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Benburb, near Armagh (N. Ireland). Here O'Neill | Benefit Societies, see Friendly Societies. totally defeated the English under Monroe, 5 June, 1646.

Beneventum (now Benevento), an ancient city in Moore says that it was “the only great victory, since South Italy, said to have been founded by Diomedes the the days of Brian Boru, achieved by an Irish chieftain Greek, after the fall of Troy. Pyrrhus of Macedon, durin the cause of Ireland.

ing his invasion of Italy, was totally defeated near BeneBencoolen (Sumatra). The English East India ventum, 275 B.C. Near it was erected the triumphal Company made a settlement here, which preserved to arch of Trajan, A.D. 114. Benevento was formed into a them the pepper trade after the Dutch had dispossessed duchy by the Lombarıls, 571. At a battle fought here, them of Bantam, 1682.-- Anderson, York Fort was 26 Feb. 1266, Manfred, king of Sicily, was defeated and erected by the East India Company, 1690. In 1693 a slain by Charles of Anjou, who thus became virtually dreadful mortality raged here, occasioned by the town master of Italy. The castle was built 1323; the town being built on a pestilent morass; among others, the was nearly destroyed by an earthquake, 1688, when the governor and council perished. The French, under archbishop, afterwards pope Benedict XIII., was dug out count d'Estaing, destroyed the English settlement, of the ruins alive, and contributed to its subsequent re1760. Bencoolen was reduced to a residency under the building, 1703. It was seized by the king of Naples, government of Bengal, in 1801, and was ceded to the but restored to the pope on the suppression of the JesuDutch in 1824, in exchange for their possessions in Ma- its, 1773. Talleyrand de Périgord, Bonaparte's archlacca ; see India.

chancellor, was made prince of Benevento, 1806. BeneBender, Bessarabia, European Russia. Near it was

vento was taken by the French, 1798, and restored to the the asylum of Charles XII. of Sweden, after his defeat at pope in 1815. Pultowa by the czar Peter the Great, 8 July, 1709. The Benevolences (Aids, Free Gifts, actually Forced peace of Bender was concluded in 1711. Bender was taken Loans) appear to have been claimed by our Anglo-Saxon by storm, by the Russians, 28 Sept. 1770; was taken by sovereigns. Special ones were levied by Edward IV., Potemkin in 1789, and again in 1809. It was restored 1473, by Richard III., 1485 (although a statute forbidding at the peace of Jassy, but retained at the peace of them was enacted in 1484), by Henry VII., 1492 ; and 1812.

by James I.. in 1613, on occasion of the marriage of the Benedictines, an order of monks founded by St. princess Elizabeth with Frederick, the elector palatine, Benedict (lived 180-513), who introduced the monastic life afterwards king of Bohemia. In 1615 Oliver St. John, into Western Europe, in 529, when he founded the monas

M.P., was tined 50001., and chief-justice Coke disgraceil, tery on Monte Casino, in Campania, and eleven others

for severely censuring such modes of raising money. afterwards. His Regula Monachorum (rule of the monks) Benevolences were declared illegal by the bill of rights,

Feb. 1689. soon became the common rule of western monachism. No religious order has been so remarkable for extent, Benevolent, or Strangers' Friend Society, estabwealth, and men of note and learning as the Benedictine. lished 1785; Loan Society, 1817; Society of Blues, 1824; Among its branches, the chief were the Cluniacs, founded Society of St. Patrick, 1784. in 912; the Cistercians, founded in 1098, and reformed

Bengal, chief presidency of British India, containby St. Bernard, abbot of Clairvaux, in 1116; and the Carthusians, from the Chartreux (hence Charter-house), by the sovereigns of Delhi till 1340, when it became

ing Calcutta, the capital. Its governors were appointed founded by Bruno about 1080. The Benedictine order independent. It was added to the Mogul empire by was introduced into England by Augustin, in 596; and Baber, about 1529; see India and Calcutta. William I. built an abbey for it on the plain where the battle of lastings was fought, 1066; sce Battle Abbey. The English first permitted to trade to Bengal.

.. about 1652 William de Warrenne, earl of Warrenne, built a convent They establish a settlement at Hooghly.

Factories of the French and Danes set up. at Lewes, in Sussex, in 1077. Of this order, it is reck- Bengal made a distinct agency.

1680 oned that there have been 40 popes, 200 cardinals, 50 The English settlement removed to Fort William. 1698 patriarchs, 116 archbishops, 4600 bishops, 4 emperors, 12 Imperial gran vesting the revenues of Bengal in the

company, by which it gained the sovereignty of the empresses, 46 kings, 41 queens, and 3600 saints. Their

country.

.12 Aug. 1765 founder was canonized.-Baronius. The Benedictines India Bill; Bengal made chief presidency; supreme have taken little part in politics, but have produced

court of judicature established

16 June, 1773

.21 July, 1813 many valuable literary works. The congregation of St. Bishop of Calcutta appointed..

