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ing their children's birth deemed guilty of murder, 21 Restoration of the abbey by sir G. G. Scott...

... 1863 et seq.

British association met here... James I., 1624. In Scotland bastard children could not

.14 Sept. 1864 Museum destroyed by fire..

20 Jan. 1867 dispose of their movable estates by will until 1836. A Bath and West of England Society centenary celebrated, new act, facilitating the claims of mothers and making 4 June; Fall of Widcombe bridge, two persons killed several provisions for proceeding in bastardy cases, was

and many injured...

.6 June, 1877 passed 1845. The Bastardy Laws Amendment Act was

Bath and Wells, BISHOPRIC OF. The see of passed 10 Aug. 1872. In the United States bastardy is Wells, whose cathedral church was built by Ina, king à subject dealt with by the several states acting inde of the West Saxons, in 704, was established in 905, pendently. In most of them the bastard inherits only Adelme first bishop. John de Villula, bishop, transferred through the mother, and there are statutes for compel- his seat from Wells to Bath in 1091.-Tanner. Disputes ling the father of a bastard to provide for its support between the monks of Bath and the canons of Wells during minority.

about the election of a bishop were compromised in 1135. Bastarnæ, a warlike tribe in Podolia and Moldavia, Henceforward the bishop was to be styled from both hired by Perseus, king of Macedon, in his wars with places; the precedency to be given to Bath. The see is Rome, B.C. 168; driven across the Danube by M. Crassus valued in the king's books at 5311. 1s. 3d. per annum. for their encroachments, 30.

Present income, 50001. Bastille (Paris), a castle built by Charles V., king

Recent Bishops. of France, in 1369, for the defence of Paris against the 1802. Richard Beadon, died.

.21 April, 1824 English; completed in 1383, and afterwards used as a 1824. George Henry Law, died.

... 22 Sept. 1845

1845. Richard Bagot, died. . state-prison. Henry IV. and his veteran army assailed 1854. Robert John, baron Auckland, resigned....6 Sept. 1869

.5 May, 1854 it in vain in the siege of Paris, during the war (1587–94). 1869. Lord Arthur Charles Hervey, elected...... 10 Nov. “The man with the iron mask," the most mysterious

Bath Administration. Mr. Pelham and his prisoner known, died here, 19 Nov. 1703 ; see Iron Mask. friends having tendered their resignation to king On 14–15 July, 1789, the Bastille was pulled down by the George II., 10° Feb. 1746, the formation of a new minpopulace; the governor and other officers were conducted istry was undertaken by William Pulteney, earl of Bath. to the Place de Grève; their hands and heads were cut This expired on 12 Feb., while yet incomplete, and reoff, and the heads carried on pikes through the streets.

ceived the name of the “Short-lived” administration. Basuto Land, near Orange River, S. Africa, in- The members of it were: the earl of Bath, first lord of cluding the Transkei territory, was annexed to Cape the treasury; lord Carlisle, lord privy seal ; lord WinColony in 1871. Population – whites, 378; natives, chilsea, first lord of the admiralty; and lord Granville, 127,223.

one of the secretaries of state, with the seals of the other Moiroso, a warlike chief, intrenches himself on a moun. in his pocket," to be given to whom he might choose.”

tain and makes predatory sallies, Feb. et seq.; his Mr. Pelham and his colleagues returned to power.
stronghold captured and himself killed during the
fight..

20 Nov. 1879

Bath, ORDER OF THE, said to be of early origin, but The Basutos ordered to give up their arms; many resist;

formally constituted 11 Oct. 1399, by Henry IV., two Letsi, Molappo, and others who surrender attacked by Masupha, Lerothodi, and others, June, July; who make

days previous to his coronation in the Tower, when he war on the colonist forces...

.13 Sept. 1880 conferred the order upon forty-six esquires, who had Lerothodi defeated in attack on Mafeteng by col. Car

watched the night before and bathed. After the cororington...

..21 Sept. Mafeteng, besieged, relieved by col. Clarke, after a severe

nation of Charles II., the order was neglected until 18 conflict.

...19 Oct. May, 1725, when it was revived by George I., who fixed Lerothodi's village stormed and his forces dispersed, the number of knights at 37.

22 Oct. Moletsane's stronghold stormed by col. Clarke....31 Oct. The prince-regent (afterwards George IV.) created classes Mr. Hope, magistrate, and others treacherously murdered of knights grand crosses (72), knights commanders

by Umhlonhlo, Oct.; who is defeated by Mr. Hawthorn; (180), with an unlimited number of companions, 2 Jan. 1815 announced.

......12 Nov?

By an order, the existing statutes of this order were anUmhlonhlo totally defeated by Baker.. .....21 Dec.

nulled; and by new statutes, the order, hitherto exVictories of col. Carrington.... .about 10, 14 Jan. 1881 clusively military, was opened to civilians....25 May, 1847 Armistice granted...

...18-24 Feb. Dr. Lyon Playfair and other promoters of the Great ExHostilities resumed; indecisive; col. Carrington wound

hibition received this honor..

1851 ed.

.26 March, Basutos severely defeated.. .... about 16 April,

CONSTITUTION.

Military. Civil. Peace concluded..

May,
1st Class. Knights grand cross..

25 2d Class. Knights commanders.

100 Batalha (Portugal). The monastery here was built 3d Class. Companions...

525 by John I. of Portugal, as a token of gratitude for his

Bathometer (Greek, Batis, deep), an apparatus victory over John 1. of Castile, at Aljubarrota, 14 Aug. invented by Dr. c. William Siemens to measure the 1385, securing the independence of his kingdom. The depth of water without submerging a sounding-line, restoration of the monastery began in 1839.

1861-76. Batavia, the capital of Java and of all the Dutch settlements in the East Indies, built by that people about tation on the surface of the water as compared with its effect

Its action depends on the diminution of the effect of gravi1619. Taken from the French (who had seized it) by on the earth, owing to the mass of water (of less density) sir Samuel Auchmuty, 26 Aug. 1811; restored to the which replaces earth (of greater density), which is duly regis.

tered. Dutch in 1814. Batavia and BATAVIAN REPUBLIC, see Holland.

