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Bay Islands (the chief, Ruatan), in the bay of Hon- rages were said to have been committed. Of nearly duras, Central America, belonged to Spain till 1821; 2000 inhabitants it was asserted scarcely fifty remaincu then to Great Britain, which formed them into a colony alive, and these indignantly denied having given prorin 1852, but ceded them to Honduras, 28 Nov. 1859; see ocation. Much controversy ensued, and in July, 1871, Honduras.

gen. Von der Tann asserted correctly that the number Bayeux Tapestry, said to have been wrought by of deaths had been grossly exaggerated, that there had Matilda, queen of William I. (?) It is 19 inches wide, been much provocation, and denied the alleged cruelties. 214 feet long, and is divided into compartments showing Bazoche-des - Hautes, near Orleans, central the events from the visit of Harold to the Norman court France. Here a part of the army of the Loire, under to his death at Hastings; it is now preserved in the gen. D'Aurelle de Paladines, was defeated, after a severe public library of Bayeux near Caen. A copy, drawn by action, by the Germans under the grand-duke of MeckC. Stothard, and colored after the original, was published lenburg, 2 Dec. 1870; see Orleans. by the Society of Antiquaries in 1821-3. It was repro- Beachy Head, a promontory (S.E. Sussex), near duced by autotype process by F. R. Fowke, with notes, which the British and Dutch fleet, commanded by the 1870.

earl of Torrington, was defeated by a superior French Baylen (S. Spain), where, on 20 July, 1808, the force under admiral Tourville, 30 June, 1690; the allies French, commanded by gens. Dupont and Wedel, were suffered very severely. The Dutch lost two admirals, defeated by the Spaniards under Reding, Coupigny, and 500 men, and several ships-sunk to prevent them from other generals.

falling into the hands of the enemy; the English lost

The admirals on both sides Bayonet, the short dagger fixed at the end of fire- two ships and 400 men. arms, said to have been invented at Bayonne, in France, were blamed; ours for not fighting, the French for not about 1647, 1670, or 1690. It was used at Killiecrankie pursuing the victory. in 1689, and at Marsaglia by the French, in 1693,“ with Beacons, see Light-houses. great success, against the enemy unprepared for the en- Beaconsfield ADMINISTRATION, see Disraeli and counter with so formidable a novelty.” The ring-bayo- People's Tribute. net was adopted by the British, 24 Sept. 1693.

Beads were early used in the East for reckoning Bayonne (S. France), an ancient city. It was held prayers. St. Augustin mentions them 366. About 1090 by the English from 1295 till it was taken by Charles Peter the Hermit is said to have made a series of 55 VII. The queens of Spain and France met the cruel beads To Dominic de Guzman is ascribed the invenduke of Alva here, June, 1556, it is supposed to arrange tion of the Rosary (a series of 15 large and 150 small the massacre of St. Bartholomew. Charles IV. of Spain beads), in honor of the Blessed Virgin, about 1202. abdicated here in favor of “ his friend and ally” the em- Beads soon after were in general use. The Bead-roll peror Napoleon, 4 May, and his sons, Ferdinand prince was a list of deceased persons, for the repose of whose of Asturias, don Carlos, and don Antonio renounced souls a certain number of prayers was recited. Beads their rights to the Spanish throne, 6 May, 1808. In the have been found in British barroirs. neighborhood of Bayonne was much desperate fighting Beam And SCALES. The apparatus for weighing between the French and British armies, 9-13 Dec. 1813. goods was so called, “ as it weighs so much at the king's Bayonne was invested by the British, 14 Jan. 1814; on beam.” A public beam was set up in London, and all 14 April, the French made a sally, and attacked the commodities ordered to be weigbed by the city officer, English with success, but were at length driven back. called the weigh-master, who was to do justice between The loss of the British was considerable, and lieut.-gen. buyer and seller, stat. 3 Edw. II. 1309.— Stow. Beams sir John Hope was wounded and taken prisoner. A and scales, with weights and measures, were ordered to Franco-Spanish industrial and fine arts exbibition was be examined by the justices at quarter sessions, 35 Geo. opened at Bayonne in July, 1864.

III. 1794; see Weights and Measures. Bayreuth (N. Germany), a margraviate, held for- Beans, BLACK AND WHITE, were used by the anmerly by a branch of the Brandenburg family, was with cients in gathering the votes of the people for the electhat of Anspach abdicated by the reigning prince in tion of magistrates. A white bean signified absolution, faror of the king of Prussia, 1790. The archives were and a black one condemnation. The precept of Pythagbrought (in 1783) from Plassenburg to the city of Bay- oras to abstain from beans, abstine a fabis, has been varireuth, which was incorporated with Bavaria by Napo- ously interpreted. “Beans do not favor mental tranleon in 1806.

quillity.”—Cicero. The finer kinds of beans were brought Bazaar, or covered market, a word of Arabic origin. here, with other vegetables, in Henry VIII.'s reign. The magnificent bazaar of Ispahan was excelled by that Bear-baiting, an ancient popular English sport, of Tauris, which has held 30,000 men in order of battle. prohibited by parliament in 1835. In London the Soho-square bazaar was opened by Mr.

