, off Dungeness, in a fog; both blamed; Eten, steamship (English Pacific Steam Navigation Com

no lives lost..

..17 July, pany), wrecked about 70 miles north of Valparaiso;

Mamie, steam yacht, cut in two by steamer Garland on about 100 (of 160) lost; many rescued by H.M.S. Ame. Detroit river; 16 lives lost..

.22 July, thyst

...15 July,

Marion City, steamer, burned on lakc Huron; 10 lives lost, Avalanche, emigrant iron vessel, from London to New

29 Aug. Zealand; above 100 on board ; struck by Forest (of City of Vera Cruz, steamer, foundered off Florida coast; Windsor, Nova Scotia), 21 crew; both sank; about 12

68 lives lost..

..29 Aug. lives saved; in Channel, 15 miles S. by W. of Portland,

Vera Cruz, V. S. steamer, foundered through hurricane 9.15 PM...

11 Sept.

in North Atlantic, 30 miles from shore; 11 out of 82 Many losses by severe gale..

14, 15 Oct.

....4 Sept. Knapton Hall, steamer, sunk through collision with Oncle Joseph, French steamer, sunk by collision with Or. Lochfyne, to whose assistance she was coming ; 9

tigia, Italian steamer, off Spezzia; about 60 out of 300 perish..

15 Oct.

24 Nov. Huron, U. S. sloop of war, wrecked on coast of North

James Harris, steamer, loaded with iron, sunk by collis. Carolina; 100 lives lost...

.24 Nov.

ion with the Andalusia, steamer, off the Ferne isles, Atacama, steamer, wrecked 22 miles south of Caldera,

14 April, 1881 near Copiapo; about 104 lost... ....end of Nov.

H.M.S. Doterel destroyed by explosion in the straits of Mizpah, steamer, sunk by collision with unknown vessel,

Magellan (see Navy)..

....26 April, 15 miles S. W. of Beachy Head; above six lost; early,

Victoria, steamer, on the Thames, Canada, overloaded, 6 Dec.

upset; several hundred drowned; between 600 and European, Clyde steamer, from Algoa Bay; wrecked of

700 on board...

..24 May, Ushant; diamonds, etc., lost; no lives. ..5 Dec.

Ten fishing-boats sunk off the Shetland isles in a storm; Metropolis, steamer, wrecked on North Carolina coast;

about 58 lives lost.

20 July, about 100 lives lost..

.31 Jan. 1878 Teuton, Union Company's mail screw-steamer, struck on C. M. Palmer, steamer, of Newcastle, lost by collision a rock near cape Agulhas, cape of Good Hope, and with Ludworth, steamer, near Harwich; about 14 lives

foundered a few hours after; of above 200 persons, not lost; fog, 10 A.M.....

....17 Feb.

many saved; capt. E. Manning and most of the officers Eurydice, H.M.S., frigate; training ship, returning from


30 Aug Bermudas, founders off Dunnose headland, near Vent.

Bath City, steamer, from Bristol for New York, loaded por, Isle of Wight, through a squall; capt. A. S. Hare,

with iron and steel, foundered at sea; 10 lives lost.. Dec. lieut. Tabor, and about 300 men perish......24 March,

Wrexham (S.E.Denbighshire), the Saxon Wrightes. Raised with much skill and labor, and taken into Portsmouth.


ham, given to earl Warren by Edward I.; made a bor

ough by the Reform act, 1832. An exhibition of art* Verdict quashed on appeal ; 7 judges (against 6) decide treasures of North Wales and the border counties was against British jurisdiction, 13 Nov. 1870.

opened here by the duke of Westminster, 22 July, 1876.





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1628. Eberhard III.