Baths were early used in Asia and Greece, and inBath (Somerset), named “Aquæ solisby the Ro-troduced by Agrippa into Rome, where many were con

structed by Augustus and his successors. The thermæ mans, being remarkable for its hot springs. Coel, a Brit- of the Romans and gymnasia of the Greeks (of which ish king, is said to have given this city a charter, and baths formed merely an appendage) were sumptuous, the Saxon king Edgar was crowned here, 973.

The marble group of Laocoon was found in 1506 in the Bath plundered and burned in the reign of William Ru- baths of Titus, erected about 80, and the Farnese Herfus, and again in.

1137 cules in those of Caracalla, erected 211. The abbey church commenced in 1405; finished.. 1609 Beau (Richard) Nash, "king of Bath," who promoted In LONDON, St. Agnes le Clere, in Old Street road, was a

fame of the waters and amusements, died........Feb. 1761 spring of great antiquity; baths said to have been Present assembly-rooms built.. 1771 formed in..

1502 Pump-room erected 1704; rebuilt.

1797 St. Chad's Well, Gray's Ion road, derives its name from Theatre, Beaufort Square, opened. 1805 St. Chad, the fifth bishop of Lichfield...

667 Bath philosophical society formed.

1817 A bath opened in Bagnio Court, now Bath street, NewBath royal literary and scientific institution established. 1825 gate street, London, is said to have been the first bath Victoria Park opened by princess Victoria....

in England for hot bathing....

1679 Theatre burned. .18 April, 1862 | Old Bath house, Coldbath square, in use...

1697

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Peerless (Perilous) Pool, Baldwin street, City road, men- make proof thereby of his guilt or innocence; sce Ap

tioned by Stow (died 1605), enclosed as a bathing place 1743 Turkish sweating-baths became popular..

peal.

1860 The Oriental baths in Victoria street, Westminster, com

Battle-abbey, Sussex, founded by William I., 1067, pleted...

1862

on the plain where the battle of Hastings was fought, 14 PUBLIC BATHS AND WASH-HOUSES.

Oct. 1066, It was dedicated to St. Martin, and given to The first established by Mr. Bowie in the neighborhood of the London docks.....

1844

Benedictine monks, who were to pray for the souls of the The public baths and wash-houses in Liverpool founded slain. The original name of the plain was Hetheland;

(through the instrumentality of Catherine Wilkinson, see Hastings. After the battle of Hastings, a list was who in 1832 began to lend her room and appliances to

taken of William's chiefs, amounting to 629, and called poor people for washing).... Acts passed to encourage the establishment of public

the BATTLE-ROLL; and among these chiefs the lands baths and wash-houses, "for the health, comfort, and

and titles of the followers of the defeated Harold were welfare of the inhabitants of populous towns and dis- distributed. tricts" in England and Ireland....

1846 537,345 bathers availed themselves of the baths in Lon. Battle-axe, a weapon of the Celts. The Irish were

don, and in this period there were 85, 260 washers in constantly armed with an axe.Burns. At the battle the quarter ending...

Sept. 1854 of Bannockburn, king Robert Bruce clove an English Public baths and wash-houses have since been establish. ed throughout the empire.

champion down to the chine at one blow with a battleBaths and Wash-houses Act authorizes establishment of axe, 1314. The battle-axe guards, or beaufetiers, vul

cheap swimming-baths, etc....... 27 May, 1878 garly called beef-eaters, and whose arms are a sword and Free swimming-baths were opened in New York. 1868 et seq. lance, were first raised by Henry VII. in 1485. They (See Laundry.)

were originally attendants upon the king's buffet; see Bathybius Haeckelii (Greek, Baðús, deep; Bios, Yeoman of the Guard. life), the name given by Huxley to a supposed low form

Battlefield, BATTLE OF, see Shrewsbury. of animal life, a gelatinous substance found on stones at the bottom of the sea, in Deep-sea Soundings (which see). the first who ranged an army in a regular line of battle,

Battles. Palamedes of Argos is said to have been Its existence doubted by many naturalists, 1879.

placed sentinels round a camp, and excited the soldier's Baton, a truncheon borne by generals in the French vigilance by giving him a watchword ;' see Naval Batarmy, and afterwards by the marshals of other nations. tles, British. The following are the most memorable Henry III. of France, before he ascended the throne, was battles, arranged in chronological order; further details made generalissimo of the army of his brother Charles of the greater part are given in separate articles; n. sigIX., and received the bâton as the mark of the high nifies naval: command, 1569.Henault. The baton used by conductors of concerts is said to have been introduced into Eng- his "Fifteen Decisi ve Battles of the World:

The following are the battles described by prof. Creasy in land by Spohr in 1820.

Marathon... Baton Rouge, BATTLE OF, fought 5 Aug. 1862.

490 Hastings.... .14 Oct. 1066 Syracuse.

413 Orleans.. 29 April, 1429 The town, held by United States forces under gen. Arbela... .1 Oct. 331 Spanish Armada...July, 1588 Thomas Williams, was attacked by Confederates under Metaurus.

207 Blenheim. ......13 Aug. 1704 gen. Breckinridge. A severe engagement followed, in

Pultowa.........8 July, 1709 which the Confederates were repulsed. The Confederate

Teutoburg

9 Saratoga.. ...17 Oct. 1777 Châlons.

451 Valmy.. ..20 Sept. 1792 iron-clad gunboat Arkansas, which was intended to en- Tours..... .....10 Oct. 732 ) Waterloo.. .18 June, 1815 gage the United States naval force in the river, provedl Abraham defeats kings of Canaan (Gen. xiv...... .... B.C. 1913 useless, and the next day she was attacked and de- Joshua subdues five kings of Canaan (Josh. x.). ...... 1451 stroyed.

Gideon defeats the Midianites (Judg. vii.)..

1245 Trojan war commenced..

1193 Batoum, or Batum, a seaport in Lazistan, on the Troy taken and destroyed..

1184 Black Sea. After having repulsed the Russians in the

Jephthah defeats Ammonites..

1143 Ethiopians defeated by Asa (2 Chron. xiv.).

941 war, 4 May, 1877, the place was ceded to Russia by the Horatii vanquish Curiatii...

669 treaty of Berlin, 13 July, 1878, to become a free com- Halys (Medes and Lydians stopped by eclipse). .584 or 585 mercial port.

Thymbra (Cyrus defeats Cræsus).