Beards.* The Egyptians did not wear beards; the Trotter in 1816 to relieve the relatives of persons killed Assyrians did. They have been worn for centuries by in the war. The Queen's bazaar, Oxford street, a very the Jews, who were forbidden to mar their beards, 1490 extensive one, was (with the Diorama) burned down, B.C. (Ler. xix. 27). The Tartars waged a long war with and the loss estimated at 50,0001., 27 May, 1829. It was the Persians, declaring them intidels, because they would rebuilt, and converted into the Princess's theatre, opened not cut their beards, after the custom of Tartary. The 30 Sept. 1841. The St. James's bazaar (built by Mr. Greeks wore their beards till the time of Alexander, who Crockforu) in 1832. The Pantheon, made a bazaar ordered the Macedonians to be shared, lest the beard in 1834; see Pantheon. The London Crystal Palace should give a handle to their enemies, 330 B.C. Beards bazaar, 1858. The most imposing sale termed a ba- | were worn by the Romans, 390 B.C. The emperor Julian zaar was opened for the benefit of the Anti-Corn-law wrote a diatribe entitled “ Misopogon ") against wearLeague in Covent Garden theatre, 5 May, 1845; in six weeks 25,0001. were obtained, mostly by admission money.

* A bearded woman was taken by the Russians at the battle The Corinthian bazaar, Argyll street, Oxford street (to of Pultowa, and presented to the czar, Peter I., 1724; her beard replace the bazaar at the Pantheon), opened 30 July, measured 11 yard. A woman is said to have been seen at 1867; closed in 1868.

Paris with a bushy beard, and her whole body covered with

hair. -Dict. de Trévour. The great Margaret, governess of the Bazaine, Marshal, trial, etc., Dec. 1873, and Aug. Netherlands, had a very long stiff beard. In Bavaria, in the

time of Wolfius, a virgin had a long black beard. 1874; see Metz and France.

de Chêne, born at Geneva (it was said) in 1834, was exbibited Bazeilles, a village in the Ardennes, N. E. France. in London in 1852-3, when, consequently, eighteen years of age; During the dreadful battle of Sedan, 1 Sept. 1870, Ba- whiskers, and thick hair on her arms and down from her neck

she had a profuse head of hair, a strong black beard, large zeilles was burned by the Bavarians, and atrocious out- on her back, and inasculine features.

Mdlle. Bois per classes.


ing beards, A.D). 362.-In England they were not fashion- Catholic church at Canterbury, dedicated to him, was able after the Conquest, 1066, until the thirteenth cen- opened by cardinal Manning, 13 April, 1875. tury, and were discontinued at the Restoration. Peter

Bed. The ancients slept on skins. Beds were afterthe Great enjoined the Russians, even of rank, to shave, wards made of loose rushes, heather, or straw. The Robut was obliged to keep officers ou foot to cut off the

mans are said to have first used feathers. An air-cushbeard by force. Since 1851 the custom of wearing the ion is said to have been used by Ileliogabalus, 218-222 ; beard gradually increased in Great Britain,

air-beds were in use in the sixteenth century. FeatherBearn (S. France), the ancient Benecharnum, was beds were in use in England in the reign of Henry VIII. held successively by the Romans, Franks, Goths, and The bedsteads of the Egyptians and later Greeks, like Gascons, and became an hereditary viscounty in 819, un- modern couches, became common among the Roman upder Centule I., son of Loup, duke of Gascony. From his family it passed to the houses-of Gabaret, 1134; of Mon- The ancient Great Bed at Ware, Herts, capable of holding twelve cade, 1170; of Foix, 1290; and of Bourbon, 1550. Its persons, was sold, it is said, to Charles Dickens, 6 Sept. 1864. annexation to France was decreed by Henry IV., 1591; A bedstead of gold was presented to the queen on 2 Nov. 1869, affirmed by Louis XIII., 1620.

by the maharajah of Cashmere.

Air beds and water-beds have been made since the manufactBears and Bulls, see Stocks.

ure of india rubber cloth ly Clark in 1813; and by Mackin:

tosh in 1823. Beaugé, see Anjou.

Dr. Arnott's hydrostatic bed invented in 1800. Beaulieu, ABBEY OF (reformed Benedictines), foundea by king John, in the New Forest, Hampshire, in 1204, king, whose seat was termed a “bed.” It controlled the

Bed of Justice, a French court presided over by the and dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, had the privilege ordinances of the parliament. The last was held by of sanctuary. It afforded an asylum to Margaret, queen Louis XVI, at Versailles, 19 Nov. 1787, to raise a loan. of Henry VI., after the defeat of the earl of Warwick, at Barnet, 14 April, 1471; and also to Perkiu Warbeck, Sept. Beder (Arabia). Here Mahomet gained his first 1497.