Railway opened.

.15 Aug. 1854 Maur published the celebrated “ L'Art de Vérifier les Awful lamine in Orissa (which see). Dates," in 1750, and edited many ancient authors. Lieut.-governor, hon. Wm. Grey.

1867

Geo. Campbell The Benedictines with other orders were expelled from Deficiency in rainfall; consequent famine (see India), France by decree .29 March, 1980

Oct. 1873 The fourteenth centenary of the birth of St. Benedict Cyclone: Mednapore destroyed; about 2000 perish.. Oct. 1874 was kept at Monte Casino and other places..... April, Lieut.-governor, sir Richard Temple..

hon sir Ashley Eden

1877 Benefice (literally, a good deed or favor) or FIEF. Clerical benefices originated in the twelfth century, when

Bennington, BATTLE OF. This engagement took the priesthood began to imitate the feudal lay system place at Hoosick, N. Y., five miles from Bennington, of holding lands for performing certain duties; till then in Vermont, but is known as the battle of Bennington. the priests were supported by alms and oblations at It was fought on 16 Aug. 1777, between British and mass. Vicarages, rectories, perpetual curacies, and chap- German detachments, under cols. Baume and Breyman, laincies are termed beneficies in contradistinction to dig- of Burgoyne's army, and gen. John Stark, at the head nities, such as bishoprics, etc. A rector is entitled to all of New Hampshire militia. The British were defeated, the tithes; a vicar, to a small part or to none.--All with a loss, in killed, wounded, and prisoners, of almost benelices that should become vacant in the space of six a thousand men. The Americans had 100 killed and as months were given by pope Clement VII. to his nephew, many wounded. Burgoyne sent this expedition to proin 1534.-Notitia Monastica, An act for the augmen- cure cattle and stores. It was a severe blow to him, tation of poor benefices by the sale of some of those in and led to his final defeat. the presentation of the lord chancellor was passed in 1863, and an act respecting the sequestration of benefices carbon, discovered by Faraday in oils (1825), and by C.

Benzole, or BENZINE, a compound of hydrogen and and their union passed 1871.

B. Manstield in coal-tar (1849)--the latter of whom unThe Commission on Ecclesiastical Benefices reported, fortunately died in consequence of being severely burned

recommending amendments in sales of advowsons, discontinuance of sale by auction, ctc....about 3 Nov. 1879 while experimenting on it (25 Feb. 1855). Benzole has

become useful in the arts. Chemical research has proBenefit of Clergy, see Clergy.

duced from it aniline (which see), the source of the cele

1534

1664

.1865-66

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1871

brated modern dyes mauve, magenta, and many others; sians and Austrians, 9-13 Oct. 1760. Establishment of see Alizarine.

the Academy of Sciences, 1702 ; of the university, 1810. Beowulf, an ancient Anglo-Saxon epic poem, de- On 27 Oct. 1806, after the battle of Jena (14 Oct.), the scribing events which probably occurred in the middle French entered Berlin; and from this place Napoleon of the fifth century, supposed to have been written sub- issued the famous Berlin decree, an interdict against the sequent to 597. An edition by Kemble was published commerce of England, 20 Nov. It declared the British in 1833. It has been translated by Kemble, Thorpe, and islands to be in a state of blockade, and ordered all Eng

lishmen found in countries occupied by French troops to Wackerbarth.

be treated as prisoners of war. On 5 Nov. 1808, NapoBerbice (S. America), settled by the Dutch, 1626, leon entered into a convention with Prussia, by which who surrendered it to the British, 23 April, 1796, and 22 he remitted to Prussia the sum due on the war debt, and Sept. 1803; and finally in 1814. It was united to Dem- withdrew many of his troops to reinforce his armies in erara, and named British Guiana, 1831.

Spain; see Prussia, 1866, 1871. Berengarians, followers of Berengarius, archdeacon The railway to Magdeburg opened... .10 Sept. 1841 of Angers, who, about 1049, opposed the Romish doc- The first constituent assembly held here. .21 June, 1842 trine of transubstantiation, or the real presence in the an insurrection commenced here.

. March, 1848 Lord's - supper. Several councils of the church con

Berlin was declared in a state of siege. ..12 Nor.

The continuation of this state was declared to be illegal demned his doctrine, 1050-79. After much controversy,

without its concurrence by the lower chamber, he recanted about 1079, and died, grieved and wearied,

25 April, 1849 6 Jan. 1088.

A treaty of peace between Prussia and Saxony was signed....

21 Oct. 1866 Beresina, a river in Russia, crossed by the French The victorious army entered Berlin, 20 Sept. 1866; and main army after its defeat by the Russians, 25-29 Nov.