548 Lake Regillus (Romans defeat Latins).

499 The inhabitants at first resisted, but were persuaded to sub- Marathon (Greeks defeat Persians). ..28 or 29 Sept. 490 mit; many emigrating, July-Sept. The Russians entered, 6 Thermopylæ (heroism of Leonidas)..

..7-9 Aug Sept. 1878.

Salamis, n. (Greeks defeat Persians).

..20 Oct. Batteries along the coasts were constructed by Mycale (Greeks defeat Persians).

Himera (Gelon defeats Carthaginians)..

.22 Sept. 479 Henry VIII. (who reigned 1509–47). The ten floating- Platæa (Greeks defeat Pausanias)..

.22 Sept. batteries with which Gibraltar was attacked, in the siege Eurymedon, n. (Greeks defeat Cimon).

466

457 of that fortress, were invented by D'Arcon, a French en- Tanagra (Spartans defeat Athenians). gineer. They resisted the heavy shells and 32-pound Coronea (Baotians defeat Athenians).

Enophyta (Athenians defeat Bæotians).

456

447 shot, but ultimately yielded to red-hot shot, 13 Sept. Romans totally defeat Veientes...

437 1782; see Gibraltar. Formidable floating-batteries are Tanagra (Athenians defeat Spartans).

426

Delium (Baotians defeat Athenians). now erected; see Navy.

Amphipolis (Spartans repulse Athenians : Cleon and
Brasidas killed).

422 Battering-ram ( l'estudo Arietaria), with other military implements, said to have been invented by Athenians defeated before Syracuse..

Mantinea (Spartans defeat Athenians).

418 Artemon, a Lacedæmonian, and employed by Pericles, Cyzicus, n. (Alcibiades defeats Spartans).

410 about 441 B.C. Sir Christopher Wren employed a bat- Arginus, n. (Conon defeats Spartan fleet)..

406

405 tering-ram in demolishing the walls of old St. Paul's Ægospotamos, n. (Athenian fleet destroyed)..

Cunaxa (Cyrus defeated and killed by Artaxerxes).

401 cathedral, 1675.

Corinthian war..

395-387 Battersea Park; an act of parliament passed in

Haliartus (Lysander killed).

395 Cnidus, n. (Conon defeats Spartans).

394 1846 empowered her majesty's commissioners of woods Coronea (Argesilaus defeats Athenians and allies). to form a royal park in Battersea Fields. Acts to en- Allia (Brennus and the Gauls defeat Romans)....16 July, 390

381 large their powers were passed in 1848, 1851, and 1853. Volsci defeated by Camillus....

Volsci defeat the Romans,

379 The park and the new bridge connecting it with Chelsea Naxus (Chabrias defeats Lacedæmonians). 376 or 377 were opened in April, 1858; the bridge freed from toll, Tegyra (Thebans defeat Spartans)...

375 24 May, 1879.

Leuctra (Thebans defeat Spartans).

371

** Tearless Victory" of Archidamus over Argives, etc... 367 Battersea Training College, founded 1840.

Camillus defeats the Gauls,.,
Battle, Trial by, or WAGER OF, a trial by combat Cynoscephala (Thebans defeat Thessalians)..

364 formerly allowed by our laws, where the defendant in an Tamynæ (Æschines there).

Mantinea (Thebans victors: Epaminondas slain). appeal of murder inight fight with the appellant, and Crimisus (Timoleon defeats Carthaginians).

339

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Chæronea (Philip defeats Athenians, etc.).. .Aug. B.C. 338 | Pollentia (Stilicho defeats Alaric). 29 March, A. D.

403 Thebes destroyed by Alexander..

335 Rome taken by Alaric..

.24 Aug.

410 Granicus (Alexander defeals Darius).. ....22 May, 334 Ravenna taken by Aspar.

425 Issus (ditto)..

Oct.
333 Franks defeated by Aetius.

423 Arbela (ditto). .1 Oct. 331 Genseric takes Carthage

439 Pandosia (Alerander of Epirus defeated and killed).. 326 Châlons-sur-Marne (Attila defeated by Aetius)

451 Cranon (Antipater defeats Greeles). 322 Aylesford (Britons defeat Saxons: Horsa lilled)..

453 Caudine Forks (Roman army captured).. 321 Crayford, Kent (Hengist defeats Britons).

457 Gaza (Ptolemy defeats Demetrius). 312 Soissons (Ciovis defeats Syagrius and Romans).

483 Ecnomus or Himera (Carthaginians defeat Agathocles).. 311 Verona (Theodoric defeats Odoacer)...

.27 Sept. 489 Fabius defeats the Tuscans. 310 Tolbarh, or Zulpich (Clovis defeals Alrman:ui).

496 Vadimonian lake (Etruscans defeated). 309 Vougló (Cioris defeats Visigoths)

507 Ipsus (Seleucus defeats Antigonus, who is slain).

301 Baddesdown hill (Britons defeat Saronx). .? 493, 511 Sentinum (Romans defeat Samnites).. 295 Veseronce (Gondemar defeats Clodomir).

524 Gauls defeat Romans at Arretium, 284; defeated by Dola- Victories of Belisarius in Africa, etc..

.533–4 bella... 283 Narses defeats Totila, 552; and Teias.

553 Vadimonian lako (Etruscans defeated)..

Heraclius defeats the Persians (Chosroes).

622 Corus (Lysimachus defeated and killed). 281 Beder (first victory of Mahomet)...

623 Pandosia (Pyrrhus defeats Romans).. 280 Muta (Mahometans defeat Christians).

629 Asculum (ditto)... 279 Hatfield (Heathfield; Penda defeats Edwin).

633 Beneventum (Romans defeat Pyrrhus).

275 Ajnadin (Saracens defeat Heraclius)..

.13 July, First Punic War begins..

264 Yermuk (Saracens victors).

23 Aug. 634 Mylæ, n. (Romans defeat Carthaginians).

260 Yermuk (Saracens defeat Heraclius)

Nov. 636 Xantippus defeats Regulus ... 255 Saracens subdue Syria..

.636-8 Panormus (Hasdrubal defeated by Metellus).. 250 Kadseah (Arabs defeat Persians)

6:38 Drepanum, n. (Carthaginians defeat Romans).. 249 Saracens take Alexandria..

640 Lilybæum taken by Romans.

241 Near Oswestry (Penda defeats Oswald of NorthumberÆgates, n. (Romans defeat Carthaginians)..

land)

..5 Aug. 642 Ladocea (Achæans defeated). 226 Leeds (Oswy defeats Penda, who is slain)..