victory (orer the Koreishi of Mecca), 623. It was coule Beaumont, a village near Sedan, department of Ar-sidered to be miraculous. dennes, N.E. France. Near here a part of the army of Bedford, a town (N.N.W. London) renownert for its marshal MacMahon under De Failly, which, after vainly many free educational establishments, endowed in 1561 endeavoring to reach Metz, was retreating before the by sir William Harpur, a London alderman. Here John Germans under the crown-prince of Prussia, was sur- Bunyan preached, was imprisoned, and wrote “The Pilpriset, defeated, and driven across the Meuse at Mouzon, grim's Progress." 30 Aug. 1870. The French loss included about 7000 prisoners, many guns, and much camp equipage. The statue of Bunyan, the gift of the duke of Bedford, was un

covered here, 10 June, 1874. Bronze gates for the Bunyan victory was chietly gained by the Bavarians.

church, given by the duke, were inaugurated by him 5 July, Beaune-la - Rollande, a village in the Loiret, France. Here the French army of the Loire, under gen. Bedford Level a portion of the great fen districts D'Aurelle de Paladines, was defeated by the Germans, in the eastern counties, drained in the early part of the under prince Frederick Charles, in an attempt to march seventeenth century by the earl of Bedford, aided by the in the direction of Fontainebleau to relieve Paris, 28 Nov. celebrated Dutch engineer, sir Cornelius Vernuyden, 1870. The French loss was reported by the Germans to amid great opposition; see Levels. be 1000 dead, 4000 wounded; above 1700 prisoners. Their own loss was heavy.

Bedlam, see Bethlehem. Beauvais (N. France), the ancient Bellovaci, for

Bedouins, wandering tribes of Arabs, living on the merly capital of Picardy. When besieged by Charles plunder of travellers, etc. They profess a form of Mathe Bold, duke of Burgundy, with 80,000 men, the women, hometanism, and are governed by sheiks. They are under Jeanne Fourquet or Lainé, also de la Hachette, said to be descendants of Ishmael, and appear to fulfil from her using that weapon, particularly distinguished the prophecy respecting him (Gen. xvi. 12), 1911 B.C. themselves, and the duke raised the siege, 10 July, 1472. Beef-eaters, see Buttle-axe. In memory of this the women of Beauvais walk tirst in the procession on the anniversary of their deliverance.

“Beefsteaks, THE SUBLIME SOCIETY OF," was esBeaver Dams, AFFAIR AT, in Upper Canada, seven atre, in the painting-room of which the members dined

tablished in 1735 by Rich, an actor at Covent Garden themiles west of Queenstown. There was an engagement 24 Jan. 1813, between 540 Americans, under lieut.-col. upon beefsteaks. The society became fashionable, and Boerstler, and 800 British and Indians. The Ameri: long included among its members the prince of Wales, can loss, 25 killed, 50 wounded, and 460 officers and to its somewhat ludicrous regulations. It became ex

royal dukes, and other eminent persons, who submitted men made prisoners. The British loss, 30 killed and 35 tinct in 1867, its last place of meeting being a room in wounded.

the Lyceum theatre. Its history was published by brothBecket's Murder.* Thomas Becket, archbishop er Arnold in 1871. of Canterbury, was murdered at the altar, 29 Dec. 1170. The king was absolved of guilty knowledge of the crime

Beer, see Ale, Brewer's, Porter, Victuallers. Conin 1172, and did penance at the tomb in 1174. The densed beer patented by P. E. Lockwood, 1875. Conbones of Becket were enshrined in gold and jewels in densed wort patented by Hermann Mertens, of Margate,

in 1853. 1220; but were burned in the reign of Henry VIII., 1539. The Merchant Adventurers were at one time terined Beer-houses. Law respecting (11 Geo. IV. and 1 “the Brotherhood of St. Thomas à Becket.” A Roman Will. IV.c. 64, 1830), etc., amended in 1869.

Bees. Mount Hybla, on account of its odoriferous * Thomas Becket was born in 1119. His father, Gilbert, was flowers, thyme, and abundance of honey, has been poetia London trader, and his mother is stated to have been a convert from Mahometanism. He was educated at Oxford, cally called the " empire of bees.” Hymettus, in Attica, and made archdeacon by Theobald, archbishop of Canterbury,

was also famous for its bees and honey. The economy who introduced him to the king, Henry II. He became chan. of bees was admired in the earliest ages; and Eumelus cellor in 1155, but on being clected archbishop of Canterbury of Corinth wrote a poem on bees, 741 B.C.

Bees were in 1162, he resigned the chancellorship, to the great offence of the king. Ho opposed strenuously the constitutions of Clar: introduced into Boston, Massachusetts, in 1670, and have endon in 1164, and led the country; and in 1166 escommuni- since spread over the continent. Mandeville's satirical cated all the clergy who agreed to abide by them. He and “Fable of the Bees " appeared in 1723. Huber published the king met at Frete llo, in Touraine, on 22 July, 1170, and his observations on bees in 1792. The Apiarian Sociwere formally reconc led. On his return he recommenced his struggle with the king, which led to h's tragical death. ety liad an establishment at Muswell Hill, near London

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(1860-2). The Ligurian variety of the honey-bee was The Castle burned.

..4 April, 1708 The Bank built..

1787 successfully introduced into England in 1860.

The Mechanics' Institute established.