Writing. Pictures are considered to be the first 1608. John Frederick; joined the Protestants in the Thirty

Years' war. essay towards writing. The most ancient remains of writing are upon hard substances, such as stones and 1674. William Louis. metals, used by the ancients for edicts and matters of 1677. Eberhard Louis; served under William III. in Ireland,

with the English armies on the continent. public notoriety. Athotes, or Hermes, is said to have 1733. Charles Alexander. written a history of the Egyptians, and to have been the 1737. Charles Eugene. author of the hieroglyphics, 2112 B.C.— Usher. Writing 1793. Louis Eugene; joins in the war against France. is said to have been taught to the Latins by Europa, 1797. Frederick II ; marries the princess royal of England,

1795. Frederick I. ; makes peace with France, 1796. daughter of Agenor, king of Phænicia, 1494 B.C.

18 May; made elector of Germany. 1803; acquired adThucydides. Cadmus, the founder of Cadmea, 1493 ditional territories and the title of king in 1805. B.C., brought the Phænician letters into Greece.- Vossius. The commandments were written on two tables 1805. Frederick 1.; supplies a contingent to Napoleon's Rusof stone, 1491 B.C. Usher. The Greeks and Romans

sian army, yet joined the allies at Leijsic in 1813; used wax table-books, and continued the use of them

died in 1816. long after papyrus was known ;* see Papyrus, Parch- 1816. William I., 30 Oct.; son (born 27 Sept. 1781). He abol

ished serfdom in 1818, instituted representatire gor. ment, Paper. Thomas Astle's “ History of Writing"

ernment in 1819; entered into a concordat with Rome was first published in 1781; Natalis de Wailly's “ Elé

in 1857; was the oldest living sovereign, 1862; died 25 mens de l'aléographie,” 1838; see Diplomatics and Type- 1864. Charles 1., son; born 6 March, 1823; married princess

June, uriters.

Olga of Russia, 13 July, 1846; no issue. The Palæographical Society was founded in 1873; Mr. Bird, of Heir presumptive, Augustus, cousin; born 24 Jan. 1813. the British Museum, president.

Würzburg (in Bavaria) was formerly a bishopric, Wroxeter (in Shropshire), the Roman city Uriconium. Roman inscriptions, ruins, seals, and coins were of the empire. It was given as a principality to the

and its sovereign one of the greatest ecclesiastic princes found here in 1752. New discoveries having been made, elector of Bavaria in 1803; and by the treaty of Presa committee for further investigation met at Shrewsbury on 11 Nov. 1858. Excavations were commenced burg, in 1805, was ceded to the archduke Ferdinand of in Feb. 1859, which were continued till May. Large Tuscany, whose electoral title was transferred from Salzportions of the old town were discovered; also specimens burg to this place. In 1814 this duchy was again transof glass and pottery, personal ornaments and toys, house ferred to Bavaria, in exchange for the Tyrol, and the hold utensils and implements of trade, cinerary urns, and archduke Ferdinand was reinstated in his Tuscan dobones of man and of the smaller animals. A committee minions. Ministers from the second-rate German states was formed in London in Aug. 1859 with the view of Nov. 1859. Near here the archduke Charles defeated

met at Würzburg to promote union among them, 21-27 continuing these investigations, which were resumed in 1861, through the liberality of the late Beriah Botfield, the French under Jourdan, 3 Sept. 1796, and the PrusM.P. The investigations, stopped through want of' sians defeated the Bavarians, 28 July, 1866. funds, were resumed for a short time in 1867. Wyatt's Insurrection, see Rebellions, 1551. Thomas Wright published “ Uriconium” in 1872.

Wycliffites, see Wickliffites. Wurschen, see Bautzen.

Wyoming, a western territory of the United States Würtemberg, originally part of Swabia, was made of America, constituted in 1868; capital, Cheyenne. a county for Ulric I., about 1265, and a duchy for Eber- Women have been enfranchised, and a Mrs. Morris is an hard in 1494. The dukes were Protestants until 1722, effective judge. It includes Yellowstone Park (which when the reigning prince became a Roman Catholic.

see). Würtemberg bas been repeatedly traversed by armies, particularly since the great French revolution of 1793. Wyoming, MASSACRE OF. A Tory leader named Moreau made his celebrated retreat 23 Oct. 1796. The John Butler, at the head of loyalists and Indians, entered political constitution is dated 25 Sept. 1819. Würtem- the beautiful Wyoming Valley, in Pennsylvania, at the berg opposed Prussia in the war, June, 1866, but made beginning of July, 1778. Most of the able-bodied men peace, 13 Aug. following; in Oct. 1867 joined the Zoll- were away with the army. Col. Zebulon Butler was verein (which see), but sent a contingent to Prussia in there, and he rallied what force he could to confront the war, 1870. Population of Würtemberg in 1871, the invaders. They had an engagement a little above 1,818,539; 1875, 1,881,505.