655 Clusium or Pisæ (Gauls defeated).

225 Day of the Camel (Ali victor)

4 Nov, 656 Sellasia (Macedonians defeat Spartans). 221 Saracens defeated by Wamba in Spain.

675 Caphyæ (Achæans defeat Ætolians). 220 Testri (Pepin defeats Thierry)

687 Saguntum (laken by Hannibal),

219 Xeres (Saracens defeat Roderic).

.19-26 July, 711 Second Punic War. —Tacinus (Hannibal defeats Romans) 218 Amblef and Vincy (Charles Martel defeats Neustrians). 716-17 Tacinus and Trebia (ditto)...

Tours (Charles Martel defeats the Saracens).......10 Oct. 732 Thrasymene (ditto). . 217 Victories of Charlemagne

.775-800 Raphia (Antiochus defeated by Ptol. Philopator).

Roncesvalles (death of Roland)

778 Canne (Victory of Hannibal). .2 Aug. 216 Hengestdown (Danes defeated by Egbert).

835 Munda (Scipio defeats Hasdrubal).

Charmouth (Ethelwolf defeated by the Danes).

840 Marcellus and Hannibal (former leilled)..

209 Fontenaille, or Fontaneta (Lothaire defeated by Charles Metaurus (Nero defeats Xasdrubal, who is killed). 207

and Louis)..

..25 June, 841 Zama (Scipio defeats Hannibal).. 202 Clavijo (Moor's defeated)...

844 Abydos (siege of).. 200 Albaida (Musa and Moors defeated).

852 Pancas (Antiochus defeats Egyptians, etc.).. 198 Danes defeat king Edmund of East Anglia

870 Cynoscephalæ (Romans defeat Macedonians). 197 Assendon, or Ashdown (Danes defeated).

871 Boii defeated at the Vadimonian lake.

191 Basing and Merton (Danes victorious). Thermopylæ (Greeles defeated).

Hafsfiord (Harold Hürfager's final victory).

872 Magnesia (Scipio defeats Antiochus).

190 Wilton (Danes victorious over Alfred). Pydna (Romans defeat Perseus).. .22 June, 168 Andernach (Charles the Bald defeated).

.8 Oct. 876 Eleasa (Judas Maccabæus killed). 161 Ethandun (Alfred defeats Danes). .

878 Third Punic War..... 149 Farnham (Danes defeated)...

894 Leucopetra (Mummius defeats Achæans). 147 Zamora (Alfonso defeats Moors).

901 Carthage taken by Publius Scipio... 146 Bury (Edward defeats Ethelwald and Danes)

905 Mummius takes Corinth..

Tettenhall (Danes defeated)...

.6 Aug. 910 Allobroges defeated by Q. Fabius Maximus. 121 Soissons (king Robert, victor, killed)..

923 Metellus defeats Jugurtha... 109 Merseburg (Germans defeat Hungarians).

934 Arausio (Cimbri defeat Romans)... 105 Brunanburg (Northmen defeated)

937 Aquæ Sextiæ (Aix; Marius defeats the Teutones). 102 Simincas (Spaniards defeat Moors)

...6 Aug. 938 Cimbri and Romans (de feated by Marius).. 101 Nicephorus Phocas defeats Saracens.

962 Chæronea (Sylla defeats Mithridates's army)..

86 Basientello (Olho II. defeated by Greeks). ..13 July, 982 Sacriportus (Marius defeated by Sylla)..

82 Clontarf (Danes defeated in Ireland).

23 April, 1014 Cabeira (Lucullus defeats Mithridates).

71 Zetunium (Bulgarians defeated)..

,29 July, Petelia (Spartacus defeated by Crassus).

Brentford (Edmund defeats Danes).

. May, 1016 Tigranocerta (Lucullus defeats Tigranes).

69 Assingdon, Ashdon (Canute defeats Edmund) Pistoria (Catiline defeated)..

62 Sticklestadt (Olaf defeated by Swedes). .29 July, 1030 Cesar defeats Cassivelaunus in Britain. 54 Civitella (Normans defeat Leo LP.).

1053 Carrhæ (Crassus defeated by Parthians). .9 June, 53 Dunsinane (Macbeth defeated)

1054 Pharsalia (Cæsar defeats Pompey)..

.9 Ang
48 Fulford (Norwegians defeat English)

.20 Sept. 1066 Zela (Cæsar defeats Pharnaces; writes “Veni, vidi, Stanford Bridge (Ilarold defeats Tostig). .25 Sept. vici).....

47 Hastings (Wițiam I. defeais Harold).

14 Oct. Thapsus (Cæsar defeats Pompey's friends). 46 Fladenheim (emperor: Henry defeated).

1080 Munda (ditto) 17 March, 45 Crusales commence..

1090 Mutina (Hirtius defeats Antony)..

27 April,

43 Alnwick (Scots defeated, Malcolm slain). 13 Nov. 1093 Philippi (Brutus and Cassius defeated). .

42 Dorylæum (Crusaders defeat Turks).

1 July, 1097 Mylæ, n. (Agrippa defeats Pompey the Younger)..

36 Ascalon (Crusader's victorious)...

.12 Aug. 1099 Actium, n. (Octavius defeats Antony)...

.2 Sept.
31 Tinchebray (Robert of Normandy defeated).

1106 Brenneville (Henry İ. defeated French)

Aug. 1119 Teutoburg (Varus defeated by Herman) A.D. 9 Fraga (Moors defeat Spaniards)..

17 July, 1134 Shropshire (Caraclacus laken)...

50 Northallerton, or batile of the Standard (David I. and Sunbury (Romans defeat Boadicea)

61 Scots defeated)....

22 Aug. 1138 Jerusalem taken by Titus....

To Ourique (Portuguese defeat Moors).