16 June, 1871 1812. The French lost upwards of 20,000 men, and

The monument of Victory, in memory of the wars with

Denmark (1864), Austria (1866), and France (1870-1), their retreat was attended by great calamity and suffer- solemnly uncovered..

.2 Sept. 1873 ing.

Meeting of chancellors of Germany, Austria, and Russia,

11, 12 May; they agree to an urgent note to Turkey on Berg (W. Germany), on the extinction of its line of

the Eastern policy; expressed in a note dated 13 May; counts, in 1348, was incorporated with Juliers. Napoleon accepted by Italy and France; received in London, 15 I. made Murat grand-duke in 1806. The principal part

May; its acceptance by the earl of Derby declined, as

her majesty's government had not been consulted, 19 is now held by Prussia.

May; this note not presented through the revolution Bergamo (N. Italy), a Lombard duchy, was annexed The Berlin note" printed in the Times....... 1 July, 1876

.

.30 May, 1876 to Venice, 1428; which chiefly held it till it revolted, International fish and fishing exhibition opened by the and was joined to the Cisalpine republic, 1797. It was crown-prince...

..20 April, 1880 awarded to Austria in 1814, and ceded to Sardinia, 1859.

BERLIN CONGRESS ON THE EASTERN QUESTION.

Representatives (with resident ambassadors): Germany, Bergen (Norway), founded 1070; was the royal prince Bismarck, president; Russia, prince Gortscharesidence during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. koff ; Turkey, Alexander Carathéodori; Great Britain,

lord Beaconstield and marquis of Salisbury (lord Odo Bergen (in Germany), BATTLE OF, between the Russell ambassador); Austria, count Andrassy; France, French and allies, the latter defeated, 13 April

, 1752.- First meeting, 13 June; twentieth and last meeting;

M. Waddington; Italy, count Corti. (In HOLLAND) 1. The allies, under the duke of York,

treaty signed.

......13 July, 1878 were defeated by the French, under gen. Brune, with Articles 1-12. Bulgaria constituted an great loss, 19 Sept. 1799. 2. In another battle, fought principality, tributary to the sultan; the Balkans 2 Oct. the same year, the duke gained a victory over

southeru limit; the prince, to be elected by the

population, approved by the sultan and other Brune; but on the 6th the duke was defeated before powers ; public laws, and other details. Alkmaer, and on the 20th entered into a convention, by 13-22. New province of Eastern Roumelia consti. which his army was exchanged for 6000 French and

tuted; partially autonomous; boundaries defined;

Christian governor general to be appointed by the Dutch prisoners in England.

sultan; to be organized by an Austrian commisBergen-op-Zoom, in Holland. This place, whose

sion; a Russian army of occupation, to remain

nine months. works were deemed impregnable, was taken by the " 23. Bosnia and Herzegovina to be occupied and ad. French, 16 Sept. 1747, and again in 1795.

An attempt,

ministered by Austro-Hungary. made by the British, under gen. sir T. Graham

24-30. Montenegro to be independent; new fron

tiers; Antivari annexed. (afterwards lord Lynedoch), to carry the fortress by " 31–39. Servia to be independent, with new fronstorm was defeated ; after forcing an entrance, their tiers. retreat was cut off, and a dreadful slaughter ensued;

- 40-49. Roumania to be independent, losing part of

Bessarabia to Russia, with compensation, nearly all were cut to pieces or made prisoners, 8 March,

" 50-54. Regulation of navigation of the Danube, etc. 1814.

55-57. Legal reforms in Crete, etc.

" 58. The Porte cedes to Russia Ardahan, Kars, and Bergerac, France. Here John of Gaunt, then earl

Batoum, and settles boundaries. of Derby, defeated the French, in 1314; and here a tem- " 59. Batoum to be a free commercial port, porary treaty of peace between the Catholics and Prot- " 60. Alasgird and Bayazid restored to Turkey.

16 61-62. The Porte engages to realize legal reforms, estants, establishing liberty of conscience, was signed 17

and to grant religious liberty, etc. Sept. 1577.

* 63. The treaty of Paris (30 March, 1856), and of LonBerkeley Castle, Gloucestershire, was begun by

don (13 March, 1871), maintained when not modi.

fied by this treaty. Henry I. in 1108, and finished in the next reign. Here

64. Treaty to be ratified in three weeks' time. Edward II. was cruelly murdered by the contrivance of Ratified..

...3 Aug. 1878 his queen Isabella (a princess of France), and her para- Circular respecting delay in fulfilling the treaty from eari

Granville, the British foreigo secretary, to the foreign mour, Mortimer, earl of March, 21 Sept. 1327. Morti

powers...