1825 A British Beekeepers' Association founded 16 May (sir John The Queen's Bridge (5 arches) built on site of the Long Lubbock became first president); tirst exhibition, in the Bridge....

1841 Crystal Palace, 8 Sept. 1874; at other places since.

or three colleges established in Ireland in 1845, one in. Spelling bees, of American origin, introduced into London in augurated in Belfast (see Colleges)..

Oct. 1849 autumn of 1875; tirst at Holloway: Geographical, musical, British Association met here.

1852 and other bees began early in 1876.

Much rioting at Belfast through Mr. Hanna's open-air preaching...

...July-Sept. 1857 Bees', St., Cumberland. A monastery was founded "Victoria Chambers burned down; the loss estimated

at 100.0001. here by St. Bega, 650; a grammar-school by abp. Grin

.1 July, 1859 Exciting religious revivals.

Sept. dall, 1583; a clerical training college by bp. Law, 1817.

Fierce conflicts between Roman Catholics and Protes. Beet-root is of recent culiivation in England.

tants on account of the foundation of the O'Connell

monument at Dublin-9 lives lost and 150 persons in. Beta rulgaris, red beet, is used for the table as a salad.


.10-27 Aug. 1864 Margraff tirst produced sugar from the white beet-root in Rioting again.

30 April, 1865 1747. M. Achard produced excellent sugar from it in visit of the lord lieutenant the marquess of Abercorn,


..July, 1799; and the chemists of France, at the instance of Bo

2-4 Oct. 1867 naparte, largely extracted sugar from the beet-root in Severe rioting; much destruction of property and many 1800. 60,000 tons of sugar, about half the consumption, persons injured. Civil war raging between Catholics are now manufactured in France from beet. It is also British Association here (20 time)...

and Protestants, 15-21 Aug. Peace restored... 22 Aug. 1872

.19 Aug. 1874 largely manufactured in other countries. A retinery of Eud of strike of linen-manufacturers............ .26 Aug sugar from beet-root has been erected at the Thames bank, Chelsea. The cultivation of beet-root in England France, was invested by the Germans 3 Nov. 1870; ca

Belfort, or Befort, a fortified town in Alsace, E. and Ireland much advocated, 1871.

pitulated 16 Feb. 1871; reserved to France when Alsace Beggars were tolerated in ancient times, being often was ceded, 26 Feb.; quitted by the Germans Aug. 1873. musicians and ballad-singers. In modern times severe laws have been passed against them. In 1572, by 14

Belgium, the southern portion of the Netherlands, Eliz.c. 5, sturdy beggars were ordered to be "grierously and anciently the territory of the Belgæ, who were tinal

Its size is about whipped and burned through the right ear;" punished ly conquered by Julius Cæsar, 51 B.c. capitally for the third offence. By the Vagrant Act one eighth of Great Britain. Its government is a liber(1824), 5 Geo. IV. c. 83, all public beggars are liable to a

al constitutional monarchy, founded in 1831. For premonth's imprisonment. About 30,000 tramps in Eng- rious bistory, see Flanders, Netherlands, and Holland. land and Wales.-Judicial Statistics, 1865. See Poon

The population (31 Dec.), 1862, 4,836,566; 1865, 4,984,laws and Mendicily Society. The “ Beggar's OPERA,” 451; 1866, 4:829,320 ; 1870, 5,087,105; 1879, 5,536,146. by John Gay, a satire against the government of sir Rob- The revolution commences at Brussels.. .25 Ang. 1830 ert Walpole, was produced at the Lincoln's-inu-fields The provisional government declares Belgium inde

pendent (M. Van de Weyer, active). .

.4 Oct theatre, 29 Jan. 1727-8, and had a run of 63 nights; see

Antwerp taken (except the citadel)..

23 Dec. Gueur,

Belgian independence acknowledged by the all'ed pow

. 26 Dec. Beguines, a congregation of nuns first established Duke de Nemours elected king (his father, the French at Liège, and afterwards at Nivelle, in 1207, some say king, refused his consent)....

.3 Feb. 1831 1226. The “Grand Beguinage" of Bruges was the most

Surlet de Chokier is elected regent..

.24 Feb. extensive. Some of these nuns imagined that they Leopold, prince of Saxe-Coburg, accepted the crown, 12


.19 July, could become sinless. The council of Vienne condemn- War with the Netherlands commences. ..3 Aug. ed this error, and abolished a branch of the order in France sends 50,000 troops to assist Belgium, and an 1311. They still exist in Germany and Belgium, acting Conference of ministers of the five great powers held in

armistice ensues....

Aug. as nurses to the sick and wounded, etc.

London; acceptance of 24 articles of pacification,

15 Nov. Beheading, the Decollatio of the Romans, intro- Convention between England and France against Hol duced into England from Normandy (as a less ignomini- land.

22 Oct. 1832 ous mode of putting high criminals to death) by Will Antwerp besieged, 30 Nov.; the citadel taken by the


23 Dec. iam the Conqueror, 1076, wben Waltheof, earl of Hun

The French army returns to France.