25 July, 1139 Agricola conquers Mona, or Anglesea

78 Lincoln (Stephen defeated)...

2 Feb. 1141 Ardoch (he defeats Galgacus and Caledonians). 84 Jaen (Moors defeated by Spaniards)..

1157 Dacians defeated and Decebalus slain.

106 Carcano (Frederic I. defeated by Italians) .9 Aug. 1160 Issus (Niger slain). ...

194 Alnwick (William the Lion defeated).

12 July, 1174 Lyons (Severus defeats Albinus)

197 Legnano (Italians defeat emperor). .

29 May, 1176 Verona (emperor Philip defeated and killed).

249 Tiberias (Saladin defeats Crusaders). ..3, 4 July, 1187 Decius defeated and slain by Goths..

251 Ascoli (Tancred defeats emperor Henry VI.'s army)..... 1190 Valerian defeated and captured by Sapor.

260 Acre taken by Crusaders..

12 July, 1191 Naïssus (Claudius defeats Goths, many slain).

269 Arsouf (Richard I. defeats Saracens).

.6 Sept. Châlons (Aurelian victor over rivals).

274 Frèteville (Richard I. defeats Philip II.). .15 July, 1194 Allectus defeated in Britain....

296 Arcadiapolis (Bulgarians defeat emperor Isaac). Constantine defeats Maxentius (sec Cross). 27 Oct. 312 Alarcos (Moors defeat Spaniards).

19 July, 1195 Adrianople (Constantine defeats Licinius).. .3 July, 323 Gisors (Richard I. defeals French)..

20 Sept. 1198 Aquileia (Constantine II. slain) March, 340 Tolosa (Moors defeated)..

16 July, 1212 Julian defeats Alemanni.. .356, 357 Muret (Albigenses defeated)

12 Sept. 1213 Thyatira and Nacolea (Procopius defealed).

366 Bouvines (French defeat Germans).

27 July, 1214 Argentaria (Gratian defeats Alemanni). May, 378 Lincoln (French defeated)...

20 May, 1217 Adrianople (Gauls de frat Valens)

.9 Aug. Corte Nuova (Frederic II. defeats Milanese). 27 Nov. 1237 Aquileia (Maximus slain)...

.28 July, 388 Taillebourg (French defeat Henry III.) 20 July, 1242 Aquileia (Eugenius slain).. .6 Sept. 394 | Carizmians defcated twice..

1247

66

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Fossalta (Ghibellines defeated).
,23 May, 1249 Garigliano (Gonsalvo defeats French)..

27 Dec. 1503 Mansourah (Louis IX. and Crusaders defeated). 1250 Agnadello (French defeat Venetians).

14 May, 1509 Largs (Scots defeat Northmen)..

.3 Oct. 1263 Ravenna (Gaston de Foix, victor, killed). .11 April, 1512 Lewes (English barons victorious).

,14 May, 1264 Novara (Papal Swiss defeat French).. ...6 June, 1513 Evesham (Barons defeated; De Montfort killed).. 4 Aug. 1265 Guinegate (Spurs) (French defeated)

.16 Aug Benevento (Charles of Anjou defeats Manfred)...26 Feb. 1266 Flodden (English defeat Scots)..

.9 Sept. Tagliacozzo (Charles defeats Conradin).. .23 Aug. 1268 Marignano (French defeat Swiss).

. 13-15 Sept. 1515 Marchfeld (Austrians defeat Bohemians). .26 Aug. 1278 Bicocca, near Milan (Lautrec defeated). .29 April, 1522 Aber Edw (Llewellyn of Wales defeated) ,11 Dec. 1282 Pavia (Francis I. defeated).

.24 Feb. 1525 Zagrab (defeat of Charles Martel).

1292 Frankenhausen (Anabaptists defeated). .15 May, Dunbar (Scots defeated) .. .27 April, 1296 Mobacz (Turks defeat Hungarians).

.29 Aug. 1526 Cambuskenneth (Wallace defeats English). ..10 Sept. 1297 Cappel (Zwinglius slain).

.11 Oct. 1531 Gælheim (Adolphus of Nassau defeated) 2 July, 1298 Lauffen (Hessians defeat Austrians)

.13 May, 1534 Falkirk (Wallace defeated)... .22 July, Assens (Christian III. defeats Danish rebels).

1535 Courtray (Flemings defeat count of Artois). .11 July, 1302 Abancay (Almagro defeats Alvarado). ..12 July, 1537 Roslin, Scotland (Comyn defeats English).. .24 Feb. 1303 Solway Moss (English defeat Scots).

25 Nov. 1512 Cephisus (Brienne, duke of Athens, defeated) March, 1311 Ceresuola (French defeat Imperialists) 14 April, 1544 Bannockburn (Bruce defeats English). . 24 June, 1314 Müblberg (Charles V. defeats Protestants). 24 April, 1547 Morgarten (Swiss defeat Austrians). 15 Nov. 1315 Pinkey (English defeat Scots)..

10 Sept. Athenry (Irish defeated) ..10 Aug. 1316 Ket's rebellion suppressed by Warwick.

. Aug. 1549 Foughard, or Dundalk (Edward Bruce defeated)...5 Oct. 1318 Marciano (Florentines defeat French).

.3 Aug. 1554 Boroughbridge (Edward III. defeats Barons).,16 March, 1322 St. Quentin (Spanish and English defeat French).10 Aug. 1557 Mühldorf (Bavarians defeat Austrians). ...... 28 Sept.

Calais (taken)...

...7 Jan. 1558 Duplin (Edward Baliol defeats Mar) ...11 Aug. 1332 Gravelines, n. (Spanish and English deft. French). 13 July, Halidon Hill (Edward II). defeats Scots).. .19 July, 1333 Dreux, in France (Huguenots defeated). ..19 Dec. 1562 Tarifa (Moors defeated)..

.28 or 30 Oct. 1340 Carberry Hill (Mary of Scotland defeated). .15 June, 1567 Auberoche (earl of Derby defeats French).. 19 Aug. 1344 St. Denis (ditlo)

..10 Nov. Crecy (English defeat French).. . 26 Aug. 1346 Langside (ditto)

.13 May, 1568 Durham, Nevil's Cross (Scots defeated). 17 Oct. Jarnac (Huguenots defeated).

13 March, 1569 La Roche Darien (Charles of Blois defeated).. 1347 Moncontour (Coligny defeated)

3 Oct. Poitiers (English defeat French).. .19 Sept. 1356 Lepanto, n. (Don John defeats Turks).

7 Oct. 1571 Cocherel (Du Guesclin defeats Navarre) .16 May, 1364 Dormans (Guise defeats Huguenots).

.10 Oct. 1575 Auray (Du Guesclin defeated)

29 Sept. Alcazar-quiver (oors defeat Portuguese). .4 Aug. 1578 Najara (Navarrete, Logroño) (Black Prince defeats Henry Alcantara (Spaniards defeat Portuguese). .24 June, 1580 of Trastamare)..