Wilkesbarre on 4 July. The Americans were driven back, and took refuge in a fort. They then surrendered,

with promise of protection ; but before sunset the In1494. Eberhard I.

dians, thirsting for blood, spread over the valley, set fire 1498. Ulric; deprived of his states by the emperor Charles V.; to dwellings, and murdered many of the inhabitants.

The valley was made a desolation before midnight. 1550. Christopher the Pacific.

This massacre is the subject of Campbell's poem, "Ger1593. Frederick I.

trude of Wyoming,” published 1809.



1496, Eberhard II.

recovers them in 1534.

1568. Louis the Pious.


Xanthian Marbles, see British Museum.

buried themselves in the ruins. It was besieged by the donians in the month called Xanthicus (our April), in- wives and children, and perished. The conqueror wished Xanthica, a military festival observed by the Mace- Romans under Brutus, 42 B.C. After a great struggle,

the inhabitants set fire to their city, destroyed their stituted about 392 B.C.

to spare them, and offered rewards to his soldiers if they Xanthus (Lycin, Asia Minor) was taken by Harpa- brought any of the Xanthians into his presence; but only gus for Cyrus, about 546 B.C., when the inhabitants 150 were saved. Plutarch. *"I would check the petty vanity of those who slight good

Xenophon, see Retreat of the Greeks. penmanship as below the notice of a scholar by reminding Xeres de la Frontera (S.W. Spain ), the Asta them that Mr. Fox was distinguished by the clearness and Regia of the Romans, and the seat of the wine-trade in firmness. Mr. Prof. Porson by the correctness and elegance, and sir William Jones by the case and beauty, of the charac: Spain, of which the principal wine is that so well known ters they respectively employed.”-Dr. Parr.

in England as Sherry, an English corruption of Xeres. The British importations of this wine in 1850 reached to (which see) by the valor of 300 Spartans under Leonidas, 3,826,785 gallons, and in the year ending 5 Jan, 1852 to 7-9 Aug. 480 B.C. The fleet of Xerxes was defeated at 3,904,978 gallons. Xeres is a handsome and large town, Artemisium and Salamis, 20 Oct. 480 B.C.; and he hastof great antiquity. At the battle of Xeres, 26 July, 711, ened back to Persia, leaving behind Mardonius, the best Roderic, the last Gothic sovereign of Spain, was defeated of his generals, who, with an army of 300,000 men, was and slain by the Saracens, commanded by Tarik and defeated and slain at Platæa, 22 Sept. 479 B.C. Xerxes Muza.

was assassinated by Artabanus, 465 B.C. Xerxes' Campaign. Xerxes crossed the Helles

Ximena (S. Spain), the site of a battle between the pont by a bridge of boats, and entered Greece in the Spanish army under the command of gen. Ballasteros, spring of 480 B.C. with an army which, together with

and the French corps commanded by gen. Regnier, 10 the numerous retinue of servants, eunuchs, and women Sept. 1811. The Spaniards defeated their adversaries; that attended it, amounted (according to some histo- the loss was great on both sides. rians) to 5,283,220 souls. Herodotus states the armament to have consisted of 3000 sail, conveying 1,700,000 Xylotechnographica, a process for staining wood foot, besides cavalry and the marines and attendants of various colors, invented and patented by Mr. A. F. Brothe camp. This multitude was stopped at Thermopylæ phy'; announced early in 1875.


B. C.

Yacht (from the Dutch jaght), a light vessel for Yarmouth disfranchised for bribery and corruption by

the Reform act... pleasure or races.

Aug. 1867

The prince of Wales opened a new grammar-school, Royal London Yacht Club, established as Arundel Yacht

6 June, 1873 Club, 1838, assumed present name.....

1849 Aquarium and winter garden opened... .5 Sept. 1876 YACHT RACES. --The America, an American yacht schooner, built on the wave principle, 171 tons; at Cowes re.

Yashgar, a country, Central Asia ; Yakoob, its able gatta, in a match round the Isle of Wight, open to all despotic chief, was contending with China and Russia, comers, came in first by 8 miles, gaining the queen's 1875. cup worth 1001....

