Page images


.1831 ..1845




.. 1675

ican Association for the Advancement of Education, 1849; | first used by the French in the reign of Louis XIII.
American Association for the advancement of Science, 1845; (about 1610).
Association of American Geologists, 1840.
Upsal, Royal Society, Sciences, 1720.

Accession, The, i. e, that of the House of HanoVenice, Medical, etc., 1701.

ver to the throne of Great Britain, in the person of Verona, Music, 1543; Sciences, 1780. Vienna, Sculpture and the Arts, 1705; Surgery, 1783; Oriental, George I., elector of Hanover, son of Sophia, daughter

of Elizabeth, daughter of James I. He succeeded, 1 Warsaw, Languages and History, 1753.

Aug. 1714, by virtue of the act of settlement passed in Washington, United States, America, 1863.

the reign of William III., 12 June, 1702, which limited Academy. An educational institution, in grade be- the succession to his mother (as a Protestant) in the tween a school and a college. Among the most impor- event of queen Anne dying without issue. tant in the United States are: the Free Academy of

Accessories to CRIMES. The law respecting New York, established 1851; Phillips Academy of Ando-them consolidated and amended in 1861. ver, Mass., 1780; Phillips Academy, Exeter, 1781; Gro

Accidents, see under Coal, Fires, Railways, etc. ton (now Lawrence) Academy, 1845; Boston Latin School , 1635; Brooklyn Collegiate and Polytechnic In- For compensation for accidents, see Cumpbell's Act and

Passengers. In 1865 it was computed that, in one year, stitute, 1854.

about 250 persons are killed, and 1200 injured, in the Academy, Military. A special school for the in- streets of London ; 231 were killed in 1875; 237 killed, struction of youth in military or naval science and art. 3187 injured, 1 Jan. 1878-31 Jan. 1879; 136 killed in Such are, for instance:

1879. Addiscombe, East India Company..


Accident Relief Society, London, established 1836. Alabama, Military.

Society for Preventing Street Accidents and Dangerous Driv. Annapolis, Md., Naval..

ing, formed in 1879; met at the Mansion House, London, 30 Brest, Military


Jan. 1880; wound up, 1 July, 1881.
Kentucky, Military.
Lexington, Va., Military
University of Chicago, Military

1856, 9716 1862, 9005 1868, 11,033 1874, 11,783 Louisiana, Military.

1857, 8930 1863, 9952 1869, 10,725 1875, 12, 254 Lehigh University, Pa., Military.

1858, 8947 1864, 10,997 1870, 10,906 1876, 11,681 North Carolina, Military.


1859, 9241 1865, 11, 397 1871, 11,316 1877, 11.194 Norwich, Vt., Military


1860, 9225 1866, 11,262 1872, 11,435 1878, 12, 108 Portsmouth, England, Naval.


1861, 92131867, 11, 172 1873, 11,284 1879, 10,787 St. Cyr, Military.

1803 St. Petersburg, Military

Acclimatization OF ANIMALS. This has been Sandhurst, Military

..1812 prosecuted with great vigor since the establishment of Toulon, Military.

.. 1682 the Zoological Society of London in 1829, and of the Turin, Military Vincennes, Military.


Société d'Acclimatation in Paris. Numbers of European West Point, Military*.

.1802 animals have been naturalized in Australia; the camel Woolwich, Artillery and Engineering..

.1711 has been conveyed to Brazil (1859); alpacas are bred at Acadia, see Nova Scotia.

Paris; and ostriches in Italy (1859). On 6 Oct. 1860, Acanthus, the foliage forming the volutes of the the Bois de Boulogne, near Paris, was opened as a 200Corinthian capital, ascribed to Callimachus, about 540 B.C.

logical garden, containing only acclimatized animals.

An English acclimatization society was founded 10 June, Acapulco, Mexico. A Spanish galleon, from Aca- 1860, by hon. Grantley Berkeley, Mr. J. Crockford, Mr. pulco, laden with gold and precious wares (estimated at F. Buckland, etc., and the prince of Wales became presabove 1,000,0001. sterling), taken by commodore Anson, ident in April, 1865. It was not successful. An accliwho had previously acquired booty in his voyage amount- matizing garden was established at Melbourne, Ausing to 600,0001., June, 1743. He arrived at Spithead in tralia, in Feb. 1861, and efforts made to naturalize Engthe Centurion, having circumnavigated the globe, 15 lish birds, fishes, etc. June, 1744. Acarnania, N. Greece. The people became prom- Ravenna and other places in Italy, 1874.

Accoltellatori (gladiators), secret assassins, at inent in the Peloponnesian war, having invited the help of the Athenians against the Ambracians, 432 B.C. The

Accordion, a small free-reed wind-instrument with Acarnanians were subdued by the Lacedæmonians in keys, invented at Vienna by Damian about 18:29, and 390; they took part with Macedon against the Romans soon after introduced into England. in 200, by whom they were defeated in 197, and subju

Accountant-General in CHANCERY, etc., an ofgated in 145.

fice instituted in 1726, and abolished by an act passed 6 Accadians, a name now given to the primitive in- Aug. 1872. In 1841, the office of accountant-general of habitants of Babylon. The rev. A. H. Sayce (1877) con

the court of exchequer was abolished, and the duties siders them to have been the earliest civilizers of East transferred to the accountant in chancery. ern Asia, and the source of the philosophy and arts of Accountants' INSTITUTE, established at a meetthe Assyrians and Phænicians, and hence of Greece. ing, 30 July, 1870; the Accountants' Society in 1872. Their libraries are said to have existed seventeen centu- Five societies were incorporated as “ The Chartered ries B.C.

