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York burned by the Danes, allies of Edgar Atheling, and bishop Nevil, 1464, they withdrew their obedience, and all the Normans slain..

1069 The city and many churches destroyed by fire...3 June, 1137 had archbishops of their own. Much dispute arose beMassacre and suicide of many Jews.

1190 tween the two English metropolitans about precedency, York received its charter from Richard II., and the as by pope Gregory's institutions it was thought he mayor was made a lord..


meant that whichever of them was first confirmed should The Guildhall erected..

1446 Richard III. crowned again here

..8 Sept. 1483 be superior: appeal was made to the court of Rome by At a parliament held here Charles I. professed his inten- both parties, and it was determined in favor of Cantertion to govern legally.

... 13 June, 1612 bury. The archbishop of York was allowed to style York taken for the parliament, after the battle of Marston Moor..

....16 July, 1614 himself primate of England, while the archbishop of Injured during the civil war by Fairfax.. ....... April, Canterbury styles himself primate of all England. The The corporation built a mansion-house for the lord

province of York now contains the dioceses of York, Carmayor.

1728 The castle was built by Richard III.,1484, and was rebuilt

lisle, Chester, Durham, Sodor and Man, Manchester, and as a jail...

1741 Ripon (which see). York has yielded to the Church of The York petition to parliament, to reduce the expendi- Rome eight saints and three cardinals, and to England ture and redress grievances.

.Dec. 1779

twelve lord-chancellors, two lord-treasurers, and two lordYorkshire Philosophical Society established

1822 First meeting of the British Association held here,

presidents of the north. It is rated in the king's books,

27 Sept. 1831 | 39 Hen. VIII., 1546, at 16091. 198. 2d. per annum.BealBritish Association (2d time).


son. Present income, 10,0001. Population, 45,385

1861 Fall of the iron bridge over the Ouse; five persons killed,


27 Sept. 1501. Thomas Savage; died 3 Sept. 1507. Social Science Association met here..

22 Sept. 1864 1508. Christopher Bainbrigg; poisoned at Rome, 14 July, Fine Arts and Industrial Exhibition opened. 24 July, 1866

1514. Visit of prince and princess of Wales. ..9-11 Aug

1514. Thomas Wolsey; died 29 Nov. 1530. Meeting of the church congress...

.9 Oct.

1531. Edward Lee; died 13 Sept. 1544. The provincial mayors gave a festival to the lord mayor of London, etc., at York..

. 25 Sept. 1873 1555. Nicholas Heath; deprived.

1545. Robert Holgate; deprived 23 March, 1554. Permanent Fine Art Exhibition opened by the arch

1561. Thomas Young; died 26 June, 1568. bishop..

7 May, 1879

1570. Edmund Grindal; translated to Canterbury, 10 Jan. British Association jubilee meeting......31 Aug. -8 Sept. 1881

1576. Population, 50,761, 3 April, 1871; 59,596, 4 April, 1881.

1577. Edwin Sands or Sandys; died 10 July, 1588.

1589. John Piers; died 28 Sept. 1594. DUKES.

1595. Matthew Hutton; died 16 Jan. 1606. 1335, Edmund Plantagenet (fifth son of king Edward III.); 1606. Tobias Matthew; died 29 March, 1628. created duke, 6 Aug. ; died 1402.

1628. George Mountaigne; died 24 Oct. 1628. 1405. Edward (his son) was degraded by Henry IV. in 1399, Samuel Harsnet; died 25 May, 1631.

but restored in 1414; killed at Agincourt, 1415; suc- 1632. Richard Neyle; died 31 Oct. 1640.
ceeded by his nephew,

1641. John Williams; died 25 March, 1650. 1415. Richard (son of Richard, earl of Cambridge, who was

(See vacant ten years.)
beheaded for treason in 1415); became regent of 1660. Accepted Frewen; died 28 March, 1664.
France in 1435; quelled the rebellion in Ireland in 1664, Richard Sterne; died 18 June, 1683.
1449; claimed the throne, and was appointed pro- 1683. John Dolben; died 11 April, 1686.
tector in 1454: his office was annulled, and he began

(See vacant two years. )
the civil war in 1455, and was slain after his defeat at 1688. Thomas Lamplugh; died 5 May, 1091.
Waketield in 1460.