22 Aug. 1851 Three American yachts, the Henrietta, Vesta, and Fleet

Year. The Egyptians, it is said, were the first who wing, sailed from New York, 11 Dec. 1866, at 1 P. M. fixed the length of the year. The Henrietta arrived at Cowes at 5.40 on 25 Dec.,


The Roman year introduced by Romulus, 738 B.C.; corrected quickest voyage ever made in a sailing vessel. Her rivals were only a few hours after her.

by Numa, 713 B.C.; and again by Julius Cæsar, 45 B.C. (see

Calendar). In a contest off the Isle of Wight, between the American

The solar or astronomical year was found to comprise 365 vessel Sappho and the English cutters Aline, Cambria, Oimara, and Condor, the Oimara won.... 25 Aug. 1868

days, 5 hours, 48 minutes, 51 seconds, and 6 decimals, 265 In a triangular race between Sappho and Cambria, Sap.

pho wou, 10 May; no race, 14 May; won....... 17 May, 1870 Tho lunar year (twelve lunar months, or 354 days, 8 hours, 48 In a yacht race off Staten Island, New York, for the

minutes) was in use among the Chaldæaus, Persians, and

Jews. squadron or queen's cup, the Magic won, Cambria be.

Once in every three years was added another lunar ing the 8th in 16......


month, so as to make the solar and the lunar ycar nearly In a series of matches off Staten Island between Mr. Ash

agree. But, though the months were lunar, the year was bury's Livonia and the vessels of the New York Club,

solar; that is, the first month was of thirty days, and the she was beaten by the Columbia, 16, 18 Oct.; by the

second of twenty-nine, and so alternately: and the month

added triennially was called the second Adar. The Jews Duuntless, 21 Oct. The two vessels were disabled by

afterwards followed the Roman manner of computation. gale in attempting the race.

::25 Oct. 1871 The sidereal year, or return to the same star, is 365 days, 6 In consequence of the collision of Mr. Heywood's yacht,

hours, 9 minutes, 11 seconds.. Mistletoe, with her majesty's steam yacht, Alberta, 18

The Jews dated the beginning of the sacred year in March, Aug. 1875 (see under Wrecks), a letter was written on behalf of the queen to the marquess of Exeter, com

and civil year in September; the Athenians began the year modore of the Royal Victoria Yacht Club, desiring

in June; the Macedonians on 24 Sept. ; the Christians of

Egypt and Ethiopia on 29 or 30 Aug. ; and the Persians and yachts not to be brought too near to her majesty's, whether from loyalty or curiosity.

Armenians on 11 Aug. Nearly all Christian nations now .Sept. 1875

commence the year on 1 Jan. Yacht Racing Association formed as a court of appeal,

In France, the Merovingian kings began the year with March; 17 Xov.

the Carlovingians sometimes began the year with Christ33 yacht clubs, 1800 yachts; matches frequent..... Aug. 1880

mas, 25 Dec.; and sometimes with Easter, which, being a Yankee, from “Yangees,” a corruption of “

“Eng- morable feast, led to much confusion. lish," the name originally given by the Massachusetts Charles IX. of France, in 1564, published an arrêt, the last

article of which ordered the year for the time to come to be Indians to the colonists: applied solely to the New-Eng

constantly and universally begun and written on and from landers by the British soldiers in the American war 1 Jan. (1775-81); afterwards by foreigners to all natives of the The beginning of the year has been reckoned from the day

celebrating the birth of Christ, 25 Dec.; his circumcision, 1 United States; and latterly by the confederates of the

Jan.; his conception, 25 March ; and his resurrection, South to the federals of the North during the war 1861-5. Easter Yard. The word is derived from the Saxon geard, The English began their year on 25 Dec., until the time of

William the Conqueror. This prince, having been crowned or gyrd, a rod or shoot, or from gyrdan, to enclose, being

on 1 Jan., gave occasion to the English to begin their year anciently the circumference of the body, until Henry I. at that time, to make it agree with the then most remarkadecreed that it should be the length of his arm; see ble period of their history. --Stow. Until the act for alterStandard Jeasures.

ing the style, in 1752 (see Style), when the year was ordered

to begin on 1 Jan., it did not legally and generally comYarmouth, GREAT (Norfolk), was a royal demesne mence in England until 25 March. In Scotland, at that pe. in the reign of William I., as appears from Domesday

riod, the year began on 1 Jan. This difference caused great

practical inconveniences; and January, February, and part Book, 1086. It obtained a charter from John, and one

of March sometimes bore two dates, as we often tind in old from Henry III. In 1318, a plague here carried off records, 1745–1746, or 1745-6, or 1745. Such a reckoning onen 7000 persons; and did much havoc, again, in 1579 and led to chronological mistakes; for instance, we popularly 1664.

say the “revolution of 1688,'' as that event was completed

in Feb. 1688, according to the then mode of computation; Theatre built.