.3 April, 1367 Zutphen (Dutch and English defeat Spaniards)..22 Sept 1586 Montiel (Peter of Castile defeated). .14 March, 1369 Coutras (Henry IV. defeats League)..

20 Et. 1587 Rosbecque (French defeat Flemings). 27 Nov. 1382 Spanish Armada defeated, n...

July, Aug. 1588 Aljubarrota (Portuguese defeat Spaniards) .14 Aug. 1385 Arques (Henry IV. defeats League).

21 Sept. 1589 Sempach (Swiss defeat Austrians).. .9 July, 1386 Ivry, or Yvres (ditto)

.14 March, 1590 Otterburn (Chevy Chase; Scots victors) .....10 Aug 1388 Epernay taken by Henry IV. of France.. ..26 July, 1502 Näfels (Swiss defeat Austrians)

Fontaine Française (Henry IV. beats Spaniards).5 June, 1595 Cossova (Turks defeat Albanians, and Amurath 1. killed), Blackwater, (Tyrone and rebels defeat Bagnal).

....14 Aug 1598 Sept. 1389 Nieuport (Maurice defeats Austrians).

1600 Nicopolis (Turks defeat Christians). .28 Sept. 1396 Kinsale (Tyrone reduced by Mountjoy).

1601 Nesbit (Scots defeated). ..7 May, 1402 Kirchholm (Poles defeat Swedes).

1605 Ancyra (Timour defeats Bajazel).

28 July,
Gibraltar (Dutch defeat Spaniards).

1607 Homeldon Hill (English defeat Scots)

.14 Sept.
Prague (king of Bohemia defeated)

.8 Nov. 1620 Shrewsbury (Percies, etc., defeated).

23 July, 1403 Dessau (Wallenstein defeats Mansfeld). . 25 April, 1626 Bramham Moor (Henry IV. defeats rebels). .19 Feb. 1408 Rochelle (taken)...

.28 Oct. 16:28 Tannenberg (Poles defeat Teuton knights) .15 July, 1410 Stuhm (Gustavus defeals Pales).. Harlaw (Lord of the Isles defeated)..

.21 July, 1411 Leipsic, or Breitenfeld (Gustavus defeats Tilly)... 7 Sept. 1631 Agincourt (English defeat French).

25 Oct. 1415 Lech (Imperialists defeated; Tilly killed)........5 April, 1632 Prague (Hussites under Ziska victors). .14 July, 1420 Lippstadt, Lutzingen, or Lutzen (Swedes victorious; GusAnjou, Beaugó (English defeated by Scols).. .22 March, 1421 tavus slain).

..(N. 8.) 16 Nov. Crevant (English defeat French and Scots). 11 June, 1423 Nordlingen (Swedes defeated).

.27 Aug. 1634 Aquila (Aragonese ile feated by Italians).. .2 June, 1424 Arras (taken by the French).

..10 Aug. 1640 Verneuil (English defeat French and Scots) .....17 Aug. Leipsic (Swedes defeat Austrians)...

.23 Oct. 1642 Herrings (English defeat French)... .12 Feb. 1429 Rocroy (French defeat Spaniards).

19 May, 1643 Orleans (siege relieved).. .29 April, Friedburg (Condé victor)

...3-5 Aug. 1614 Patay (English defeated by Joan of Arc).

.18 June,
Nordlingen (Turenne defeats Austrians)

1615 Lippau, or Böhmischbrod (Hussites defeated). ...28 May, 1434 Kunobitza (Hunniades deseals the Turks). 24 Dec. 1443

CIVIL WAR IN ENGLAND. St. Jacob (French defeat Swiss)...

26 Aug. 1444 Varna (Turks defeat Ilungarians)

.10 Nov
Worcester (prince Rupert victor)..

23 Sept. 1642 Cossova (Turks defeat Ilunniades).. .17 Oct 1448 Edgehill Bght (issue doubtful).

..23 Oct. Formigni (English defeated by French).

....Jan. 1643 .15 April, 1450

Bradock-down (Parliamentarians defealed). Sevenoaks (Jack Cade defeats Stafford) ..27 June,

Bramham Moor (Fairfax defeated).

.29 March, Aibar (Agramonts defeat Beaumonts). .23 Oct. 1452 Stratton (Royalists victorious)..

16 May, Brechin, Scotland (Huntley defeats Crawford)...18 May,

Chalgrove (Hampden killed)..

18 June,

.30 June, Castillon, Chatillon (French defeat Talbot).17 or 23 July, 1453 Atherton Moor (Royalists victorious)

Lansdown (dilto).....

.5 July, Devizes, or Roundway-down (ditto).

13 July, WAR OF THE COSES-YORKISTS AND 'LANCASTRIANS.

Gainsborough (Cromwell victor)..

.. 27 July, St. Albans (Yorkists victorious).. 22 or 23 May, 1455 Newbury (favorable to Royalists)

.20 Sept. Bloreheath (Yorkists victors). .23 Sept. 1459 Cheriton, or Alresford (ditto)..

.29 March, 1614 Northampton (ditto, Henry VI. taken). .10 July, 1460 Cropredy Bridge (Charles I. victor)..

29 June Wakefield (Lancastrians victors).

.31 Dec. Marston Moor (prince Rupert defeated).. .2 July, Mortimer's Cross (Yorleists victorious).

2 Feb. 1461 Tippermuir (Montrose defeats Covenanters). .1 Sept. St. Albans (Lancastrians victors). 17 Feb. Newbury (indecisive)

27 Oct. Towton (Yorkists victorious). 29 March, Naseby (Charles I. totally defeated)..

.14 June, 1645 Hexham (Yorkists victors).

. 15 May, 1464 Alford (Montrose defeats Covenanters). ...2 July, Edgecote, or Banbury (Yorkists defeated). 26 July, 1469 Kilsyth (dixo)...

. 15 Aug. Stamford (Lancastrians defeated). 13 March, 1470 Philiphaugh (Covenanters defeat Montrose).

13 Sept. Barnet (ditto)... .14 April, 1171 Benburb (O'Neill defeats English).

.5 June, 1646 Tewkesbury (dilto)..

..4 May,
Dungan Hill (Irish defeated)..