1691. John Sharp; died 2 Feb. 1714. 1460. Edward (hus son), afterwards king Edward IV.

1714. Sir William Dawes; died 30 April, 1724. 1474. Richard (his second son), said to have been murdered 1724. Launcelot Blackburn; died 23 March, 1743. in the Tower, 1483.

1743. Thomas Herring; translated to Canterbury, Oct. 1747. 1494. Henry Tudor, afterwards Henry VIII.

1747. Matthew Hutton; translated to Canterbury, March, 1605. Charles Stuart, afterwards Charles I.


1757. John Gilbert; died 1761. DUKES OP YORK AND ALBANY.

1761. Robert Hay Drummond; died 10 Dec. 1776. 1643. James Stuart (his second son), afterwards James II. 1777. William Markham; died 3 Nov. 1807. 1716. Ernest (brother of George I.); died 1728.

1808. Edward Venables Vernon; died 5 Nov. 1847. 1760. Edward (brother of George III.); died 1767.

1847. Thomas Musgrave; died 4 May, 1860. 1784. Frederic (son of George III.), born.. .....16 Aug. 1763 1860. Charles T. Longley; translated to Canterbury (from Dur. Marries princess Frederica of Prussia. . 29 Sept. 1791

ham), 1862. Commands the British forces at Antwerp,

1862. William Thomson; translated from Gloucester.

8 April, 1793 Present at the siege of Valenciennes...23 May, York Minster (dedicated to St. Peter). The first Defeated at Dunkirk...

.7 Sept. At Bois le Duc, 14 Sept. ; and at Boxtel, 17 Sept. 1794 Christian church erected here, which appears to have Appointed commander-in-chief.

1798 been preceded by a Roman temple, was built by Edwin, Defeated near Alkmaar...: .,19 Sept. and 6 Oct. 1799 king of Northumbria, of wood, about 625, and of stone Accused by col. Wardle of abuse of his patron

about 635. It was damaged by fire in 741, and was reage; he resigns.

27 Jan. 1809 Becomes again commander-in-chief.

1811 built by archbishop Albert about 780. It was again Strongly opposes the Catholic claims. 1825 destroyed by fire in the year 1069, and rebuilt by archDies..

..5 Jan. 1827 bishop Thomas, of Bayeux. It was once more burned (See Albany.)

down in 1137, with St. Mary's abbey, and 39 parish York (Upper Canada), founded in 1794 ; since 1831 churches in York. Archbishop Roger built the choir, named Toronto. In the war between America and Great 1154–81; Walter Gray added the south transept in 1227; Britain, the United States forces made several attacks John de Romayne, the treasurer of the cathedral, built upon the province of Upper Canada, and succeeded in the north transept in 1260. His son, archbishop Romataking York, the seat of the government, 27 April, 1813; nus, laid the foundation of the nave in 1291. In 1330, but it was soon afterwards again retaken by the British. William de Melton built the two western towers, which

York and Lancaster, WARS OF, see Roses. were finished by John de Birmingham in 1342. ArchYork, ARCHBISHOPRIC OF. The most ancient met

bishop Thoresby, in 1361, began to rebuild the choir in ropolitan see in England, being, it is said, so made by also rebuilt the lantern-tower. The minster was set on

accordance with the magnificence of the nave, and he king Lucius about 180, when Christianity was first partly fire by Jonathan Martin, a lunatic

, and the roof of the established in England. The bishop Eborius was pres, choir and its internal fittings destroved, 2 Feb. 1829; the ent at the council of Arles, 314. The see was overturned by the Saxons, and was revived by pope Gregory on

damage, estimated at 60,0001., was repaired in 1832 untheir conversion, and Paulinus is said to have been con

der sir Robert Smirke. An accidental fire broke out, and secrated archbishop, 21 July, 625. York and Durham in one hour reduced the belfry to a shell, destroyed the were long the only two sees in the porth of England, 1840. This was restored by Sidney Smirke, at a cost of

roof of the nave, and much damaged the editice, 20 May, until Henry I. erected a bishopric at Carlisle, and Henry VIII. another at Chester. York was the metropolitan 23,0001., 1841. see of the Scottish bishops; but during the time of arch- Yorkshire Exhibition of Arts and Manu.