1778 but if the year were held to begin, as it does now, on 1 Jan., Nelson's pillar, a fluted column 140 feet in height,

it would be the revolution of 1689. erected.....

1817 The year in the porthern regions of Siberia and Lapland is Suspension chain-bridge over the Bure, built by Mr. R. described in the following calendar, given by a traveller: Cory, at an expense of about 40001.; owing to the

23 June, snow melts. 1 July, snow gone. 9 July, fields weight of a vast number of persons who assembled on

quite green. 17 July, plants at full growth. 25 July, plants it to witness an exhibition on the water, it suddenly

in flower. 2 Aug., fruits ripe. 10 Aug., plants shed their gave way, and seventy nine lives (mostly children)

seed. 18 Aug., snow." The snow continues upon the were lost.

.2 May, 1845 ground from 18 Aug, of one year to 23 June of the year ful


lowing, being 309 days out of 365; so that while the three Yenikale, see Azof.
seasons of spring, summer, and autumn are together only
fifty-six days, or eight weeks, the winter is of forty-four

Yeomanry, see under Volunteers. weeks' duration in these countries.

Yeomen of the Guard, a peculiar body of foot(See New Style, Platonic Year, Sabbatical Year, French Rev. guards to the king's person, instituted at the coronation

olutionary Calendar.) YEAR OF OUR LORD; see Anno Domini.

of Henry VII., 30 Oct. 1485, which originally consisted YEAR OF THE REIGN. From the time of William the Conquer- of fifty men under a captain. They were called beefor, 1066, the year of the sovereign's reign has been given to eaters, a corruption of buffetiers, being attendants on the all public instruments. The king's patents, charters, proclamations, and all acts of parliament have since then been king's buffet or sideboard; see Battle-are. They were generally so dated. The same manner of dating is used in of a larger stature than other guards, being required to most of the European states for all similar documents and be over six feet in height, and were armed with arquerecords; see List of Kings under England.

buses and other arms. YEAR AND A DAY. A space of time in law, and in many cases

The band was increased by establishes and fixes a right; as in an estray, on proclama Henry's successors to one hundred men, and seventy tion being made, if the owner does not claim it within the supernumeraries; and, when one of the hundred died, it time, it is forfeited. The term arose in the Norman law, which enacted that a beast found on another's land, if un

was ordered that his place should be supplied out of the claimed for a year and a day, belonged to the lord of the seventy. They were clad after the manner of king soil. It is otherwise a legal space of time.

Henry VIII.--Ashmole's Instit. This is said to have Year-books contain reports in Norman-French of been the first permanent military band instituted in Engcases argued and decided in the courts of common-law. land. John, earl of Oxford, was the first captain in 1486. The printed volumes extend from the beginning of the -Beatson's Pol. Index. reign of Edward II, to nearly the end of the reign of Yermuk (Syria). Near here the emperor Herallenry VIII., a period of about 220 years; but in this se- clius was totally defeated by the Saracens, after a fierce ries there are many omissions. These books are the first engagement, Nov. 636. Damascus was taken, and bis in the long line of legal reports in which England is so army expelled from Syria. rich, and may be considered as, to a great extent, the Yew-tree (Taxus). The origin of planting yewfoundation of our unwritten law,“ Lex non scripta.” In trees in church-yards was (these latter being fenced) to 1863 et seq., various year-books of Edward I. (1292–1304), secure the trees from cattle, and in this manner preserve edited by Mr. A. J. Horwood, for the series of the Chron- them for the encouragement of archery. A general icles and Memorials, were published at the expense of plantation of them for the use of archers was ordered by the British government.