Institute of Accountants of England and Wales” in Accents were first introduced in the Greek language

1880. by Aristophanes of Byzantium, a grammarian and critic Accusers. By occult writers, such as Agrippa, acwho taught at Alexandria about 264 B.C. Accents were cusers are the eighth order of devils, whose chief is

called Asteroth, or Spy. In Rer. xii. 10, the devil is * "This admirable institution has supplied the nation with called “the accuser of the brethren.” False accusers 2200 accomplished officers, of which any army might well be proud; has illed every arm of the service with talent, efficien- in the face with an F, by 37 Henry VIII. 1515.Stow.

were to be hanged, by 24 Henry VI, 1446; and burned cy, and integrity; has materially aided in successfully conducting three great wars; has constructed and armed our fortifications, improved our harbors, lakes, and rivers, defined with the thirty pieces of silver given to Judas Iscariot

Aceldama, a field said to have been the one bought our boundaries, surveyed and lighted our coasts, and explored the length and breadth of our land; has given to our militia for betraying Christ, is still shown to travellers. Matt. and volunteers large numbers of valuable officers, and to our xxvii. 8; Acts i. 19.This name was given to an estate colleges able presidents and professors; has furnished distin- purchased by judge Jeffreys after the “ bloody assizes” guished civil engineers, who have bound our territory togeth. er with a network of railways and cinals; ... and through

in 1685. the contributions and text books of its graduates has greatly elevated the s'ient fic standard of most of the educational

Acephali (Greek a, no; kepalń, head), a term apinstitutions throughout our country, and even extended its plied to certain sects who resisted their bishops and met influence" --G. W. Cullom.

privately, about 450; and since to levellers.


275, 274






Acetylene, a luminous hydrocarbon gas resembling | have been discovered through the advance of organic coal gas, discovered by Berthelot, and made known chemistry.- Watts. 1862.

Acolytes, an inferior order of clergy in the Latin Achaia (N. Peloponnesus), Greece, said to have been church, unknown to the Greek church for four hundred settled by Achæus, the son of Xuthus, about 1330 B.C. (?). years after Christ. The kingdom was united with Sicyon or subject to the

Acoustics (from Greek árouw, I hear), the science Ætolians until about 284 B.C. The Achæi, descendants of sound, so named by Sauveur in the 17th century: of Achæus, originally inhabited the neighborhood of The formation of sound in the air by the vibrations of Argos; but when the Heraclidæ drove them thence the atmosphere, strings, etc., was explained by Pythagthey retired among the Ionians, expelled the natives, oras about 500 B.C., and by Aristotle, 330 B.C.; see Teleand seized their thirteen cities, viz. Pellene, Ægira, Ægi- phone, Microphone, Megaphone. um, Bura, Tritea, Leontium, Rhypes, Cerynea, Olenos, Helice, Patræ, Dyme, and Pharæ, forming the ACHÆAŃ The speaking trumpet said to have been used by Alexander

the Great, 335 B.C. LEAGUE.

Galileo's discoveries, about A.D. 1600. Achaia invaded by Epaminondas..

His theorem of the harmonic curve demonstrated by Dr. The ACHAAN LEAGUE revived by four cities about 280,

Brook Taylor in 1714; further perfected by D'Alembert, Euand by others.

ler, Bernouilli, and La Grange, at various periods of the Aratus made prætor..


eighteenth century. The league joined by Corinth (captured 243), Megara,

Hooke calculated the vibration of sounds by the striking of 242-228

tbe teeth of brass wheels, 1681. Supported by Athens and Antigonus Doson

229 Sauveur determined the number of vibrations belonging to a The Achæans defeated at Ladocea, by the Spartans, un

given note, about 1700. der Cleomenes III., 226; totally defeat them at Sellasia 221 Velocity of sound said to be 1473 feet in a second by Gassendi; The Social war begun ; battle of Caphyæ in Arcadia;

1172 feet by Cassini, Römer, and others; 968 feet by News Aratus defeated


ton; 1090 feet, at the temperature of 320 Fahrenheit. by The Peloponnesus ravaged by the Ætolians.

Tyndall. The velocity increases with the rise of temperaPeace of Naupactus. . Aratus poisoned at Ægium..


Chladni (who raised acoustics to an independent science) pubPhilopoemen, Jeader of the league, defeats the Spartan

lished his important discoveries on the figures produced in tyrant Machanidas. ..


layers of sand by harmonic chords, etc., in 1787, and sipie. Alliance of the league with the Romans,

198 Cagniard-Latour, invented the Sirène (which see), 1819. Philopomen defeated by Nabis in a naval battle.


Savart determined the range of the perception of the human All the Peloponnesus joins the league..


ear to be from 7 to 24,000 vibrations a second, 1830. War with Messene : Philopæmen made prisoner and

Biot, Savart, Wheatstone, Lissajous, Helmholtz, Tyndall, and slain.

others, in the present century, have greatly increased our The Achaeans overrun Messenia with fire and sword.... 182

knowledge of acoustics. The Romans enter Achaia, and carry off numbers, in

Over-tones, harmonics, well invest gated by Helinholtz; 119cluding Polybius the historian. ...


der-tones by Auerbach, 1878. War with Rome, 150; Metellus enters Greece.