... May, 1880 mer was hanged at the Elms, near London, 29 Nov. 1330; and Edward III. confined his mother in her own

BERLIN CONFERENCE (16 June-1 July, 1880). house at Castle Rising, near Lynn, in Norfolk, till her The ambassadors: for Great Britain, lord Odo Russell

(now lord Ampthill, 1881); France, comte de St. Valdeath, 1357.

lier, etc., president; prince Hohenlohe, German foreiga Berlin (capital of Prussia, in the province of Bran- minister. denburg), alleged to have been founded by the margrave They agree to a collective note presented to the sultan

of Turkey (urging the surrender of Dulcigno and ces. Albert the Bear, about 1163. Its five districts were sion of provinces to Greece), which is presented, united under one magistracy in 1714; and it was subse

15 July quently made the capital of Prussia and greatly improved

See Dulcigno, Turkey, and Greece, 1880-). by the sovereigns. It was taken and held by the Rus- Berlin-work, see Embroidery.

autonomous

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Bermudas, or SUMMERS's Isles, a group in the N. | about 325; a chapel, called the Chapel of the Nativity, Atlantic ocean, discovered by Juan Bermudas, a Span- where they pretend to show the manger in which Christ iard, in 1522, but not inhabited until 1609, when sir was laid; another, called the Chapel of Joseph; and a George Summers was cast away upon them. They were third, of the Holy Innocents. Bethlehem is much vis. settled by stat. 9 James I., 1612. Among the exiles from ited by pilgrims.—The Bethlehemite monks existed in England during the civil war was Waller, the poet, who England in 1257. wrote, while resident here, a poetical description of the

Bethlehem Hospital (so called from having been islands. There was an awful hurricane here, 31 Oct. originally the hospital of St. Mary of Bethlehem), a royal 1780, and by another a third of the houses was de- foundation for the reception of lunatics, incorporated by stroyed, and the shipping driven ashore, 20 July, 1813. Henry VIII. in 1547. The old Bethlehem Hospital, A large iron dry-dock here, which cost 250,0001., was Moorfields, erected in 1676, pulled down in 1814, was towed from the Medway to the Bermudas in June and built in imitation of the Tuileries at Paris. The presJuly, 1869. Governors, sir Fred. E. Chapman, 1867; gen. ent hospital in St. George's fields was begun April, 1812, J. H. Lefroy, March, 1871; sir Robert Michael Laffan, and opened in 1815. In 1856 extensive improvements Feb. 1877.

were completed under the direction of Mr. Sydney Bernal Collection of articles of taste and virtù, Smirke. Income 1876, 25,1841. formed by Ralph Bernal, Esq., many years chairman of Bethnal Green (E. London), a poor, populous parcommittees of ways and means in the house of commons, ish; said to have been the seat of Henry de Montfort, He died 26 Aug. 1854. The sale in March, 1856, lasted hero of the “ Blind Beggar of Bethnal Green” (Perey 31 days, and enormous prices were given. The total Ballads). Many churches have been recently erected sum realized was 62,6801. 6s. 8d.

by the instrumentality of bishop Blomfield and others, Bernard, Mount St., so called from a monastery and the district has been much favored by the baroness founded on it by Bernardine Menthon in 962. Velan, Burdett-Coutts. The East London Museum here, a its highest peak, is about 8000 feet high, covered with branch of that at South Kensington, was opened by the perpetual snow. Hamibal, it is said, conducted the Car- prince of Wales, 24 June, 1872. Sir Richard Wallace thaginians by this pass into Italy (218 B.c.); and by the lent to it for a year a collection of fine pictures and valusame route, in May, 1800, Bonaparte led his troops to able curiosities. The gardens opened 19 May, 1875. Italy before the battle of Marengo, 14 June. On the sum- Bethune (France), an independent lordship since mit of Great St. Bernard is the ancient monastery still the eleventh century, was annexed to the monarchy by held by a community of monks, who entertain travellers. the treaty of Utrecht, 1713, after several changes. Bernardines, or WHITE Monks, a strict order of

Betting-houses, affording much temptation to Cistercian monks, established by St. Bernard of Clair- gaming, and consequent dishonesty, in the lower classes, vaux, about 1115. He founded many monasteries.

were suppressed by an act passed in 1853 (16 & 17 Vict. Berne, the sovereign canton of Switzerland, joined c. 119). A Pari-mutuel, or mutual betting-machine, in the Swiss League, 1352; the town Berne was made a Aug., and the “Knightsbridge Exchange," a betting free city by the emperor Frederick, May, 1218; it suc- company, 2 Nov. 1870, were declared illegal; see Races. cessfully resisted Rudolph of Hapsburg, 1288. It sur- New Betting Act passed 8 June, 1874. rendered to the French under gen. Brune, 12 April, 1798. In 1874 this act was applied to betting stations at races; legal The town has bears for its arms, and some of these ani- proceedings against Mr. H. Chaplin, as steward of the Jockey mals are still maintained on funds specially provided

Club, were quashed by the magistrates at Newmarket. for the purpose. It was made capital of Switzerland,

Beverley (E. Yorkshire), the Saxon Beverlac, or 1818.