Richard III., 1483.–Stow's Chron. Near Fountains AbYeast, a substance causing fermentation, was dis- bey, Yorkshire, were seven yew-trees, called the Seren covered by Cagniard de la Tour and Schwann, indepen- Sisters, supposed to have been planted before 1088; the dently, in 1836, to be vegetable cell or fungus.

circumference of the largest thirty-four feet seven inches Yellow-fever, an American pestilence, made its round the trunk. In 1851 a yew-tree was said to be appearance at Philadelphia, where it committed great whose circumference was nine yards nine inches, being

growing in the church-yard of Gresford, North Wales, ravages, 1699. It appeared in several islands of the West Indies in 1732, 1739, and 1745. It raged with un

the largest and oldest yew-tree in the British dominions ;

but tradition states that there are some vews in England paralleled violence at Philadelphia in Oct. 1762; and most awfully at New York in the beginning of Aug. 1791. older than the introduction of Christianity. The old This fever again spread great devastation at Philadel- vew-tree mentioned in the survey taken of Richmond phia in July, 1793 ; carrying off' several thousand per- palace, in 1649, is said to be still existing. : sons.--Hardie. It again appeared in Oct. 1797; and

Yezdegird, or PERSIAN ERA, was formerly universpread its ravages over the northern coast of America, sally adopted in Persia, and is still used by the Parsees Sept. 1798. It reappeared at Philadelphia in the sum in India, and by the Arabs, in certain computations. mer of 1802; and broke out in Spain, in Sept. 1803. This era began on 26 June, 632, when Yezdegird was The yellow fever was very violent at Gibraltar in 1804 elected king of Persia. The year consisted of 365 days and 1814; in the Mauritius, July, 1815; at Antigua, in only, and therefore its commencement, like that of the Sept. 1816; and it raged with dreadful consequences at

old Egyptian and Armenian year, anticipated the Julian Cadiz, and the isle of St. Leon, in Sept. 1819. A malig- year by one day in every four years. This difference nant fever raged at Gibraltar in Sept. 1828, and did not amounted to nearly 112 days in the year 1075, when it terminate until the following year. Yellow fever rav

was reformed by Jelaledin, who ordered that in future aged Norfolk and Portsmouth, Va., in 1855; Wilming- the Persian year should receive an additional day whenton, N. C., in 1862; and Savannah, Ga., in 1876. It has ever it should appear necessary to postpone the combeen epidemic at New Orleans many times.

mencement of the following year, that it might occur

on the day of the sun's passing the same degree of the Year.

No. of deaths. ecliptic.

Yezidis, an Eastern tribe, living near the Euphra1853.

tes, visited by Mr. Layard in 1841; see Deril Worship. 2670

Ynglings (youths, or offshoots), descendants of the Scandinavian hero Odin, ruled Sweden till 830, wben

the last of the pontiff kings, Olaf Trætelia, being exMemphis was almost depopulated by this scourge in pelled, led to the foundation of the Norwegian mon1878-9. During 1878 there were 5160 deaths there from

archy: the fever; and during 1879, although the population

Yoke is spoken of as a type of servitude. The was reduced to 18,500, there were 1532 cases and 485 deaths. The fever appeared as an epidemic in New Or-tised by the Samnites towards the Romans, 321 B.C.;

ceremony of making prisoners pass under it was pracleans, 12 July, 1878, and spread rapidly to interior towns, see Candine Forks. This disgrace was afterwards insome of which were depopulated. The total number of flicted by the Romans upon their vanquished enemies.cases in the United States during 1878 was 65,976, with

- Dufresnoy. 14,809 deaths. The first case in 1879 was reported 5

Yokohama, see Jupan. July; first case in Memphis, 8 July.

York (North of England), a town of the Brigantes, Yellowstone National Park, about 3000 square named Evrauc, settled by the Romans during the second miles, in territory of Wyoming.

campaign of Agricola, about 79, and named Eboracum It includes Yellowstone lake, about 330 square miles, with

or Eburacum, and became the metropolis of the north. numerous geysers, and rugged mountains, forests, meadows, rivers, and other beautiful scenery. Its formation was au

The emperor Severus died here...

4 Feb. 211 thorized by congress in March, 1872.

Here Constantius Chlorus died, and his son Constantine

the Great was proclaimed emperor.. . 25 July, 306 Yelverton Case, see Triuls, 1861.

Abbey of St. Mary's founded by Seward the Dane...... 1000




1855 1858 1867 1878..


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