147 Tyndall's experiments off the South Foreland on fog-signals The Achæans defeated by Mummius at Leucopetra, 147;

and gun-cotton demonstrated that the transmission of sound the league dissolved; Corinth taken; Greece subjected

is checked by the non-homogeneity of the air, independentto Rome, and named the province of Achaia. .

ly of fog and rain, July, 1873. Achaia made a Latin principality by William of Cham- A.D.

The results of Tyndall's experiments showed that the rara. plitte...


bolic- muzzle gun with gun-cotton, and that of sir Richard Obtained by Geoffrey Villehardouin, 1210; by Geoffrey II. 1218

Collinson's gun-cotton rocket, are very eflective fog.signals. By his brother William, 1246; who conquers the Moors,

Fine-grain gunpowder with howitzers is the best sound. 1248; makes war with the emperor Michael, 1259; and

producer; pebble powder the worst, 1874–7. gains three fortresses..


Sound produced by electricity, light, and from radiant heat, Succeeded by Isabella, 1277; who marries Florenz of

see Telephone and Photophone, 1881. Haipault...

1291 Their daughter Maud, princess, 1311; thrice married;

Acre, a land measure, formerly of uncertain quantiforcibly married to John de Gravina, and dies in pris. ty, and differing in various parts of the country, was re

1324 duced to a standard by Edward I., about 1305. In 1824 Achaia, a fief of Naples..


the standard acre was ordered by statute to contain 4840 Conquered by the Turks..

.about 1540

square yards. Acheen, capital of a kingdom N.W. of Sumatra, was visited by the Portuguese about 1509. Factories by the Saracens in 638 ; by the crusaders under Baldwin

Acre, Acca, anciently Ptolemais, in Syria, was taken were set up here by the Dutch, 1596 ; by the English, 1. in 1104; by Saladin in 1187; and again by Richard I. 1602; by the French, 1621. For the war with the and other crusaders, 12 July, 1191, after a siege of 2 Dutch, see Sumatra.

years, with a loss of 6 archbishops, 12 bishops, 40 earls, Achonry, SLIGO (N. Ireland), a bishopric founded 500 barons, and 300,000 soldiers. It was then named by St. Finian, who erected the church of Achad, or St. Jean d'Acre. It was retaken by the Saracens in Achonry, about 520, and conferred it on his disciple 1291, when 60,000 Christians perished, and the nuns, Nathy (Dathy, or David), the first bishop. The see, who had mangled their faces to preserve their chastity, held with Killala, since 1612, was united with Tuam in were put to death. Acre was gallantly defended by 1834.

Djezzar Pacha against Bonaparte, till relieved by sir SidAchromatic Telescopes, in which color is got ney Smith, who resisted twelve attempts by the French, rid of, were invented by John Dollond, and described in between 16 March and 20 May, 1799, when Bonaparte Phil. Trans. of the Royal Society, London, 1753-8.

retreated. Acre, as a Turkish pachalic, was seized 27

May, 1832, by Ibrahim Pacha, who had revolted. On Acids (now defined as salts of hydrogen) are gener- 3 Nov. 1840, it was stormed by the allied fleet under sir ally soluble in water, redden organic blues, decompose Robert Stopford, and taken after a bombardment of a carbonates, and destroy the properties of alkalies, form- few hours, the Egyptians losing upwards of 2000 in killed ing alkaline salts. The number of acids was increased and wounded, and 3000 prisoners, while the British liad by the Arabs; Geber (8th century) knew nitric acid and but 12 killed and 42 wounded; see Syria and Turkey. sulphuric acid, Theories of the constitution of acids were put forth by Becher (1669), Lemery (1675), and rock. Near it stood the temple of Minerva, the Parthe

Acropolis, the ancient citadel of Athens, built on a Stahl (1723). After the discovery of oxygen by Priestley, 1 Aug. 1774, Lavoisier (1778) concluded that oxy

non, which see. Other cities had similar fortresses. gen was a constituent of all acids ; but about 1810 Davy,

Acrostic, a poem in which the first or last letters Gay-Lussac, and others proved the existence of acids of each line, read downwards, form a word, is said to have free from oxygen. In 1816 Dulong proposed the binary been invented by Porphyrius Optalianus in the fourth or hydrogen theory of acids, and in 1837 Liebig applied century. Double acrostics became very popular in 1867. the theories of Davy and Dulong to explain the consti- Acs, or Acz (Hungary). The Hungarians under tution of several organic acids. Oxygen acids were Görgey were defeated here by the Austrians and Rustermed anhydrides by Gerhardt (died 1856). Many acids sians on 2 and 10 July, 1849.


Act oF SETTLEMENT, etc., see Accession, Succession, New Index to acts 1235–1874, published 1876. Supremacy, and Uniformity Acts.

Publication of the revised edition of the statutes (1325-1868),

15 volumes published, 1870-8. Acta Diurna, see Newspapers.

Report of select committee on acts of parliament, published

July, 1875. Acta Sanctorum (" acts of the saints"), a work The greatest number of acts passed in any one year since 1805 begun by the Jesuits. The first volume appeared in was 570, in 1846 (the railway year); 402 were local and per1643: the publication was interrupted in 1794, when 64

sonal, 51 private, and 117 public acts. In 1841. only 13 were

passed (the lowest number), of which two were private. In volumes, bringing the work down to 15 Oct., had been

three instances only, the annual number was under a hunpublished. The work was resumed by the Jesuits in dred. The average number of the first ten years of the 1837, and 6 more volumes had been published in 1867. present century was 132 public acts. in the ten years endThe writers have been named Bollundists, from John

ing 1850, the average number of acts, of public interest, was

112. Bolland, who published the first two volumes.

The number of public general acts passed in 1851 was 106; in Actinometer, an instrument to measure the heat

1852, 88; in 1853, 137; in 1854, 125; in 1855, 134; in 1856,

120; in 1857, 86; in 1858, 109; in 1859, 101; in 1860, 154; in ing power of the solar rays, invented by sir John F.