factures, opened at Leeds, by the duke of Edinburgh, improvement of young men by means of classes, meet13 May, 1875.

ings, etc., founded 1844. Exeter-hall, Strand, was Yorktown (Virginia, U. S.). Lord Cornwallis bought for the association about July, 1880. It met had taken possession of Yorktown in Aug. 1781; but, there 29 March, 1881. after sustaining a disastrous siege, he was obliged to

Yttrium, a rare metal. The earth yttria was dissurrender his army, consisting of about 7000 men, to covered by prof. Gadolin in a mineral at Ytterby, in the allied armies of France and America, under the com- Sweden, 1794. The met al was first obtained by Wöhler mand of gen. Washington and count Rochambeau, 19 in 1828. It is of a dark-gray color, and brittle. Oct. 1781. This mischance was attributed to sir Henry Clinton, who had not given the garrison the necessary Yucatan, discovered by Francis Fernandez Cordova, suecor they expected; and it mainly led to the close of 1517; conquered by Berual Diaz, 1522 ; declared for inthe war. The town was strongly fortified by the con- dependence, 1813. Its ancient cities are described in federates in the American civil war, but surrendered works by the American traveller Stephens, 1838 and 1812. to McClellan, May, 1862. Celebration of the centenary of the British surrender, Oct, 1881; British flag fought, 14 March, 1590, between Henry IV. of France,

Yvres (now Ivry, N.W. France), where a battle was saluted.

aided by his chief nobility, and the generals of the CathYoung Ireland, see Ireland, Young.

olic League, over whom the king obtained a complete Young Men's Christian Association, for victory,

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Zagrab (Hungary). Here Andrew II. defeated the ter z was retained in Scotland, and was commonly writinvader Charles Martel, to whom the pope had assigned ten for the letter y so late as the reign of queen Mary, his crown, 1292

up to which period many books in the Scottish language Zähringen (Baden), the seat of dukes, ancestors were printed in Edinburgh with these words, 1543. of the grand-dukes of Baden, descended from Herman Zealand, one of the thirteen provinces which formed I., margrave, 1074; see Buden.

the League of Utrecht, 1579; see Holland and New Zea. Zama (near Carthage, N. Africa), the scene of the lund, battle between the two greatest commanders in the Zela (N.E. Asia Minor), where Julius Cæsar defeated world at the time, Hannibal and Scipio Africanus. The Pharnaces, king of Pontus, son of Mithridates. Cæsar, victory was won by Scipio, and was decisive of the fate in announcing his victory, sent his famous despatch to of Carthage; it led to an ignominious peace the year the senate of Rome in these words : l'eni, ridi, rici-" I after, which closed the second Punic war. The Romans came, I saw, I conquered” (perhaps the shortest despatch lost about 2000 killed and wounded, while the Cartha- on record). This battle ended the war; Pharnaces es ginians lost in killed and prisoners more than 40,000; caped into Bosporus, where he was slain by his lieutensome historians make the loss greater; 202 B.C. ant, Asander; Pontus was made a Roman province, and

Zambesi, river of E. Africa, explored by Living- Bosporus given to Mithridates of Pergamus, 47 B.C. stone 1851-6, 1858-64. His book published Nov. 1865. Zell (Hanorer), see Denmark, 1772.

Zamora (Spain). Here Alphonso the Great defeat- Zend-avesta, ancient sacred books of the Parsees, ed the Moors in 901.

of which three out of twenty-one are extant. The age Zante. One of the Ionian Islands (which see).

of these books is much disputed. Prof. Mas Muller says Zanzaleens. This sect rose in Syria, under Zan- that the MSS. had been preserved by the Parsee priests zalee, 535; he taught that water baptism was of no effi- at Bombay, where a colony of fire-worshippers had fled cacy, and that it was necessary to be baptized by fire, in the tenth century. Anquetil Duperron's French transwith the application of a red-hot iron. The sect was at lation, from a modern Persian version, was published in one time very numerous.