27 Dec. tington, Northampton, and Northumberland, was tirst so Preliminary convention with Holland signed....21 May, 1833 executed. Since then this mode of execution became Riot at Brussels (see Brussels)...

..6 April, 1834 frequent, particularly in the reigns of Henry VIII., Mary, Treaty * between Holland and Belgium signed in Lon

don... and Elizabeth, when even women of the noblest blood Queen of England visits Belgium..

.19 April, 1839

. Aug. 1852 thus perished: the aged countess of Salisbury, 27 May, The king and his son visit England, 1541; lady Jane Grey, 12 Feb. 1554.

Increase of army to 100.000 men voted.. 10 May, 1853
Opposition to religious charities bill t.

..June, 1857 Behistun, in Persia. At this place is a rock con- A new ministry under M. Charles Rogier. .9 Nov. taining important inscriptions in three languages, in the chambers dissolved; reassembled.. 10 Dec. cuneiform (or wedge-shaped) characters, which were

The king proclaims Belgiuin Leutral in the Italian war,

M, 1859 deciphered and translated by sir H. Rawlinson in 1814-6, Birth of prince Leopold Ferdinand..

.12 June, and published in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic So- Death of M. Potter.

.22 July,

..Jume, 1860 ciety. Each paragraph commences with “ I am Darius The king visits England

Vague rumors of anvexation to France produce warın the Great King."

loyal addresses to the king.

.13 June,

..21 July, Behring's Strait, discovered by capt. Vitus Beh- The octrois abolished..

Successful military volunteer movement. . . . . Aug

He ring, a Danish navigator in the service of Russia.

Commercial treaty with France signed.. ..1 May, 1861 thus proved that the continents of Asia and America Continued illness of the king, will occasional amend are distant from each other about thirty-nine miles, 1728. ment...

May, June, 1862 He died at Behring's Island in 1741. In 1778, capt. Commercial treaty with Great Britain, adopted by the


.22 Ang James Cook surveved the coasts of both continents. Belfast, capital of Ulster, N. Ireland. Its castle, the Belgian question, by the decision of which the treaty of

* This treaty arose out of the conference held in London on supposed to have been built by John de Courcy, was de- 15 Nov. 1431, was maintained, and the pecuniary compensastroved by the Scots under Edward Bruce, 1315; see tion of sixty millions of francs offered by Belgium for the ter. Orunge.

ritories adjudged to Holland was declared inadmissible.

† At the revolution in 1830, the Roman Catholic clergy lost Belfast granted by James I. to sir Arthur Chichester, lord the administration of the public charities, which wey have deputy, 1612; and erected into a corporation..

1613 struggled to recover ever since. In April, 1857. M. Derker, The Long Bridge (21 arches. 2562 feet long) built.... ..1682-6 the head of the ministry, brought in a bill for this purpose, The first edition of the Bible in Ireland printed here..... 1704 but was compelled to withdraw it, and eventually to resign.

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Great distress through decay of trade.

Aug. 1862 | National exhibition at Brussels opened by the king and Fierce dissensions through Roman Catholics, Jan.; the


.....16 June, 1880 ministry resigns, but resumes office, 4 Feb. ; dissolu- Representative at the Vatican recalled through ecclesiastion of the chambers, 17 July; the Protestants superior

tical disputes; suspension of diplomatic arrangements, in the election... ..Aug. 1864

28 June, Death of Leopold I..

...10 Dec. 1865 Jubilee to celebrate national independence... 18 July, The new king and queen visit England, 5 July; and Statue of Leopold I. unveiled at Laeken.......

.21 July, Ghent and other Belgian cities...

July, 1866 Patriotic fête in the Brussels exhibition.........16 Aug. National rifle meeting (tir)...

12-16 Oct.

KINGS. Mr. Phillips, lord mayor of London, and 1100 English

volunteers visit Belgium under col. Loyd - Lindsay; 1831. Leopold,* first king of the Belgians; born 16 Dec. 1790; other foreigners attend; gra luet given


inaugurated 21 July, 1831, at Brussels; married, 9 king at Brussels..

. 20 Oct.

Aug. 1832, Louise, eldest daughter of Louis Philippe, Opening of the chambers, with a reassuring speech from

king of the French (she died 11 Oct. 1850). He died the king

13 Nov.

10 Dec. 1865. Violent rioting in mining districts (Marchienne-au-Pont) 1865. Leopold II., son; born 9 April, 1835; married archon account of reduction in wages; suppressed by the

duchess Maria Henrietta of Austria, 22 Aug. 1853. military..

.1-2. Feb. 1867 Daughter. Princess Louise, born 18 Feb. 1858; married duke About 2400 Belgians (of the garde civique and volun

Philip of Saxony, 4 Feb. 1875. teers) visit England; arrive, 10 July; received by lord Brother. Philip, count of Flanders; born 24 March, 1837; marmayor, 12 July; by prince of Wales at Wimbledon, 13

ried Mary, princess of Hohenzollern Sigmaringen, 25 July; dine at Windsor, 16 July; at a ball at Agricult.