1861, 134; in 1862, 114; in 1863, 125; in 1864, 121; in 1865, Herschel, and described by him in 1825; see Sun.

127; in 1866, 122; in 1867, 146; in 1869, 130; in 1869, 117; Actium, a promontory of Acarnania, W. Greece,

in 1870, 112; in 1871, 117; in 1872, 98; in 1873, 91; in 1874,

96; in 1875, 96; in 1876, 81; in 1871, 69; in 1878, 79; in near which was fought, 2 Sept. 31 B.C., the battle be- 1879, 78; in 1880, 19 and 48 (new parliament). tween the fleet of Octavius Cæsar and that of Marc Antony and Cleopatra, which decided the fate of Antony, Institute of Actuaries, founded in 1848, publishes its pro

Actuary, ACTUARIUS, the Roman accountant. The 300 of his galleys going over to Cæsar. This victory ceedings in the Assurance Magazine. made Octavius master of the world, and the Roman empire is commonly dated 1 Jan. 30 B.C. (the Actian Era).

Adam and Eve, Era 'or, in the English Bible, The conqueror built Nicopolis (the city of victory), and 4004 B.C.; see Creation. instituted the Actian games.

Adamites, a sect said to have existed about 130, Acton-Burnel, or Shrewsbury. At the parliament and to have been quite naked in their religious assemheld here by Edward I., Oct. 1283, the “statute of mer- blies, asserting that if Adam had not sinned there would chants" against debtors was enacted.

have been no marriages. Their chief was named ProdiActon Murder, see Trials, 1880.

cus; they defied the elements, rejected prayer, and said Actresses appear to have been unknown to the an

it was not necessary to confess Christ. Eusebius. A cients, men or eunuchs performing the female parts.

sect with this name arose at Antwerp in the 12th cenCharles II. is said to have first encouraged the public turs, under Tandemus or Tanchelin, whose followers, appearance of women on the stage in England in 1662;

3000 soldiers and others, committed many crimes. It but Anne, queen of James I., had previously performed became extinct soon after the death of its chief; but anin a theatre at court.-Theat . Biog. Mrs. Colman was ly after in Savoy and Dauphiny. Picard, a Fleming,

other of the same kind, nimed Turlupins, appeared shortthe first English public actress; she performed the part revived this sect in Bohemia, about 1415; it was supof Ianthe in Davenant's "Siege of Rhodes," in 1656.— Victor.

pressed by Ziska, 1420. Acts, in dramatic poetry, first employed by the

Adda, a river N. Italy, passed by Suwarrow after deRomans. Five acts are mentioned by Horace ("Art of feating the French, 27 April, 1799. Poetry ") as the rule (about 8 B.C.).

Addington Administration. Mr. Pitt, having Acts of the Apostles, supposed to have been engaged to procure Roman Catholic emancipation to prowritten by Luke in continuation of his Gospel. It ter- mote the union with Ireland, and being unable to do so minates A.D), 63.

as a minister, resigned 3 Feb. 1801. A new ministry was Acts of Parliament, or STATUTES, see Parlia- formed by Mr. Addington, March-July, 1801; after vament.

The following are among the most celebrated rious changes it terminated about 10 May, 1804. early statutes :

Henry Addington,* first lord of the treasury and chancellor of Provisions of Merton, 1235-6.

the exchequer. Statute of Marlborough, 1267.

Lord Eldon, lord chancellor. of Bigamy, 1275-6.

Duke of Portland, lord president. of Gloucester, the earliest statute of which any record

Earl of Westmoreland, lord privy seal. exists, 6 Edw. I. 1278.

Lord Pelbam, home secretary. of Mortmain, 1279.

Mr. R. B. Jenkinson (lord Hawkesbury, 1803; and earl of LivQuo Warranto, Oct. 1280.

erpool, 1808), foreign secretary. Statute of Merchants or Acton-Burnel, 1283.

Lord Hobart, colonial secretary. Statutes of Wales, 1284.

Earl St. Vincent, first lord of admiralty. of Winchester, Oct. 1284.

Earl of Chatham, ordnance. of Westminster, 1275, 1285, 1290.

Charles Yorke, secretary-al-war.
Statute forbidding the levying of taxes without the consent

Viscount Lewisham, lord Auckland, etc.
of parliament, 1297.
of Præmunire, 1306.

Addiscombe College, near Croydon, Surrey, Statutes first printed in the reign of Richard III., 1483. purchased by the East India company in 1809, for edu

of the Realm, from Magna Charta to George I., print cation of candidates for scientific branches of the Indian

ed from the original records and MSS. in 12 vols.
folio, under the direction of commissioners ap army, was closed in 1861.

pointed in 1801, 1811-28.
The statutes passed during each session were formerly print.

Addison's Disease, a dangerous affection of the ed annually in 4to and 8vo, now in 8vo only. Abstracts are renal capsules, described by its discoverer, Dr. Thomas given in the Cabinet Lawyer.