1771; edition by Eugene Burnouf, 1829-43. Zanzibar, or ZANGU'EBAR, an island (E. Africa),

Zeno, or Zexox, sec Stoics. metropolis of the possessions of the imaum of Muscat, Zenobia, Queen of the East, see Palmyra. and chief market for ivory, gum, coral, and cloves, and

Zenta (in Hungary), the scene of a battle where the also for slaves. At the death of the seyyid (or lord), Germans, under prince Eugene, defeated the Turks, 11 miscalled "imaum” and “sultan," of Muscat, 1856, his Sept. 1697. This victory led to the peace of Carlowitz, dominions were divided between his sons; see Muscat. ratitied Jan. 1699. Majid obtained Zanzibar, after a contest with his broth

Zetetical Society, established in 1878, to afford er, Barghash Seyyid, who, however, succeeded at his death, 7 Oct. 1870. An expedition for the purpose of opportunities for the unrestricted discussion of a variety suppressing the slave-trade was sent to Zanzibar, under of questions, held its fourth session in Oct. 1881. the command of sir Bartle Frere, 20 Nov. 1872; arrived Zetunium. After defeating Samuel, king of Bulabout 12 Jan. 1873. After some delay and negotiation garia, here, 29 July, 1014, the emperor Basil II. blinded by Dr. Kirke, a treaty was signed abolishing the trade, his 15,000 prisoners, except one in a hundred, to whom 5 June, 1873. The contract for the mail to Zanzibar he left one eye. The king died of grief. was censured as too expensive in July, 1873, and al

Zidon, see Sidon. tered. The seyyid Barghash visited England in 1875;

Zinc. The ore of zinc, calamine or spelter, known arrived, 9 June; received by the queen, 21 June; received freedom of London, 12 July; sailed for France. It is said to have been known in China also, and is no

to the Greeks, who used it in the manufacture of brass. 15 July. He decreel confiscation of slaves brought to

ticed by European writers as early as 1231 ; though the Zanzibar, 18 April, 1876.

method of extracting it from the ore was unknown for Zara, capital of Dalmatia, a Roman colony under nearly 500 years after. The met al zinc is mentioned by Augustus. it revolted from Venice, and was recaptured Paracelsus (died 1541). A mine of zinc was discovered 18 Nov. 1202; unsuccessfully besieged by the Turks, on lord Ribblesdale's estate, Craven, Yorkshire, in 1809. 1572, 1577; given up to Austria, 1791.

Zincography was introduced in London shortly after Ze, Zow, Zieres, for ye, you, and yours. The let-| lithography became known in England, in 1817; see

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ony Natal.

Lithography. Zinc is much used in voltaic batteries, the costume, etc.; eventually the Africans disappeared and its application in manufactures has greatly increased from the ranks, and no more were added. Among their of late years; see Photozincography.

colonels were Lamoricière and Cavaignac. The French Zirconium, the metallic base of the earth zirconia, Zouaves formed an important part of the army in the which was discovered by Klaproth in 1789; from this

Crimean war, 1851-5.* Berzelius obtained the metal in 1824. Zirconia is found

Zug, the smallest canton of Switzerland, joined the in the sand of the rivers of Ceylon. The metal exists in confederation 1352, and the Sonderbund 1846. the form of a black powder.

Zuider Zee, or South Sea, a gulf in the NetherZizyphus vulgaris. A shrub brought from the lands, formerly a lake, united with the North Sea by insouth of Europe about 1640. The Zizyphus Paliurus undations in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. In shrub (Christ's Thorn), was brought from Africa about 1875 the Dutch chamber voted 9,500,0001, to reclaim the 1596; see Flowers.

submerged land by drainage, and to erect a dike 26 feet Zodiac. Its obliquity was discovered, its twelve high above the water, and 25 miles long; thus adding signs named, and their situations assigned them by 759 square miles to the country. The Dutch Texel fleet Anaximander, about 560 B.C. The Greeks and Arabians here surrendered to admiral Mitchell, 30 Aug. 1799. borrowed the zodiac from the Hindoos.—Sir W. Jones. The zodiacal light was observed by Tycho Brahe, Des- Zuingli, who at Zurich declaimed against the church of

Zuinglians, the followers of the reformer Ulric cartes, and others, and named by Cassini, 1683.