Beverlega. St. John of Beverley, archbishop of York, Berry (the ancient Biturigum Regis), central France, founded a stately monastery here, and died 721; and on held by the Romans since the conquest by Cæsar (58-50 his account the town received honors from Athelstane, B.c.) till it was subdued by the Visigoths; from whom William I., and other sovereigns. It was disfranchised it was taken by Clovis in A.D. 507. It was erected into for corruption in 1870, after a long investigation. a duchy by John II. in 1360, and was not incorporated

Beyrout (the ancient Berytus), a seaport of Syria, into the royal domains till 1601.

colonized from Sidon. It was destroyed by an earthBersaglieri, the sharpshooters of the Sardinian quake, 566; was rebuilt, and was alternately possessed army, first employed about 1818.

by the Christians and Saracens; and after many changes Berwick-on-Tweed, a fortiñed town on the fell into the power of Amurath IV. It was taken durnortheast extremity of England, the theatre of many ing the Egyptian revolt by Ibrahim Pacha, in 1832. bloody contests while England and Scotland were two The total defeat of the Egyptian army by the allied kingdoms; it was claimed by the Scots because it stood British, Turkish, and Austrian forces, and evacuation of on their side of the river. llere Joho Baliol did hom- Beyrout (the Egyptians losing 7000 in killed, wounded, age for Scotland, 30 Nov. 1292. It was annexed to and prisoners, and twenty pieces of cannon), took place

10 Oct. 1840. England in 1333; and after having been taken and re

Sir C. Napier was the English admiral taken many times, was finally ceded to England in 1482. engaged. Beyrout suffered greatly in consequence of In 1551 it was made independent of both kingdonis. the massacres in Syria in May, 1860. In Nov. 1860, The town surrendered to Cromwell in 1648, and to gen. above 27,000 persons were said to be in danger of staryMonk in 1659. Since the union of the crowns (James ing; see Syria. I., 1603) the strong fortifications have been neglected. Bhootan, a country north of Lower Bengal, with Bessarabia, a frontier province of European Rus- negotiations, Bhootan was invaded by the British in Dec.

whom a treaty was made 25 April, 1774. After fruitless sia. part of the ancient Dacia. After being possessed by 1804, in consequence of injurious treatment of an envoy; the Goths, Huns, etc., it was conquered by the Turks, 1474, seized by the Russians, 1770, and ceded to them in

see India, 1861-5. 1812. The part annexed to Roumania in 1856 was re

Bhurtpore (India), capital of Bhurt pore, was bestored to Russia at the close of the war in 1878, in ex- sieged by the British, 3 Jan. 1805, and attacked five times change for the Dobrudscha, by the treaty of Berlin, 13 up to 21 March, without success. After a desperate enJuly, and given up 21 Oct, 1878.

gagement with Holkar, the Mahratta chiel, 2 April, 1805,

the fortress was surrendered to gen, Lake. By a treaty, Bessemer, see Steel and Steam Navigation.

the rajah of Bhurtpore agreed to pay twenty lacs of ruBethlehem now contains a large convent, enclosing, pees, ceded territories that had been granted to him, and as is said, the very birthplace of Christ; a church delivered his son as hostage, 17 April, 1805. On the erected by the empress Helena in the form of a cross, | rajali's deatlı, during a revolt against liis son, Bhurtpore

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66

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.... 96

was taken by storm, by lord Combermere, 18 Jan. 1826; 1st Corinthians.

A.D. 59 2d Corinthians.

60 see India.

Romans..

60 Of James..

60 Bianchi (Whites), a political party at Florence, in

1st of Peter.

60 1300, in favor of the Ghibellines or imperial party, head

To Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, Hebrews, Phileed by Vieri de' Cerchi, opposed the Neri (or Blacks), mon..

64 hcaded by Corso de' Donati. The latter banished their

Titus, and 1st to Timothy.

65

2d to Timothy. opponents, among whom was the poet Dante, in 1302.

2d of Peter.

66 “Bianchi” were also male and female penitents, clothed Of Jude..

66 in white, who travelled through Italy in Aug. 1399, and 1st, 2d, and 3d of John.

after 90

Revelation.... were suppressed by pope Boniface IX., 1400.