Addison, in 1855. Between 1823 and 1829, 1126 acts were wholly repealed, and 443 repcaled in part, chiefly arising out of the consolidation

Additional Curates, the society for their emof the laws by Mr. (afterwards sir Robert) Peel. Of these ployment in populous places was founded in 1837 (High acts, 1344 related to the kingdom at large, and 225 to Ire. Church). land solely; and in 1856 many obsolete statutes (enacted between 1285 and 1777) were repealed.

Addled Parliament, see Parliament, By the Statnte Law Revision Act of 1861. 770 acts were whou. ly repealed, and a great many partially. By similar acts Addressers, see Abhorrers. since passed, a great number of enactments have been repealed, commencing with the Provisions of Merton, 20 Hen.

Adelaide, the capital of South Australia, was ry III. (1235-S), and end'ng 1844. " Acts of parliament abbreviation bill," introduced by lord * Born 1757; became viscount Sidmouth, Jan. 1805; held Brougham 12 Feb., passed 10 June, 1850.

various offices afterwards, and died in 1844. His circular to 1410 acis (pissed between 1689 and 1770) partially or wholly the lords lieutenants, dated 27 March, 1817, directing them to repealed. 1867.

adopt severe measııres against the authors of blasphemous “Chronological Table and Index to the Statutes to the end of and seditious pamphlets, was greatly censured, and not car. 1869," published 1870.

ried into effect.


founded in 1836. It contained 14,000 inhabitants in | ELIZABETH.-Sir Nicholas Bacon; Edward, lord Clinton; 1850, and 18,259 in 1855; about 30,000 in 1875. It was

sir Robert Dudley, afterwards earl of Leicester; sir William Cecil, afterwards lord Burleigh..

1558 made a bishopric in 1847. University founded, 1876. William, lord Burleigh (minister during nearly all the It was visited by the duke of Edinburgh, 1 March, 1869. reign); sir Nicholas Bacon, etc...


Lord Burleigh; s.r Thomas Bromley; Robert Devereux, Adelphi (Greek for brothers), several streets on the

earl of Essex (a favorite); earl of Leicester; earl of south side of the Strand, London, erected about 1768 by Lincoln; sir Walter Mildmay; sir Francis Walsing. the brothers John, Robert, James, and William Adam, Lord Burleigh; Robert, earl of Essex; sir Christopher

ham, etc.

1579 after whom the streets are named. ADELPHI THEATRE, Hatton, etc..

1587 built 1806, rebuilt 1858; see under Theatres.

Thomas Sackville, lord Buckhurst, afterwards earl of

Dorset; sir Thomas Egerton, afterwards lord Ellesmere Aden, a free port on the S.W. corner of Arabia, and viscount Brackley; sir Robert Cecil, etc... 1599 where in Dec. 1836 a British ship was wrecked and JAMES 1. --Thomas, earl of Dorset; Thomas, lord Ellesplundered. The sultan promised compensation, and

mere; Charles, earl of Nottingham; Thomas, earl of

Suffolk; Edward, earl of Worcester; Robert Cecil, af. agreed to cede the place to the English. The sultan's terwards earl of Salisbury, etc..

1603 son refusing to fultil this agreement to captain Haynes, Robert Cecil, earl of Salisbury; Thomas, lord Ellesmere; a naval and military force, under captain H. Smith, of

Henry, carl of Northampton; Charles, earl of Notting. ham; Thomas, earl of Suffolk, etc..

1609 the Volage, was despatched to Adlen, which captured it, Henry,' earl of Northampton; Thomas, lord Ellesmere; 19 Jan. 1839. It is now a garrison and coal depot for Edward, earl of Worcester; sir Ralph Winwood; Charles, Indian steamers, etc.

earl of Nottingham; Robert, viscount Rochester, after. wards earl of Somerset, etc....

1612 Adiaphorists (from adiaphora, indifferent things), Thomas, lord Ellesmere; Thomas, earl of Suffolk; Charles, a term applied to Melanchthon and others, who were will

earl of Nottingham; sir George Villiers (a favorite),

afterwards viscount Villiers, and successively earl, ing to give up certain things to the Romanists as indif

marquess, and duke of Buckingham...

1615 ferent, about 1548.

Sir Henry Montagu, afterwards viscount Mandeville and earl of Manchester..

1620 Adige, a river in N. Italy, near which the Austrians Lionel, lord Cranfield, afterwards earl of Middlesex; Eddefeated the French on 26, 30 March, and 5 April, 1799. ward, earl of Worcester; John, earl of Br'stol; John

Williams, dean of Westminster; George Villiers, marAdjutators, see Agitators.

quess of Buckingham ; sir Edward Conway, etc... 1621 Administrations of ExGLAND AND OF GREAT CHARLES I. --- Richard, lord Weston, afterwards earl of

Portland; sir Thomas Coventry, afterwards lord CovBritain. Until the Restoration, 1660, there was not entry; Henry, earl of Manchester (succeeded by James, any cabinet in the modern sense. The sovereign was earl of Marlborough, who, in turn, gave place to Ed. aided by privy-councillors, varying in number, the men ward, lord, afterwards viscount, Conway); William and offices being frequently changed. The separation William Laud, archbishop 'of Canterbury ; Francis, lord

Laud, bishop of London; sir Albert Morton, etc..... 1628 of the cabinet from the privy council became greater Cottington ; James, marquess of Hamilton ; Edward, during the reign of William III., and the control of the earl of Dorset ; sir John Coke ; sir Francis Windechief, now termed the premier, began in the reign of William Juxon, bishop of London; sir

John Finch, after

1635 Anne. “The era of ministries may most properly be

wards lord Finch; Francis, lord Cottington; Wentreckoned from the day of the meeting of the parliament worth, earl of Strafford; Algernon, earl of Northumafter the general election of 1698.”—Macaulay.* For a

berland; James, marquess of Hamilton; Laud, archfuller account of each administration since 1700, see sep

bishop of Canterbury; sir Francis Windebank; sir Henry Vane, etc...