Rome, and effected the same separation for Switzerland Zollverein (Customs Union), the name given to the from the papal dominion which Luther did for Saxony. German commercial union, projected by Prussia 1818, and He procured two assemblies to be called : by the first he gradually joined by nearly all the German states except was authorized to proceed, by the second the ceremonies Austria. On 19 Feb. 1853, an important treaty of com- of the Romish church were abolished 1519. Zuingli died merce and navigation between Austria and Prussia, to last in arms, being slain in a skirmish against his popish opfrom Jan. 1851 to Dec. 1865, was signed, to which the oth-ponents, 11 Oct. 1531. The Zuinglians were also called er states of the Zollverein gave in their adhesion on 5 Sacramentarians. April, 1853. In Nov. 1861, Prussia threatened to withdraw

Zullichau (Prussia). Here the Russians, under unless certain changes were made. By the treaty of 8 July, 1867, between the North German confederation and Soltikow, severely defeated the Prussians under Wedel,

23 July, 1759. the southern states (Bavaria, Würtemberg, Baden, and Hesse), various changes were made, and by other treaties Zulpich, see Tolbiac. signed in Oct. these states agreed to send delegates to a

Zulu Celibate Military System, founded by customs parliament to be held at Berlin. A session of Godongwana, confirmed by Chaka and Durgaan; comthis parliament was opened by the king of Prussia, 27

pleted by Cetywayo. April, and closed 23 May, 1868. Federal chancellor, the count von Bismarck. Imports, 1876, valued at 191,000,

Zululand (Southeast Africa), near the British col0001.; exports, 1874, 120,500,0001.

In the last century the Zulus were a peace

ful, pastoral people. Zoology (from Lowv, Greek for animal) is the division of biology which treats of animals; Aristotle 3:22 Godongwana, a chief (termed Dingiswayo, “the Wan

derer," from his early life), began i military organiza281 B.c.) the founder of the science. Systems of classi

tion by forming a celibate army; killed in battle and fication have been made by John Ray (1628-1705), succeeded by his vigorous and merciless ally, Chaka, Charles Linné (1707-78), G. Buffon (1707-88), and George

styled king, by whom Zulu supremacy was mainly es. Cuvier (1769-1832).

tablished over the Fingoes and other tribes.....about 1812

Chaka assassinated: succeeded by his brother Durgaan, Linnaeus divided the animal kingdom into six classes-- Mam- crafty, treacherous, and cruel; at first friendly with

malia, which includes all animals that sucklo their young; the British at Natal (which see); made treaty with Avrs, birds; Amphibia, or amphibious animals; Pisces, fish- capt. Allen Gardiner..

...6 May, 1835 es; Insecta, insects; Vermes, worms; 1711.

Massacres, Retief, 70 Boers, and their servants (who had Cuvier (died in Paris, 13 May, 1832) in his great work, “Règne recovered his stolen cattle), 2 Feb., and about 600 af.

Animal," published in 1816, distributed the animals into terwards; defeats the British and Dutch in several enfour great divisions-the Vertebrata (back boned); the Mol. counters; but is severely beaten by Andries Pretorius, lusca (soft-bodied); the Articulata (jointed); and the Ra.

Dec. 1838 diata (the organs disposed round a centre).

Durgaan again defeated; killed by one of his chiess; sucIn 1859, prof. Owen made known a system of arranging the ceeded by his brother I'mpanda, peaceful and crafty,

class Mammalia according to the nature of their bruins, who keeps peace with the English and Dutch...1810 et seq. The ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON (originally the Zoologi. Cetywayo (pronounced Ketchw.yo), his cldest son, kills

cal Club) was founded in 18:26, and its gardens in the Re- his brothers; succeeds at his father's death; organizes gent's Park were opened in April, 1827; the society was still further his arıny, named by Frere "the celibate chartered 27 March, 1829. 2072 animals in the gardens, 31 man-slaying war machine".

... Oct. 1872 Dec. 1871; about 500 animals from ludia given by the prince Recognized on behalf of the British by Mr. Shepstone; of Wales, May, 1876.


..1 Sept. 1873 Dr. James Murie was appointed by the society to be their first Opposes missionaries; organizes armed resistance to the "anatomical prosector,” 3 May, 1865,

British; when remonstrated with for outrages, deties On the demolition of Exeter Change, in 1829, the menagerie them.