Biarchy. When Aristodemus, king of Sparta, died, The most ancient copy of the Hebrew Scriptures existed at Tohe left two sons--twins-Eurysthenes and Procles; and

ledo, called the Codex of Hillel; it was of very early date,

probably of the fourth century aster Christ; some say about the people, not knowing to whom precedence should be 60 years before Christ. The copy of Ben Asher, of Jerusagiven, placed both upon the throne, and thus established lem, was made about 1100. the first biarchy, 1102 B.C. The descendants of each The reputed oldest copy of the Old and New Testament in

Greeke is that in the Vatican, which was written in the fourth reigned for about 800 years.-llerodotus.

or fifth century. Mai's edition appeared in 1857. The next Biarritz, a bathing-place near Bayonne. Here re

in age is the Ålerandrian Codex (referred to the fifth cen

tury) in the British Museum, presented by the Greek patrisided the comtesse de Montijo and her daughter Eugénie, arch to Charles I. in 1628. It has been printed in England, empress of the French, till her marriage, 29 Jan, 1853. edited by Woide and Baber, 1786-1821. -Codex Ephraemi, or It was frequently visited by the emperor and empress.

Codex Regius, ascribed to the fifth century, in the Royal Li

brary, Paris; published by Tischendorf in 1843. Biberach (Würtemberg). Here Moreau twice de- The Codex Sinaiticus, probably written in the fourth century, feated the Austrians--umder Latour, 2 Oct. 1796; and

was discovered by M. Constantine Tischendorf at St. Kath

erine's monastery in 1844 and 1859, and presented to the under Kray, 9 May, 1800.

czar of Russia, at whose cost a splendid edition was pub.

lished in 1862. Bible (from the Greek Biblos, a book), the name es- The Hebrew Psalter was printed at Bologna in 1477. The pecially given to the Holy Scriptures. The Old Testa- complete Hebrew Bible was first printed by Soncino in Italy ment is said to have been collected and arranged by

in 1488, and the Greek Testament (edited by Erasmus) at RotEzra between 458 and 450 B.C. The Apocrypha are con

terdam, in 1516. Aldus's edition was printed in 1518; Ste.

phens's in 1546; and the textus receptus (or rece red text) by sidered as inspired writings by the Roman Catholics, but the Elzevirs in 1624. not by the Jews and Protestants;* see Apocrypha.

TRANSLATIONS.
OLD TESTAMENT.

The Old Testament, in Greek, termed the Septuagint (which Genesis contains the history of the world from B.C. 4001-1635

see), generally considered to have been made by order of

Ptolemy Philadelphos, king of Egypt, about 286 or 285 B.C.; Exodus..

1635–1490

of this many fabulous accounts are given. Leviticus

1490

Origen, after spending twenty-eight years in collating MSS., Numbers..

1490-1451 Deuteronomy.

commenced his polyglot Bible at Cæsarea in A. D. 231; it con: 1451

tained the Greek versions of Aquila, Symmachus, and TheoJob.

about 1520

dotion, all made in or about the second century after Christ. Joshua.

1451-1420 Judges.

The following are ancient versions: Syriac, first or second cen. 1425-1120

tury; the old Latin version, early in the second century, reRuth..

1322-1312

vised by Jerome, in 384; who, however, completed a new 1st and 2d Samuel..

1171-1017 1st and 2d Kings.

version in 405, now called the VULGATE (which see): the first 1015- 562

edition was printed (without date) about 1456; the first dated 1st and 2d Chronicles,

1004- 536 Book of Psalms (principally by David).

1462; Coptic, second or third century; Ethiopic; Arme1063-1015

nian, fourth or fifth century; Slavonic, ninth century; and Proverbs written...

.about 1000- 700

the Meso-Gothic, by Ulfilas, the apostle of the Goths, about Song of Solomon.

1014

360, a manuscript copy of which, called the Codex Argenteus, Ecclesiastes..

977

is at Upsal. The Psalms were translated into Suxon by Jonah.

862

bishop Aldhelm about 706; Cædmon's metrical paraphrase Joel..

800

of a portion of the Bible, about 680; and the Gospels by Hosea.

785- 725

bishop Egbert, about 721; parts of the Bible by Bedo, in the Amos

787

eighth century. Isaiah..

760- 698 Micah..

750- 710

ENGLISH VERSIONS AND EDITIONS. Nahum.

713

MS. paraphrase of the whole Bible at the Bodleian LiZephaniah..

630
brary, Oxford, dated by Usher.

1290 Jeremiah.

629- 588 Versions (from the Vulgate) by Wickliffe and his followLamentations

588
ers (abore 170 MS. copies extant)..

...1356-84 Habakkuk.

626

[Part published by Lewis, 1731; by Baber, 1810; the Daniel..

from 607- 534

whole by Madden and Forshall, at Oxford, 1860.) Ezekiel.

595– 574 William Tyndale's version of Matthew and Mark from Obadiah.

about 587

the Greek printed, 1524; of the whole New Testament, Ezra,

536- 456
1525; 6 editions,

1525-30 Esther.

521- 495 Miles Coverdale's version of the whole Bible; printing Haggai.

520
finished

4 Oct. 1535 Zechariah.

520- 518

[Ordered by Henry VIII. to be laid in the choir of Nehemiah..

446- 434

every church, " for every man that will to look and Malachi

397

read therein.'']