1640 arate articles headed with the name of the PREMIER,

(The king beheaded, 30 Jan. 1649.) given below in italics.

COMMONWEALTH. --Oliver Cromwell, protector, named a

council, the number not to exceed 21 members, or be HENRY VIII. --Archbishop Warham; bishops Fisher and

less than 13...

1653 Fox; earl of Surrey, etc....

...... A.D. 1609 Richard Cromwell, son of Oliver, succeeded on the death Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, etc.....

1514 of his father. A council of officers ruled at Walling. Earl of Surrey; Tunstall, bishop of London, etc.. 1523 ford house..

1658 Sir Thomas More; bishops Tunstall and Gardiner, and CHARLES II. -Sir Edward Hyde, afterwards earl of Clar

Cranmer (afterwards archbishop of Canterbury)... 1529 endon; George Monk, created duke of Albemarle; EdArchbishop Cranmer; lord Cromwell, afterwards earl of ward Montagu, created earl of Sandwich; Jord Saye and Essex; Thomas Boleyn, ea Wiltshire, etc. ......

1532 Sele; earl of Manchester; lord Seymour; sir Robert Thomas, duke of Norfolk; Henry, earl of Surrey; Thom.

Long, etc...

1660 as, lord Audley; bishop Gardiner ; sir Ralph Sadler, George Monk, duke of Albemarle, made first commisetc. 1540 sioner of the treasury, etc..

1667 Lord Wriothesley; Thomas, duke of Norfolk; lord Liele; Cabal” Ministry; Clifford, Ashley, Buckingham, Ar. sir William Petre; sir William Paget, etc... 1544 lington, Lauderdale (see Cabal).

1670 Edward VI.-Lord Wriothesley, now earl of Southamp- Thomas, lord Clifford, Anthony, earl of Shaftesbury;

ton, lord chancellor (expelled); Edward, earl of Hert- Henry, earl of Arlington; Arthur, earl of Anglesey; ford, lord protector, created duke of Somerset; John,

sir Thomas Osborne, created viscount Latimer; Henry lord Russell; Henry, earl of Arundel; Thomas, lord Coventry; sir George Carteret; Edward Seymour, etc. 1672

Seymour; sir William Paget; sir William Petre, etc. 1547 | Thomas, viscount Latimer, afterwards earl of Danby, John Dudley, late lord Lisle and earl of Warwick, created made lord high treasurer..

... 26 June, 1673 duke of Northumberland; John, earl of Bedford; bish- Arthur, earl of Essex (succeeded by Lawrence Hyde, afop Goodrich, sir William Cecil, etc..

1551 terwards earl of Rochester); Robert, earl of SunderMARY.--Stephen Gardiner, bishop of Winchester ; Ed

land, etc.....

1679 mund Bonner, bishop of London; William, marquess of

The king nominated a new council on 21 April, con. Winchester; s'r Edward Hastings, etc.......

1554 sisting of 30 members only, of whom the principal

were the great officers of state and great officers of

the household... * Till 1850 the cabinet council usually consisted of the fol. Sidney, Iord Godolphin; Lawrence, earl of Rochester; lowing twelve members : First lord of the treasury; lord Daniel, earl of Nottingham; Robert, earl of Sunder: chancellor; lord president of the council; chancellor of the land; sir Thomas Chicheley; George, lord Dartmouth; exchequer; lord privy seal; home, foreign, and colonial secre. Henry, earl of Clarendon; earls of Bath and Radnor. . 1684 taries; first lord of the admiralty; president of the board of James II.-Lawrence, earl of Rochester; George, martrade; president of the board of control; chancellor of the quess of Halifax; sir George Jeffreys, afterwards lord duchy of Lancaster. In 1850 the number was fifteen, and in- Jeffreys; Henry, earl of Clarendon; sir John Ernley; cluded the secretary-at-war, the postmaster-general, and the viscount l’reston, etc.

1685 chief secretary for Ireland. In the Palmerston-Russell cabi. The earl of Rochester was displaced, and John, lord Benet (which seel, the president of the poor-law board replaced lasyse, made first cominiss oner nf the treasury in his the secretary for Ireland. In 1868 the Gladstone cabinet con. room, 4 Jan. ; the carl of Sunderland made president sisted of 15; that of Mr. Disraeli, in Feb. 1874, of 12. The of the council; viscount Preston, secretary of state, average duration of a ministry bas been set down at four, five,


1687-8 and six years; but instances have occurred of the duration of The king left Whitehall in the night of 11 Dec., and, a ministry for much longer periods: sir Robert Walpole was quitting the kingdom, landed at Ambleteuse, in Franco, minister from 1721 to 1742 (21 years); Mr. Pitt, 1783 to 1801 Dec. 1688. (18 years); and lord Liverpool, 1812 to 1827 (15 years). Sev. WILLIAM III, AND MARY.-Charles, viscount Mordaunt; eral ministries bare not lasted beyond a few months, as the Thomas Osborne, earl of Danby, created marquess of Coalitim Ministry in 1783, and the Talents" Ministry in Carmarthen, afterwards duke of Leeds; George, mar. 1806. The “Short-livedAdministration lasted 10 to 12 Feb. quess of Halifax; Arthur Herbert, afterwards lord Tor. 1746.

rington; earls of Shrewsbury, Nottingham, and Sun.


derland; earl of Dorset and Middlesex; William, earl in the lords, on the Reform bill, 10 May; but resumes (afterwards duke) of Devonshire; lord Godolphin; lord

his post.....