1876 of Mr. Cross was temporarily lodged in the King's Mews, Sir Bartle Frere, governor of the Cape, requests help whence it was removed to the Surrey Zoological Gardens, from England; goth regiment and a battery sent.. Jan. 1878 1832

Cetywayo refuses to give up leaders of a raid on British The Zoological Gardens of Dublin were opened, 1832.

territory (in July), and tenders a fine; sir Bartle Frere Zoological station for study, open to the public, established at demands as an ultimatum their surrender within 30 Naples by prof. Anton Dohrn; opened 1 Oct. 1873.


Dec. (See Aquarium, Hippopotamur, Giraffe, and Acclimatization, The time (extended) having clapsed, 11 Jan., the British, etc.)

under lord Chelmsford, cross the Tugela and enter Zorndorff (Prussia), where a battle was fought be- Col. Pearson defeats the Zulus and advances to Eebowe


12 Jan. 1879 tween the Prussian and Russian armies; the former, (which he fortities)

..21 Jan. commanded by the king of Prussia, obtained a victory British camp at Isandula, or Isandiwana, about 10 over the forces of the czarina, whose loss amounted to

miles from Rorke's Drift (on the Tugela), surprised

and attacked by about 15,000 Zulus; 5 companies of 21,529 men, while that of the Prussians was about

the 241h regiment and many natives killed, with cols. 11,000: 25, 26 Aug. 1758.

Durnford and Pulleine, and other officers; total loss

about $37; 2000 Zulus said to have been killed (lieuts. Zouaves and FOOT-CITASSEURS. When the French

Melville and Coghill said to have peri established a regency at Algiers in 1830, they hoped to serving the colors).

......22 Jan. find the employment of native troops advantageous, and selected the Zoonouas, a congregation of daring Arab the federal army in the great civil war in America by Ephraim

* The Zouare organization and drill were introduced into tribes. In time numbers of red republicans and other E. Ellsworth, early in 1861. Ile was killed on 24 May. simo enthusiastic Frenchmen joined the regiments, adopting year, at Alexandria, just after taking down a secessive flag.

while pre



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Rorke's Drift severely attacked; successfully defended by lieuts. Chard and Bromhead..

22 Jan. 1879 Zulus attack Inkanyana; defeated by col. Evelyn Wood,

24 Jan. Reinforcements requested; troops rapidly sent off from England. .

19 Feb. et seq. Prince Louis Napoleon, requesting to join the British, permitted to go as a guest; sails..

27 Feb. Arrival of the Tamar with 800 men, etc., at Maritzburg,

11 March, British convoy near Itombi river cut to pieces by Zulus;

wagons and stores captured; capt. David Moriarty killed..

12 March, Cetywayo's brother Oham, with 600 men, joins the Brit. ish; announced..

18 March, Col. Evelyn Wood attacks the Zulus on the Zlobani

mountains; suffers much loss, 28 March; gains victory at Kambula...

...29 March, British advance to relieve Echowe.

29 March, Zilus defeated at Gingbilovo..

...2 April, Col. Pearson marches out of Echowe.. 2, 3 April Sir Garnet Wolseley appointed commander - in-chief, governor of Natal, etc., sails for the Cape..

..May, British total loss, 1186 killed; 86 died of disease; announced...

.27 May, Cetywayo said to have suppressed an insurrection, and

retired to his kraal (or village) at Ulundi.. . May, Reconnoitring party, under capt. J. Brenton Carey, on

Imbabani, near the Mozani river, surprised; prince

Louis Napoleon (acting as commander) killed. .1 June, Ultimatum sent to Cetywayo requiring restitution of

cannon and total submission; time expired. .. 12 June, Sir G. Wolseley arrives at the Cape.... .. 23 June, Stafford House South African aid committee formed.June, Zulu raid on cattle, which are recovered. .. 25 June, Sir Garnet Wolseley sworn in as high-commissioner at Pietermaritzburg....

28 or 29 June, Cetywayo totally defeated at Ulundi (which see)...4 July, Sir Garnet Wolseley receives chiefs. .12 July et seq. Lord Chelmsford resigns...

.15 July, Sentence upon capt. Carey respecting death of prince Napoleon quashed....

...22 Aug. Pursuit of Cety wayo; captured by major Richard Mar. ter...