April, 1867; heir, Baldwin, born 3 June, 1869. ural Hall, 18 July; received by Miss Burdett-Coutts, 19 July; attend the review at Wimbledon, 20 July; leave Belgrade, an ancient city in Servia, on the right London...

.22 July, bank of the Danube. It was taken from the Greek emNew ministry (under M. Frère-Orban); liberal....3 Jan. 1868 Serious riots in the mining districts; put down by the

peror by Solomon, king of Hungary, in 1072; gallantly military; 10 lives lost..

25-29 March,

defended by John Hunniades against the Turks, under Monument to Charlemagne at Liège, inaugurated 26 July, Mahomet II., July to Sept. 1456, when the latter was deInternational congress of workmen at Brussels.6-13 Nov.

feated, with the loss of 40,000 men. Belgrade was taken The crown prince Leopold Ferdinand, duke of Brabant,

.22 Jan. 1869 by sultan Solyman, Aug. 1521, and retaken by the ImConcession of a Luxembourg railway to a French rail- perialists in 1688, from whom it was again taken by the way company, without the assent of the state, pro

Turks, 1690. It was besieged in May, 1716, by prince hibited by the assembly, 13 Feb. ; dispute with the French government arranged.

. May,

Eugène. In that year the Turkish army, 200,000 International ritle meeting held at Liège. ....19 Sept. strong, approached to relieve it, and on 5 Aug. a sanResignation of Frire-Orban ministry.. .about 19 June. 1870 guinary battle was fought at Peterwaradein, in which the M. d'Anethan's ministry announced.

..3 July, Warm gratitude to Great Britain expressed by the king

Turks lost 20,000 men, Eugène defeated the Turks here, and people..

.8 Aug

16 Aug. 1717, and Belgrade surrendered 18 Aug. In Treaty for the neutrality of Belgium between Great Brit

1739 it was ceded to the Turks, after its fine fortificaain and Prussia, signed 9 Aug.; and France, signed

tions had been demolished. It was retaken in 1789, and After surrender of Sedan many French soldiers enter restored at the peace of Reichenbach, in 1790. The SerBelgium; disarmed and interned..

.1-2 Sept. vian insurgents had possession of it, 1806-13. In 1815 Strong opposition to the ministry by M. Barra and others; riots at Brussels..

.22-25 Nov.

it was placed under prince Milosch, subject to Turkey. Resignation of D'Anethan; M. Malou (a moderate) forms

The fortifications were restored in 1820. On 19 June, a ministry.

7 Dec. 1871 1862, the Turkish pacha was dismissed for firing on the The comte de Chambord arrives at Antwerp, 17 Feb.;

town during a riot. The university was established by compelled to quit Belgium through popular demon. strations.

..27 Feb. 1872 private muniticence, 1863. The fortress was surrendered The French government denounce the treaty of com- by the Turks to the Servians, 18 April, 1867. The inmerce with Belgium...

29 March, dependence of Servia proclaimed here, 22 Aug. 1878; see Treaty of commerce with France signed. ......5 Feb. 1873 The czar at Brussels.....

.22 May,

Serria. M. Van de Weyer, statesman; active during the revolution Belgravia, a southwestern district of the metropo

of 1830; ambassador to England, 1831–67; died, 23 May, 1874 lis, built between 1826 and 1852 upon land belonging to International conference at Brussels respecting rights of neutrals during war--no results....... 27 July-28 Aug.

the marquess of Westminster, who is also viscount BelNotes from the German government, complaining of grave.

publications favoring the censured German ecclesiastics, Feb. ; respecting the Duchesne's proposal to the

Belize, see Honduras, archbishop of Paris to assassinate Bismarck..15 April, 1875

Bell, BOOK, AND CANDLE: in the Romish ceremony Dignified Belgian replies.....

March and May, The court at Liège cannot interfere, May; modification

of excommunication (which see), the bell is rung, the of the criminal law proposed...

..June, book is closed, and candle extinguished; the effect beMuch popular opposition to religious processions: riots, ing to exclude the excommunicated from the society of

May, June, The king visits England...

29 May, 1876

the faithful, divine service, and the sacraments. Its Catholic successes in the elections; riots against them at origin is ascribed to the eighth century: Brussels and Antwerp.

.. about 16, 17 June, Statue of Pan de Weyer, at Louvain, inaugurated by the

Bell Rock Light-house, nearly in front of the king

...1 Oct. Frith of Tay, one of the finest in Great Britain; it is International congress respecting hygiene, etc., held at 115 feet high, is built upon a rock that measures 127 Brussels..

.27 Sept. --2 Oct. Catholic minority in elections; the Malou ministry re

feet in length and 200 feet in breadth, and is about 12 sign, 13, 14 June; M. Frère-Orban forms a liberal min. feet under water.f It was erected in 1800-10. It has istry...

. 20 June, 1878 two bells for hazy weather. Gigantic weir for water distribution at La Gileppe, near Verviers, inaugurated by the king.

. 28 July,

Bellair, North America. The town was attacked The king's silver wedding enthusiastically celebrated, by the British forces uniter sir Peter Parker, who, after

22-25 Aug Eugene T'Kindt de Rooden Veke, a clerk, convicted of

an obstinate engagement, was killed 30 Ang. 1814. embezzlement of 20,000,000 francs of the Bank of Bel- Belleisle, an isle on the south coast of Brittany, gium (149 thefts); the governor Fortamps, of fraudu.