....18 May, 1832 Montagu; lord De la Mere, etc.... 1689 Viscount Melbourne, etc...

....July, 1834 Sidney, lord Godolphin; Thomas, earl of Danby; Richard

[Melbourne administration dissolved, Nov.1834. The Hampden; Thomas, earl of Pembroke; Henry, vis

duke of Wellington held the seals of office till the recount Sydney; Daniel, earl of Nottingham, etc... 1690 turn of sir Robert Peel from Italy, Dec. 1834.) Sir John Somers became lord Somers in 1697, and lord Sir Robert Peel ; lord Lyndhurst; duke of Wellington; chancellor; Charles Montagu, afterwards lord Halifax, earl of Aberdeen; etc...

Nov. and Dec. was made first commissioner of the treasury, 1 May, Viscount Melbourne, etc.....

.... April, 1835 1698, succeeded by Ford, earl of Tankerville

1699 VICTORIA.-Viscount Melbourne, etc.. .....20 June, 1837 ANNE. --- Sidney, lord (afterwards earl of) Godolphin;

Subsequent accessions: F. T. Baring; earl of ClarenThomas, earl of Pembroke, etc....,

. May, 1702

don ; T. B. Macaulay, etc. Viscount Melbourne reRobert Harley, earl of Oxford; sir Simon Harcourt, etc. signed, and sir Robert Peel received the queen's com

1 June, 1711 mands to form a new administration, 8 May. This Charles, duke of Shrewsbury, made lord treasurer threó command was withdrawn, and lord Melbourne returndays before the queen's death, etc. ........ .30 July, 1714

ed to power.

...10 May, 1839 GEORGE I. -- Charles, earl of Halifax (succeeded on his Sir Robert Peel; duke of Wellington; lord Lyndhurst; death by the earl of Carlisle), etc.

sir James Graham; earl of Aberdeen; lord Stanley, etc. Robert Walpole, first lord of the treasury, and chancellor

Aug. and Sept. 1841 of the exchequer, etc..

1715 [Accessions: Sidney Herbert; W. E. Gladstone, etc.) James (afterwards earl) Stanhope; William lord Cowper, Lord John Russell; viscount Palmerston; earl Grey, etc. 1717

July, 1846 Charles, earl of Sunderland, etc.

1718 [Accessions: earl Granville; Mr. Fox Maule; earl of Robert Walpole, afterwards sir Robert Walpole, and earl Carlisle; sir Thomas Wilde, created lord Truro, etc.) of Orford, etc...

1721 Lord John Russell and the marquess of Lansdowne on the GEORGE II. --- Robert Walpole continued.

1727 24 Feb. announced the resignation of ministers, owing [Sir Robert remained prime minister twenty-one to their defeat on Mr. Locke King's motion respecting years, numerous changes occurring in the time; see the franchise; they informed parliament that, it hav. Walpole.)

ing been found impossible to construct a coalition minEarl of Wilmington ; lord Hardwicke, etc...


istry, the queen, by the advice of the duke of WellingHenry Pelham, in the room of earl of Wilmington, de- ton, had called upon her late ministers to resume of ceased.

.. Aug. 1743 fice. Lord Stanley (since earl of Derby), in the inter• Broad - bottom” administration--Henry Pelham; lord val, had been unable to form a cabinet.......3 March, 1851 Hardwicke, etc...

Nov. 1744 Earl of Derby (late lord Stanley); lord St. Leonards; Ben* Short-livedadministration-earl of Bath ; lords Win

jamin Disraeli; Spencer H. Walpole; earl of Malmeschilsea and Granville..

10-12 Feb. 1746 bury; sir John Pakington; duko of Northumberland, Henry Pelham, etc., again..

12 Feb.

27 Feb. 1852 Thos. H. Pelham, duke of Newcastle ; earl of Holderness, Earl of Aberdeen ; lord John Russell; viscount Palmer. etc.... .. April, 1754 ston, etc...

28 Dec. Duke of Devonshire; William Pitt, etc. .... .Nov. 1756 Various changes of offices took place; a fourth sec. Duke of Newcastle, and Mr. Pitt, afterwards earl of Chat- retary of state was appointed, by the separation of the ham, etc..

June, 1757

war from the colonial department; see Secretaries of GEORGE III.-Duke of Newcastle, Mr. Pitt's ministry, con

State. The retirement of lord J. Russell, 24 Jan. 1855, tinued..

1760 and a majority in the commons against ministers of Earl of Bute; lord Henley, etc...