...28 Aug. Meeting of sir Garnet Wolseley with Zulu chiess: settle.

ment by treaty; Zululand to be divided into 13 independent districts; John Dunn to be a chief; British residents in each district (to be eyes and cars); celibate military system abolished; no arms to be imported; ancient laws and liberties retained; (John Dunn, 20 years in Zululand; conformed to Zulu ways)...1 Sept. Sir Garnet Wolseley's despatch, announcing end of the war, dated..

.3 Sept

Cetywayo (dignified) arrives at Cape Town......15 Sept. 1879 His petition to the queen for restitution declined,

about 11 July, 1881 John Dunn energetically subdues a revclting chief,

about 30 July, Zurich was admitted a member and made head of the Swiss confederacy 1351, and was the first town in Switzerland that separated from the church of Rome; see Zuinglians. A grave-digger at Zurich poisoned the sacramental wine, by which eight persons lost their lives and many others were grievously injured, 4 Sept. 1776. The French, under Massena, after repelling an attack of the Austrians, retired from Zurich, 5 June, 1799. The imperialists were defeated by Massena, the former losing

20,000 men in killed and wounded, 25, 26 Sept. 1799 ; see Switzerland, A new democratic constitution was adopted 18 April, 1869. On 24 June, 1859, the Austrians were defeated by the allied

French and Sardinian army at Solferino. Preliminaries of peace were signed at Villafranca by the em

perors of Austria and France on 12 July following. A conference between the representatives of the powers con

cerned having been appointed, the first meeting took place

at Zurich on 8 Aug. After many delays, a treaty was signed 10 Nov. Lombardy

was ceded to Sardinia; the formation of an Italian confed. eration, under the presidency of the pope, was determined on; and the rights of the ex-sovereigns of Tuscany, Modena,

and Parma were reserved. The formation of the kingdom of Italy in 1861 annulled the

treaty of Zurich.

Zutphen (Holland). At a battle here 22 Sept. 1586, between the Spaniards and the Dutch, the amiable sir Philip Sidney, the author of " Arcadia," was mortally wounded. He died 7 Oct. He was serving with the English auxiliaries, commanded by the earl of Leicester.

Zuyder Zee, see Zuider Zee.

Zuyper Sluys (Holland). Here sir Ralph Abercromby defeated an attack of the French under Brune; the latter suffered great loss, 9 Sept. 1799.

Zwittau (Moravia). Here the Prussians defeated the Austrians and captured provisions, 10 July, 1866.

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16. AFGHANISTAN. – Gholam Hyder holding Kelat-i-Ghil. 375. IRISH LAND ACT (see Ireland, April-Ang. 1881). — It

zai, 6 Aug. ; receives reinforcements from Cabul, 21 settles the rights of landlords and tenants; establishes
Aug. 1881.

a court of commission to try differences between them,

and determines the conditions by which tenants may
25. ALGIERS. -Bou Amema defeated by the French, 13 July;
said to be preparing for a fresh revolt; three French

become proprietors; it affirms the virtual ownership

of tenants with the power of selling their rights, secur-
columns advancing against him, Aug. ; indecisive skir-
mishes, Aug. 1881.

inc the payment of a just rent to the landlords to be

settled by the court, and restricting evictions. First
70. BANK OF ENGLAND.-Discount raised to 3 per cent. court of commission, sergeant O'Hagan, Edward Fal-
Aug. 3; to 4, Aug. 25, 1881.

coner Litton, and John Edward Vernon. 'Royal assent,
96. BILLINGSGATE MARKET was declared to be insuff-

22 Aug. 1881.
cient for the fish supply of the metropolis in the report | 440. MARY-ANNE.-Secret republican associations, especial-
of the commission appointed by the city corporation, ly in France. The name was given to the republic of
presented to the common council, 11 Aug. 1881.

1792, to the guillotine, and to little statuettes of Lib.
130. CANADA.—The marquess of Lorne's progress through

the Dominion, 21 July et seq. 1881.

Population by census of 1871, 3,686,596; of 1881, 4,352,080. der Engineers, 1847.
155. CHINA. - Treaty with China ratified, 19 Aug. 1881.