T. Matthews's ( said to be fictitious name for John Rog. NEW TESTAMEXT.

ers) version (partly by Tyndale * and Cożerdale).. 1537 Gospels by Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John....B.C. 5-A.D. 33 Cranmer's Great Bible (Matthews's revised), the first Acts of the Apostles.

....A. D. 33-65
printed by authority.

1539 Epistles-1st and 2d of Paul to Thessalonians....... about 54 (Bible reading prohibited)

1542-57 To Galatians..

58

Generit version, " Breeches Bible” (the first with fig. ured verses), 1540-57; published..

1500 * In April, 1865, was published a proposal for raising a fund Archbishop Parker's, called " The Bishops' Bible" (eight for exploring Palestine in order to illustrate the Bible by anti

of the fourteen persons employed being bishops). 1668 quarian and scientific investigation. The first meeting was King James's Bible, the present authorized version-reheld 22 June, 1865, the archbishop of York in the chair; see

vision began 1604; published....

1611 Palestine.

[Dr. Benjamin Blayney's revised edition, 1769.) | The division of the Bible into chapters has been ascribed Roman Catholic authorized version: New Testament at to archbishop Lanfranc in the eleventh, and to archbishop

Rheims, 1.582; Old Testament, at Douay. .... 1602-10 Langton in the thirteenth century; but T. Hartwell Horne con

Authorized Jewish English version..

...1851-61 siders the real author to have been cardinal Hugo de Sancto The revision of the English version now in use was recommend. Caro, about the middle of the thirteenth century. The divi.

ed by the bishops in convocation, 10 Feb. 1870. The commitsion into sections was commenced by rabbi Nathan (author of a Concordance), about 1445, and completed by Athras, a * He was strangled nt Antwerp, 6 Oct. 1636, at the instignJew. in 1661. The present div. sion into verses was introduced l'on of Henry VIII. and his council. His last words were, by the celebrated printer Robert Stephens in his Greek Tes- *. Lord, open the king of England's eyes!" Fourteen ed tions tament (1551) and in his Latin Bible (1556-7).

of his Testament had then been published.

66

66

64

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tee, including eminent scholars of various denominations, Biblical Archæology, SOCIETY FOR, established appointed in May, held their first meeting at Westminster by Dr. Samuel Birch and others, 1871. Besties a jourAbbey, 22 June, 1870. Revision of the New Testament completed (103d session of 407 nal, it has published “Records of the Past,” translations

days), 11 Nov. 1880; various editions published 17 May, 1881. from the Assyrian, Egyptian, and other languages, Paragraph Bibles published in England by John Reeve, 1808; 1873-8. by the Tract Society, 1848; at Cambridge, Mass., by Dr. Coit. 183+.

Bibliography, the Science of Books. Smallest Bible known (41 X2X1 inches; weight under 3} oz.), Gesner's "Bibliotheca Universale” appeared

1545 issued from Oxford University press, Oct. 1875.

De Bure's “ Bibliographie Instructive".

1763 MODERN TRANSLATIONS. * Peignot, “ Manuel

1823 N. Test. Bible.

Horne, " Introduction to the Study of Bibliography". 1814 Flemish.

1477

Brunet's “ Manuel du Libraire,” 1st edit. 1810; 5th ed. 1862–5 Spanish (Valencian).

1478 ScripturalOrme, Bibliotheca Biblica," 1824; Darling, German,

1522 1530

"Bibliographica”, English

1526 1535 Classical-the works of Fabricius, Clarke, and Dibdin. French.

1487
English--Watt's “Bibliotheca Britannica”

1824 Swedish

1526

1541 Lowndes, “Bibliographer's Manual,'' 1834; new edit. by Danish.

1521 1550
Bohin.

1857-62 Dutch. 1475 British Catalogues, by Sampson Low..

1835-80 Italian.

1471
French--Querard.

1828-64 Spanish.

1543 1569

Allibone's Dictionary of Authors," !858; new edit.... 1870 Russian (parts).

1519

1822
American Catalogue..

1876 Welsh..

1567 1588 Bibliomania (or book-madness) very much preHungarian

1574 1589 Bohemian.

1488 vailed in 1811, when Dr. Dibdin's work with this title Polish.

1551 1561 was published; see Boccaccio, and Printing, 1450-5. Virginian Indians.

1661 1603 Irish...

1602 1086

Bicocca (N. Italy). Lautrec and the French were Georgian.

1743 here defeated by Colomna and the Imperialists, 29 April, Portuguese.

1712

1748 1522, and Francis thereby lost his conquests in Milan. Mans.

1748 1767 Turkish

1666 1814 Bicycle, see Velocipede. Sanscrit.

1808 1822

Bidassoa. The allied army under lord WellingModern Greek.

1638 1821 Chinese.