.8 Aug. 1547 Preston (Cromwell victor)

.17 Aug. 1018 Belgrade (Mahomet II. repulsed).

.4 Sept. 1456
Rathmines (Irish Royalists defeated).

.2 Aug. 1649 Montlhery (Louis X1. and nobles; indecisive) .., 16 July, 1465 Drogheda (taken by storm).. Grudson (Swiss defeat Charles the Bold). ..3 March, 1476 Corbiesdale (Montrose defeated)..

27 April, 1650 Morat (ditlo)..

.22 June,
Dunbar (Cromquell defeats Scots). .

..3 Sept. Nancy (Charles the Bold killed)

.5 Jan. 1477
Worcester (Cromwell defeats Charles II.). . .3 Sept. 1651

1652 Bosworth (Richard III. defeated).

.22 Aug. 1485 Galway (surrendered). Stoke (Lambert Simnel taken)..

..16 June, 1487 Daventry (Lambert defeated by Monk) .21 April, 1660 St. Aubin (Orleans defeated).

28 July, 1488 Sauchieburn, near Bannockburn (James III. defeated by Arras. France (Turenne defeats Condé)

1654 rebels).

Dunkirk (ditto),

14 June, 1658 Fornovo (French defeat Italians).

.6 July, 1495 Estremoz (Don John defeated by Schomberg). .....8 June, 1663 Seminara (French defeat Spaniards).

St. Gotthard (Montecuculi defeats Turks)... . 1 Aug. 1664 Blackheath (Cornish rebels defeated) 22 June, 1497 Villa Viciosa (Portuguese defeat Spaniards)

1665 Seminara (Gonsalvo defeats French). .21 April, 1503 Pentland hills (Covenanters defealed)..

28 Nov. 1666 Cerignola (litto). . .28 April, Candia (taken by Turks)

.6 Sept. 1669

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.... Dec,

Choczim (Sobieski defeats Turks).
11 Nov. 1673 | Landshut, Silesia (Prussians defeated)...

.......23 June, 1760 Seneffe (French and Dutch ; indecisive).. .11 Aug. 1674 Warburg (Ferdinand defeats French). ........31 July, Ensisheim (Turenne defeats Imperialists). ....4 Oct. Pfaffendorf (Frederick defeats Austrians)........15 Aug. Mülhausen (ditto)..

..31 Dec.

Kloster Campen (English and Germans with French ; inTurckheim (ditto).. ...5 Jan. 1675 decisive).

. 15, 16 Oct. Salzbach (Turenne lilled).. .27 July, Torgau (Frederick defeats Austrians).

1.3 Nov. Drumclog (Covenanters defeat Claverhouse). .1 June, 1679 Kirchdenkern (Allies defeat French).. .15 July, 1761 Bothwell Brigg (Monmouth defeats Covenanters). 22 June, Schweidnitz (Frederick II. defeats Austrians). .. 16 May, 1762 Vienna (Turks defeated by Sobieski). ..12 Sept. 1683 Johannisberg (French defeat Prussians). ..30 Aug. Sedgemoor (Monmouth defeated)

...6 July, 1685 Freiberg (Prussians defeat Austrians). .... 29 Oct. 1761 Mohacz (Turks defeated)..

..12 Aug. 1687 Killiecrankie (Highlanders defeat Mackay). ....27 July, 1689 Buxar (Munro defeats army of Oude).. ..23 Oct. 1764 Newtown-butler (Jacobites defeated)..

.30 July, Choczim (Russians defeat Turks)...30 April and 13 July, 1769 Boyne (William III. defeats James II.). .1 July, 1690 Galatz (Russians defeat Turks)..

Nov. Fleurus (Charleroi, Luxembourg victor). .1 July, Bender taken by Russians...

..28 Sept. 1770 Athlone taken by Ginckel. 30 June, 1691 Brailow (Russians defeat Turks).

..19 June, 1773 Aughrim (James II.'s cause ruined). ..12 July,

Silistria (taken)....

1774 Salenckemen (Louis of Baden defeats Turks)....19 Aug.

AMERICAN REVOLUTIONARY WAR.
Enghein or Steenkirk (William III. defeated)... 24 July, 1692
Landen (William NII. defeated)..
..19 July, 1693 Lexington (first skirmish).,

.19 April, 1775 Marsaglia (Pignerol) (French victors).

.4 Oct.
Concord (first British blood shed)..

.19 April, Zenta (prince Eugène defeats Turks) ...11 Sept. 1697 Ticonderoga (captured by Ethan Allen).. .10 May, Narva (Charles XII. defeats Russians). ..30 Nov. 1700 Bunker Hill..

.17 June, Carpi, Modena (Allies defeat French). ..9 July, 1701 Montreal (taken by Montgomery).

..13 Nov.

6 Chiari (Austrians defeat French).. ..1 Sept. Quebec (Montgomery killed).

31 Dec. Clissau (Charles XII. defeats Poles). 20 July, 1702 Norfolk

.1 Jan. 1776 Santa Vittoria (French victors).. .26 July, Moore's Creek Bridge..

27 Feb. Friedlingen (French defeat Germans).

14 Oct.
Boston (evacuated by British).

.17 March, Pultusk (Swedes defeat Poles). ...1 May, 1703 Fort Sullivan, Charleston..

28 June, Hochstadt (French defeat Austrians). ..20 Sept. Brooklyn, Long Island.

27 Aug Donauwerth (Marlborough victor). ....2 July, 1704 Harlem Heights....

.16 Sept. Gibraltar (taken by Rooke). .24 July, White Plains

28 Oct. Blenheim or Hochstadt (Marlborough victor), (0.8.) 2 Aug.

Fort Washington (captured by the British). .16 Nov. Tirlemont (Marlborough successful).

.18 July,

1705
Trenton..

.26 Dec. Cassano (prince Eugène ; indecisive). ..16 Aug. Princeton

...3 Jan. 1777 Mittau (taken by Russians).. .14 Sept. Hubbardton.

..7 July, Ramillies (Marlborough defeats French). ..23 May, 1706 Bennington Heights.

.16 Aug. Turin (French defeated by Eugène)..

...7 Sept.
Brandywine.

.11 Sept. Kalitsch (Russians defeat Swedes).

19 Nov.
First Battle of Bemis's Heights..

. 19 Sept. Almanza (French defeat Allies)... 14 (0. 8.) or 25 April, 1707

Paoli..