482. NEW RUGBY. - Reported failure of crops and preva-
220. ECCLESIOLOGICAL SOCIETY, formed in 1839, was orig.

lence of fever, Aug, 1881.
inally the Cambridge Campden Society, mainly estab-

512. PARLIAMENT.—Mr. Bradlaugh's attempt to enter the
lished by the second earl of Gainsborough (Charles

house of commons forcibly resisted by ihe police. Mr.
George Noel) for the proper restoration of ancient

Labouchere's motion to rescind the resolution of 10

May, 1881, negatived (191 to 7), 3 Aug.
232. EDINBURGH. —New dock at Leith opened by the duke 526. PHARMACY. – An international pharmaceutical con.
of Edinburgh, 26 July, 1881.

gress (with an exhibition) was opened in London, 1
About 40,000 Scottish volunteers reviewed in the Queen's Aug. 1881.
park by the queen, 25 Aug. 1881.

539. POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTION announced to be closed
236. EGYPT.-Ministerial crisis; the khedive requiring more on 27 Aug. 1881; affairs wound up.

personal influence; British pacific interference about 544. POPULATION. (According to census of April 4, 1881).
11 Aug. 1881.

London (greater). 3,452,350 | Dundee...

260. EXECUTIONS. – Thomas Brown, murder of Elizabeth Liverpool.

552, 425 Brighton..

Caldwell, Nottingham, 15 Aug ; George Durling, mur. Glasgow, etc.

487,948 Portsmouth

der of Fanny Musson, Maidstone, 23 Aug. 1881.

400,757 Leicester.

263. FAIR TRADE LEAGUE, National, founded by Mr. Manchester, etc. 393,676 | Nottingham.

Sampson Lloyd, Mr. David Macliver, and others, agri- Leeds, etc... 309,126 Aberdeen..


culturists and merchants, who issued a circular in Aug.

284,410 Preston


273,064 | Norwich

Edinburgh, etc 228, 100 Cardiff.

293. FRANCE.--Election addresses. M. Rouher retires from

207,671 | Plymouth.

political life (virtual end of Bonapartism) about 31

Bristol, etc.
206,503 York...

July, 1881; prince Napoleon Jerome advocates progress Bradford..
Leverything for and by the people"--about 31 July; Wolverhampton

180, 459 Paisley.

164,303 | Bath.

speeches of M. Gambetta at Tours, Belleville, 12 Aug. Hull.

161,519 Cambridge

advocating revision of the constitution, Aug. ; M. Jules

152,511 Oxford,

Ferry, at Nancy, deprecates division, about 11 Aug.

Newcastle-on-Tyne.. 145,228
Negotiations for treaty of commerce broken off'; an.
nounced 16 Aug.

548. PORTUGAL.-Elections; majority in favor of the minis-
Elections; triumph of Gambetta and moderate republi. try, 21 Aug. 1881.

cans; gain of about 44 members; hopeless minority 573. RAILWAY Accident. ---Blackburn (Lancashire and York-
of extremists of both kinds, 21 Aug.

shire); collision; 5 deaths; about 40 injured: 8 Aug.
330. GREENWICH OBSERVATORY. – Mr. William Henry

Christie appointed astronomer royal on the resignation 640. SPAIN.-Elections; majority for the ministry, 21 Aug.
of sir G. B. Airy, Aug. 1881.

350. HOSPITAL SUNDAY, 19 June, 1881; report of meeting 669. TEMPERANCE.-International exhibition of objects con-
5 Aug. 1881:

nected with temperance opened at the Agricultural

hall, Islington, 22 Aug. 1881.
94 hospitals.

50 dispensaries.

William Nash and Maria

697. TRIALS.- Notting Hill Fire.
For surgical appliances .

Wright, for murder of Elizabeth Jane Clark and others

by fire, 30 May; he sentenced to death (reprieved), she

acquitted, 3, 4 Aug. 1881.
365. INDIA.-Budget introduced by the marquess of Harting. 704. TURKEY.--Midhat Pacha and others; punishment com-

ton; revenue, 68,484,6661. ; expenditure, 69,667,6151. ; muted to exile on intercession of the British govern-
deficit, 1, 182,9491., 22 Aug. 1881.

ment; announced 31 July, 1881.
369. INTERNATIONAL LAW.-The Association met at Co. 731. VIVISECTION. -Resolution in its favor passed by the
logne, 16-19 Aug. 1881.

International Medical Congress, London, 9 Aug. 1881.


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