1814 1823 ton, having driven the French from Spain, effected the The British and Foreign Bible Society continues to make passage of this river 8 Oct. 1813, and entered France. and print translations of the Bible in all the dialects of Biddenden Maids. A distribution of bread and the world; see Polyglot.

cheese to the poor takes place at Biddenden, Kent, on Bible Christians, see Shakers.

Easter Mondays, the expense being defrayed from the

rental of twenty acres of land, in 1875 yielding about Bible Dictionaries. The most remarkable are 201. a year, the reputed bequest of the Biddenden mails, Calmet's “ Dictionary of the Bible," 1722-8: Kitto's two sisters named Chulkhurst, said to have been joined * Cyclopædia of Biblical Literature," 1843 and 1851; and together like the Siamese twins, and to have died in the Smith's elaborate “ Dictionary of the Bible," 1860–3; see twelfth century. In 1656, William Horner, the rector, Concordances.t

was nonsuited in an attempt to add the “ Bread and Bible Societies. Among the principal and old-Cheese lands” to bis glebe. est societies which have made the dissemination of the

Big Bethel (Virginia, U. S.), Battle of, fought Scriptures a collateral or an exclusive object are the fol- 10 June, 1861. Gen. Pierce attacked the Confederates lowing:

in their fortifications, and was repulsed, after a partial Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge...

1698

success, losing about 40 men. Society for Propagating the Gospel in Foreign Parts .... 1701 Society in Scotland for Promoting Christian Knowledge 1709 Bigamy. The Romans branded the guilty party Society for Promoting Religious Kuowledge among the with an infamous mark; and in England the punishPoor..

1750 Naval and Military Bible Society.

ment, formerly, was death, An act respecting it was

1780 Sunday school Society..

1785 passed 5 Edw. I. 1276,- Viner's Statutes. Declared to French Bible Society

1792 be felony, without benefit of clergy, 1 James I. 1603. British and Foreigo Bible Society, I began 1803; organ

Punishable, by imprisonment or transportation, 35 Geo. ized..

1804 Hibernian Bible Society.

1806

III. 1794; by imprisonment, 24 & 25 Vict. c. 100 (1861). Bible Society of Philadelphia..

1808 In the United States, bigamy is punishable by imprisCity of London Auxiliary Bible Society

1812 onment. American Bible Society.

1816 A bull from the pope, Pius VII., against Bible Societies Bilbao (N.E. Spain), founded about 1300; was taken appeared in..

1817 by the French and held a few days, July, 1795. It was American and Foreign Bible Society.

delivered from the Carlists by Espartero, assisted by the American Bible Union..

1850

British, 24 Dec. 1836. It was besieged by Carlists from Biblia Pauperum (the Bible for the Poor), con- Feb. to May, 1874, when the siege was raised by marshal sisting of engravings illustrating Scripture history, with Concha, who entered Bilbao 2 May. texts, carved in wood-a “block book”-printed early in the fifteenth century, was compiled by Bonaventura,

Bill of Exceptions. The right of tendering such general of the Franciscans, about 1260. A fac-simile

a bill to a judge, either to his charge, to his detinition was published by J. Russell Smith in 1859.

of the law, or to other errors of the court, at a trial be

tween parties, provided by the 21 statute of Westmin* “ The Bible of Every Land” (ed. 1860), published by Messrs. ster, 13 Edw. I. 1281, was abolished by the Judicature Bagsters, London, is full of information respecting ancient and Act, 1875. The practice is still maintained in American modern versions of the Bible.

† An“Index to the Persons, Places, and Subjects occurring in the Holy Scriptures,” compiled by B. Vincent, editor of the Bill of Pains, etc., see Queen Caroline. present work, was published by the queen's printers in 1818; others published since,

Bill of Rights, etc., sec Rights. I This society has issued 21.247,667 copies of the Bible, or

Billiards. parts of it, up to Jan. 1851; in May, 1863, the number had risen

The French ascribe their invention to to 43.014,3334; in 1867 to 52,639.039; in 1875 to 76, 432, 723; in Henrique Devigne, an artist, about 1571. Slate billiarilMarch, 1881, to 91.014,419. The income of that year was tables were introduced in England in 1827. 222, 3-201. ; in 1876, 206,9781. ; in 1878, 212,3031.; in year 1880-1, 209,5191 In 1857 the society published a catalogue of its

Billingsgate, the fish-market in London, is said to library, which contains a lirge number of remarkable editions have derived its name from Belinus Magnus, a British of the Bible. The foundation stone of its new Central hall: prince, the father of king Lud, 400 B.C., Lut Stow thinks Queen Victoria street, London, Wis laid by the prince of Wales, 11 June, 1866. The society bas promoted translations from a former owner. It was the old port of London, of the Bible into 225 languages or dialects.

and customs were paid here under Ethelred II., A.D.

1837

courts,

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