.20 Sept. Oudenarde (Marlborough victor). .11 July, 1708 Philadelphia captured by British.

.25 Sept. Licsna. Lenzo (Russians defeat Swedes). ....autumn,

Germantown..

... 4 Oct. Lisle (taken by the Allies).

Forts Clinton and Montgomery (talcen).

.6 Oct. Pultowa (Peter defeats Charles XII.). .8 July, 1709 Second battle of Bemis's Heights..

.7 Oct. Malplaquet (Marlborough victor)..

..11 Sept.
Saratoga (Burgoyne's surrender).

17 Oct. Dobro (Russians defeat Swedes). .20 Sept. Fort Mercer.

22 Oct. Almenara (Austrians defeat French). ..28 July, 1710 Fort Mifflin.

16 Nov. Saragossa (Willo)..

..20 Aug.
Monmouth

28 June, 1778 Villa Viciosa (Austrians defeated)..

..10 Dec.
Schoharie (Indians).

2 July, Arleux (Marlborough forces French lines). ...5 Aug. 1711 Wyoming.

.3, 4 July, Bouchain (taken by Marlborough).. ,13 Sept. Savannah.

.29 Dec. Denain (Villars defeats Allies).. 24 July, 1712 Kettle Creek (Ga.).

.14 Feb. 1779 Friburg (taken by French).

.7 Nov. 1713
Brier Creek..

.3 March, Preston (rebels defeated).. . 12, 13 Nov. 1715 Stono Ferry.

.20 June, Dumblane or Sheriff-Muir (indecisive).

. 13 Nov.
Stony Point.

16 July, Peterwardein (Eugène defegts Turks). .5 Aug. 1716 Paulus's Hook.

19 Aug. Belgrade (ditto)... 16 Aug. 1717 Bonhomme Richard and Serapis, n..

.23 Sept. Bitonto (Spaniards defeat Germans). .27 May, 1734 Savannah.

..9 Oct. Parma (Austrians and French ; indecisive). .29 June, Charleston (surrender to British).

12 May, 1780 Guastalla (Austrians defeated).. .19 Sept. Washaw (massacre of Buford's men).

29 May, Erivan (Nadir Shah defeats Turks).

...June, 1735
Springfield..

23 June, Krotzka (Turks defeat Austrians). .22 July, 1739 Rocky Mount.

30 June, Molwitz (Prussians defeat Austrians) ..10 April, 1741 Hanging Rock...

.7 Aug. Dettingen (George II. defeats French). ..16 June, 1743 Sanders's Creek, near Camden.. Fontenoy (Saxe defeats Cumberland). ..30 April, 1745 King's Mountain..

...7 Oct. Hohenfreiburg (Prussians defeat Austrians).....4 June,

Fish Dam Ford, Broad River.

12 Nov. Blackstocks.

20 Nov. SCOTS' REBELLION. Cowpens

.17 Jan. 1781 Preston Pans (rebels defeat Cope). .21 Sept. 1745 Cowan's Ford.

.1 Feb. Clifton Moor (rebels defeated).. 18 Dec. Haw (total defeat of the loyalists).

.25 Feb. Falkirk (rebels defeat Hawley). .17 Jan. 1746 Guilford...

.15 March, Culloden (Cumberland defeats rebels).. ..16 April,

Hobkirk's Hill

25 April, Ninety-six (besieged).

. May and June, St. Lazaro (Sardinians defeat French).. 4 June, 1746 Augusta (besieged)

. May and June, Placentia (Austrians defeat French).

..16 June,
Jamestown.

.....9 July, Raucoux (Saxe defeats Allies).

.11 Oct.

New London (taken by Benedict Arnold).........5 Sept. Laffeldt (Saxe defeats Cumberland). ..2 July, 1747 Fort Griswold (captured by the British).

..5 Sept. Exilles (Sardinians defeat French).

,19 July,
Eutaw Springs..

.8 Sept. Bergen-op-Zoom (taken)...

.15 Sept.
Yorktown (Cornwallis surrendered).

.19 Oct. Fort du Quesne (Braddock killed). .9 July, 1755 Blue Licks (Indians)...

19 Aug. 1782 Calcutta (taken by Surajah Dowlah). .. 20 June, 1756 [Other but inferior actions took place with varying success to Niagara (English take Fort)...

..24 July, 1759

both parties.] Quebec (Wolfe, victor, killed).

..13 Sept. Wandewash (Coote defeats Lally).. .22 Jan. 1760 Arcot (Hyder defeats British).

.31 Oct. 1780 Porto Novo (Coote defeats Hyder)..

..1 July, 1781 SEVEN YEARS' WAR, 1756-63. Rodney's victory over De Grasse, n.. 12 April, 1782

2 June, * Prague (Frederick defeats Allies).. .....6 May, 1757 Arnee (Coote defeats Hyder)...

.18 June,

Attack on Gibraltar fails.. Kollin (Frederick defeated)..

13 Sept. Plassey (Clive's victory).

.23 June,
Bedmore (taken by Tippoo Sahib).

.30 April, 1783 Norkitten (Russians defeated)..

.13 Aug.
Martinesti (Austrians defeat Turies)..

22 Sept. 1789 Ismail (taken by storm by Suwarrow).

22 Dec. 1790 Rosbach (Frederick defeats French)

,5 Nov. .22 Nov.

Bangalore (taken by storm)... Breslau (Austrians victors)..

21 March, 1791 Arikera (Tippoo de fealed).

15 May, Lissa (Frederick defeats Austrians).

.5 Dec. Creveldt (Ferdinand defeats French). .23 June, 1758 Seringapatum (ditio).

,6 Feb. 1792 Zorndorff (Frederick defeats Russians). . 25, 26 Aug.

FRENCH REVOLUTIONARY WAR BEGINS.
Hochkirchen (Austrians defeat Prussians). ..14 Oct.
Bergen (French defeat Allies)..
.13 April, 1759 Quiévrain (French repulsed)..

28 April, 1792 Zullichau (Russians defeat Prussians). 23 July, Valmy (French defeat Prussians).

..20 Sept Minden (Ferdinand defeats French).. .1 Aug. Jemappes (French victorious)..

...6 Nov, Cunnersdorf (Russians defeat Prussians). .12 Aug

Neerwinden (French beaten by Austrians)..... 18 March, 1793

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