France, erected into a duchy for marshal Belleisle, in lently repurchasing shares, etc....

.3 Dec. The king sanctions the new law of public instruction,

1742, in reward of his military and diplomatic services,

1 July, 1879 by Louis XV. Belleisle was taken by the British forces Pastoral of the Roman Catholic hierarchy against the under commodore Keppel and general Hodgson, after a

government plan of mixed education (sacraments to be refused to teachers and parents, etc.) published in Germany....


* Leopold married, in May, 1816, the princess Charlotte of Archduke Rodolph of Austria betrothed to the princess Wales, daughter of the prince-regent, afterwards George IV. Stephanie.

Mareh, 1880 of England; she died in childbed, 6 Nov. 1817. l'ermanent international exhibition opened at Brussels,

Upon this rock, it is said, the abbots of Aberbrothock

1 June, fixed the Inchcape bell, so that it was rung by the impulse of Elections for parliament; severe struggle between lib. the sea, thus warning mariners. It is also said that a Dutch

erals and clerical party respecting education; liberals man, who took the apparatus away, was here lost with his retain moderate majority..

...June, ship and crew.

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desperate resistance, 7 June, 1761, but was restored to BAPTISM OF BELLS. - They were anointed and baptized in France in 1763.

churches, it is said, from the tenth century.--Du Fresnoy.

The bells of the priory of Little Dunmow, in Essex, were bapBelles-lettres, or POLITE LEARNING, see Acade- tized by the names of St. Michael, St. John, Virgin Mary, Holy mies and Literature.

Trinity, etc., in 1501.--Weever. The great bell of Notre Dame

of Paris was baptized by the name of duke of Angoulême, Belleville, the red republican stronghold of Paris, 1816. On the continent, in Roman Catholic states, they bap. defended by seven barricades, was captured by L'Ad- tize bells as we do ships, but with religious solemnity. - Ashe. mirault and Vinoy, 27, 28 May, 1871, when the insurrec- RINGING OF BELLS, in changes of regular peals, is almost tion was suppressed.

peculiar to the English.—Slow.

* Companic of the Schollers of Chepeside," 1003; “Society of Bellmen, appointed in London to proclaim the

College Youths," 1637; “Society of Cumberland," 1683; hour of the night before public clocks became general, the "Society of l'nion Scholars," 1713; the "Society of


Eastern Scholars," 1733; “ Loudon Youths, " 1753; were numerous about 1556. They were to ring a bell

mipster Youths, " 1776. at night, and cry,

* Take care of your fire and candle, be Fabian Stedman, about 1650, invented a system known as charitable to the poor, and pray for the dead.”

"Stedman's principle." Benjamin Anable soon after in. Bellows. Anacharsis, the Scythian, is said to have

vented “Grandsire Triples." been the inventor of them, about 569 B.C.; and to him 720 changes can be rung in an hour upon twelve bells; 479,

001,600 changes rung upon them require 75 years, 10 months, is ascribed the invention of tinder, the potter's wheel, and 10 days. anchors for ships, etc. Bellows were not used in the fur. Nell Gwynne left the ringers of the bells of St. Martin's-in-thenaces of the Romans. The great bellows of our foundries

Fields money for a weekly entertainment, 1087, and many

others have done the same. must have been early used ; see Blowing-machines.

Carilloss, a collection of bells, arranged in two or threc chro. Bells were used among the Jews, Greeks, and Ro

matic scales, played by pedals or keyboards, or by machi.

nery. The first set is said to have been made at Alost, in The responses of the Doconæan oracle were in

Flanders, in 1487, and that country and Holland are re. part conveyed by bells.--Strabo. The monument of powned for carillons. Matthias van den Gheyn was an Porseuna was decorated with pinnacles, each surmounted

eminent maker (1721-85). Excellent carillon machines are

now made by Messrs. Gillet. Bland, & Co., Croydon. One at by bells. Pliny. Saiid to have been introduced by

Manchester was started 1 Jan. 1879. It plays 35 tunes on Paulinus, bishop of Nola, in Campagna, about 400; and 20 bells. first known in France in 550. The army of Clothaire Belmont (Mo.), BATTLE OF, opposite Columbus, II., king of France, was frightened from the siege of Ky., fought 7 Nov. 1861. Gen. Grant, commanding Sens by the ringing of the bells of St. Stephen's church. the national forces, at first obtained a great advantage The second excerption of our king Egbert commands over gen. Pillow, the Confederate commander; but erery priest, at the proper hours, to sound the bells of the latter, being reinforced from Columbus, compelled his church. Bells were used in churches by order of Grant to withdraw from the field. pope John IX., about 900, as a defence, by ringing them,