. May, 1762 157 (305 to 148), on Mr. Roebuck's motion respecting George Grenville ; earls of Halifax and Sandwich, etc. the conduct of the war, led to the resignation of lord

April, 1763 Aberdeen and his colleagues, 30 Jan.; the cabinet was Marquess of Rockingham ; earl of Winchilsea, etc..July, 1765 reconstructed by Earl of Chatham ; duke of Grafton, etc. .... . Aug. 1766 Viscount Palmerston; lord Cranworth; etc. ...... 7 Feb. 1855 Duke of Grofion ; lord North, etc...,

Dec. 1767 Secession of sir J. Graham, Mr. Gladstone, and Mr. Frederick, lörd North ; earl Gower, etc.

..Jan. 1770 S. Herbert. Accession of lord John Russell; earl of (Lord North was minister during the whole of the Clarendon; sir G. Grey; sir G. C. Lewis; sir W. MolesAmerican war. )

worth, etc....

.24 Feb. Marquess of Rockingham ; lord Camden; C. J. Fox; Ed.

On the second reading of the Foreign Conspiracy bill, mund Burke, etc....

. March, 1782 the government (defeated by a vote of censure being Earl of Shelburne (afterwards marquess of Lansdowne); passed by a majority of 19, on the motion of Mr. Milner William Pitt, etc..... July, Gibson) resigned immediately...

19 Feb. 1858 "Coalition Ministry," duke of Portland; lord North; Earl of Derby; Benjamin Disraeli; Spencer Walpole; lord C. J. Fox; Edmund Burke, etc...

.. April, 1783 Stanley; sir F. Thesiger (lord Chelmsford), etc..26 Feb. William Pitt; Henry Dundås, etc...

.. Dec.

[The Derby administration, in consequence of a vote [During Mr. Pitt's long administration, numerous of want of confidence in it being carried by a majority changes in the ministry took place.)

of 13, 10 June, 1859, resigned the next day. Earl Gran. Henry Addington ; duke of Portland ; lord Eldon, etc. ville failed to form an administration. )

March et seq. 1801 Viscount Palmerston ; lord John (since earl) Russell, etc. William Pitt; lord Eldon; George Canning, etc., May et seq. 1804

18 June, 1859 [Mr. Pitt died 23 Jan. 1806.)

[Lord Palmerston died 18 Oct. 1865.) " the Talents " --lord Grenville; lord Henry Petty; Earl Russell ; W. E. Gladstone; carl of Clarendon ; etc. lord Erskine; C. J. Fox; sir Charles Grey (afterwards

Oct. 1865 earl Grey)

..... Feb. 1806 Resigned, in consequence of a minority on the Re(Mr. Fox's death, 13 Sept. 1806, led to numerous form bill, 19 June..

26 June, 1866 changes.)

Earl of Derby; Benjamin Disraeli ; lord Stanley, etc. Duke of Portland ; lord Eldon, etc. *.

March, 1807 For changes, see Derby Administrations..... .6 July, Spencer Perceval ; earl of Liverpool; viscount Palmer

Earl of Derby resigned through ill-health.... Feb. 25, 1868 ston, etc.....

.Nov. and Dec. 1809 B. Disraeli reconstituted the administration..... 29 Feb. REGENCY.--Mr. Spencer Perceval (shot by Bellingham,

Mr. Disraeli resigned in consequence of the elections 11 May, 1812), etc....

.5 Feb. 1811 in November giving a majority of about 114 to tho Lib. Earl of Lirerpool ; lord Eldon; Mr. Vansittart; lord Mel.


2 Dec. ville; viscounts Castlereagh, Palmerston, etc.. May June, 1812 W. E. Gladstone ; earl of Clarendon; Robert Lowe; John GEORGE IV.--Earl of Liverpool, etc...... 29 Jan. 1820 Bright, and others, received seals. ......9 Dec. (During lord Liverpool's long administration numer

Lost their majority by the general election, Feb.; ous changes occurred.)


17 Feb, 1874 George Canning; lord Lyndhurst; viscount Goderich; B. Disraeli (earl of Beaconsfield, 16 Aug. 1876); the earl

William Huskisson ; viscount Palmerston; duke of of Derby; the marquess of Salisbury, and others, re.
Clarence, etc....

... April, 1827
ceived seals.....

.21 Feb. (Mr. Canning died 8 Aug. 1827.]

(For changes, see Disraeli Administrations.) Viscount Goderich; viscount Palmerston; marquess of

Lost their majority by elections in April; resigned Lansdowne; W. Huskisson, etc. Aug.

22 April, 1880 Duke of Wellington ; Robert Peel; Mr. Huskisson; etc. W. E. Gladstone ; earl Granville; marquess of Harting

Jan. 1828 ton; duke of Argyll; sir Wm. Harcourt; John Bright, The ministry reconstructed on the retirement of the and others, received seals. ...

28 April, carl of Dudley, lord Palmerston, Mr. Grant, Mr. Hus

[For changes, seo separate articles under the prekisson..

. May and June, 1828 mier's name.) William IV. ---Duke of Wellington, etc.......... 26 June, 1830 Earl Grey; marquess of Lansdowne; lord Brougham; vis.

Administrations OF THE UNITED STATES. The count Althorp; earl of Durham; viscounts Melbourne, following is a list of the presidents of the United States Palmerston, and Goderich ; sir James Graham ; lord and their respective cabinet officers, from the commenceJohn Russell, etc...

Nov. Earl Grey resigns, owing to a majority against him

ment of the federal government to 1881 :

FIRST ADMINISTRATION—1789 to 1797. * The duel between lord Castlereagh and Mr. Canning, 22 President: George Washington, of Va. Sept. 1809, led to the breaking up of this administration. Vice-president: John Adams, of Mass.

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