Beloochistan, the ancient Gedrosia (S. Asia). against thunder and lightning. Bells are mythically Khelat, the capital, was taken by the British in the said to have been cast by Turketul, abbot of England, Afghan war, 1839; abandoned, July, 1840; taken and about 941. The celebrated “ Song of the Bell,” by held a short time, Nov. 1810. Schiller (ilied 1805). has been frequently translated. The khan was subsidized in 1854, under certain conditions, The following list is that given by Mr. E. Beckett Deni- which were not observed; the arrangement was broken up son (afterwards sir Edmund Beckett) in his discourse in 1873; the negotiations of major (afterwards sir Robert) on bells at the Royal Institution, 6 March, 1857. The

Sandeinan, in 1975, were successful, and Quietlal was occu.

pied by the British in 1877, and has since become a prosper. lecture of the Rer. H. R. Haweis, at the same place, 7

ous station. The khan proffered assistance after the defeat Feb. 1879, was well illustrated.

of gen. Burrows in July, 1880. Weight.


Belvedere Explosion, see Gunpowder, note. Moscow, 1736 ; * York, 1845

Bemis's Heights, First BATTLE AT. General broken, 1737 250 ? Bruges, 1680..


Gates, at the head of the Northern American army, in Another, 1817 110 ? St. Peter's, Rome.

the autumn of 1777, established a fortified camp on Three others. ... 16 to 31 Oxford, 1680..

7 12 Novgorod

Lucerne, 1636.

7 11 Bemis's Heights, near Stillwater, where he was attacked Olmütz

Halberstadt, 1457 7 10 by the British and Hessians, under gen. Burgoyne, on Vienna, 1711 17 14 Antwerp..


19 Sept. Night terminated the conflict, and both parWestminster, 1856,


7 11 * Big Ben 15 81 Dantzic, 1453.

6 1

ties claimed the victory. Burgoyne fell back to his Erfurt, 1497. 13 15 Lincoln, 1834.

camp, a few miles above, to wait for espected reinforceWestminster, 1858.1 St. Paul's, 17168

ments, before renewing the conflict. The British force * St. Stephen

13 101 Ghent
Boulogne, new

engaged was about 3000, and the American about 2500. Paris, 1680.

Exeter, 1673.

4 10 The former lost, in killed, wounded, and missing, a little Montreal, 1847. 12

Old Lincoln, 1610.. 4 8 less than 500; the latter, 319. Cologne, 1448.

Fourth quarter. Breslau, 1507. bell, Westmin.

Bemis's Heights, Second BATTLE AT. DespairGörlitz....

10 17
ster, 1857..


ing of reinforcements, his army diminishing by deser

tions, Burgoyne perceived that he must fight or flee. * The metal has been valued, at the lowest estimate, at He advanced, and again attacked Gates on 7 Oct., al. 66.5651, Gold and silver are said to have been thrown in as

most upon the battle-ground of 19 Sept. They fought votive offerings.

+ The largest bell in England (named Big Ben, after sir Ben severely, and Burgoyne fell back to the heights of Sarajamin Hall, the then chief commissioner of works), cast at toga, now Schuylerville. There he was compelled to Houghton le Spring, Durham, by Messrs. Warner, under the surrender on 17 Oct. The whole number of troops sursuperintendence of Mr. E. Beckett Denison, and the Rev. W. Taylor, at an expense of 33431. 142. 9d. The composition was

rendered was 5791, of whom 2412 were Germans, or Hes22 parts copper and 7 tin. The diameter was 9 il.54 in.; the sians, under the baron Riedesel; the remainder were height 7 il. 101 in. The clapper weighed 12 cwt. -Rev. W. British regulars and Canadians; see Sarutugu. Taylor.

1 The bell Big Ben" having been found to be cracked, on Benares, in India, a holy city of the Hindoos, 24 Oct. 1857. it was broken up. and another bell cast with the abounding in temples. It was ceded by the nabob of same metal, in May, 1858, by Messrs. Mears, Wbitechapel. is rather different in shape from its predecessor. * Big Ben," Oude, Asuph-ud-Dowlah, to the English in 1775. An and about 2 tons lighter. Its diameter is 9 ft 6 in; the insurrection took place here, which had nearly provedl height, 7 N. 10 in. It was struck for the first time 18 Nov. fatal to the British interests in Hindostan, 1781. The 1858. The clapper weighs 6 cwt. -half that of the foriner bell. The note of the bellis E natural; the quarter bells be rajah, Cheyt Sing, was deposed in consequence of it in ing G, B, E, F. On 1 Oct. 1859, this bell was also found to be 1783. Mr. Cherry, capt. Conway, and others were assas. cracked

sinated at Benares by rizier Alv, 14 Jan. 1799. In $ The clapper or St. Paul's bell weighs 180 lbs.; the diame: June, 1857, col. Neil succeeded in suppressing attempts ter of the bell is 10 feet (Mr. Walesby says 6 n. 9 in and of the native infantry to join the mutivy; see India. its thickness 10 in. The hour strikes upon this bell, the quarters upon two smaller ones; sco Clocks.

Visit of prince of Wales, 5 Jan. 1876.

Tous. Cut.

Tons. Cwt.
10 15

8 0

0 18



5 8
5 4
4 18
4 18


13 ?
12 16

11 3
11 0

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