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979.–Stow. Billingsgate was made a free market, 1699.

IN LONDON AND SUBURBS (52 or 53 WEEKS). -Chamberlain. Fish by land-carriage, as well as sea


Deaths. 1854

84,684 In 1819 the market was

73,697 borne, now arrives daily here.


57,786 extended and improved, and a new one was erected in 1858 (Females, 43,400). 88,620 (Females, 31,319).... 63,882 1832, Mr. Bunning architect. Another new one, erected 1862


66,950 by Horace Jones, founded 27 Oct. 1874; completed Sept. 1867 (Females, 54,962).


77,723 112.264

70,588 1876; lit by electric light, 25 Nov. 1878.

1868 (53 weeks).

74,908 Bills of Exchange were invented by the Jews as



113, 119 a means of removing their property from nations where


80.332 they were persecuted, 1160.-Anderson. Bills are said 1872


70.893 to have been used in England, 1307. The only legal 1873 (53 weeks).



121,394 mode of sending money from England, 4 Richard II.

76, 606

81.513 1381. Regulated, 1698; first stamped, 1782; duty ad- 1876 (Females, 62,095)... 127.015

77,411 vanced, 1797; again, June, 1801; and since. It was

1877 (
62, 135)... 127,257


1878 made capital to counterfeit bills of exchange in 1734.


83,695 1879

134,096 In 1825, the year of disastrous speculations in bubbles, 1880 (Females, 64,659) ... 132, 173 (Females, 39, 4:26)... 81,128

85,540 it was computed that there were 400 millions of pounds sterling represented by bills of exchange and promissory law for preventing frauds upon creditors by secret bills

Bills of Sale, an act to consolidate and amend the notes. The present amount is not supposed to exceed of sale of personal chattels (41 & 42 Vict. c. 31) was 50 millions. The many statutes regarding bills of exchange were consolidated by act 9 Geo. IV. 1828. An

passed 22 July, 1878. act regulating bills of exchange passed 3 Vict. July, Bimetallism, the system of having two standard 1839. Great alterations were made in the law on the metallic currencies in a country-gold and silver--much subject by 17 & 18 Vict. c. 83 (1854), and in 18 & 19 advocated by MM. H. Cernuschi and E. Lavellye, and Vict. c. 67 (1855). Days of grace were abolished in the others since 1867. By 56 Geo. III. c. 68 (1816), it was case of bills of exchange payable on sight in Aug. 1871. enacted that “gold coins only should be legal tender in Forgery of bills to obtain discount was detected by the all payments of more than 40s." in this country. A bibank of England, 28 Feb., after 102,2171. had been paid. metallic currency was established in France in 1803. It The culprits (Americans) were tried and condemned to was recommended for Germany in 1879, and was dispenal servitude for life, 26 Aug. 1873; see Trials, Aug. cussed at the Monetary Conference at Paris, April, 1881. 1873.

Binary Arithmetic, that which counts by turos, A Bills of Exchange Act, declaring the law relating to accept for expeditiously ascertaining the property of numbers, ance, passed 16 April, 1878.

and constructing tables, was invented by Leibnitz, of For the various laws and regulations in force in the United Leipsic, about 1703. For the Binary theory in chemis

States, see Harper's “ Cyclopædia of Commerce,”' p. 167 et seq.

try, see Compound Radical. Bills of Mortality for LONDON. These bills Binomial Root, in Algebra, composed of only two were first compiled by order of Cromwell, about 1538, 30 parts connected with the sign plus or minus; a term Hen. VIII., but in a more formal and recognized manner first used by Recorda about 1550, when he published his in 1603, after the great plague of that year. No com- “ Algebra." The celebrated binomiul theorem of Newton plete series of them has been preserved. They have is said to have been discovered in 1663. been superseded by the weekly returns of the registrar- Biography (fronm the Greek βίος, life, and γράφω, general since 1837; sce Public Health. The following I write), defined as “ history teaching by example." show the numbers for London at decennial periods: The Book of Genesis contains the biography of the patriChristenings.

Burials. archs, and the Gospels that of Christ. Plutarch wrote 1780


the" Lives of Illustrious Men;" Cornelius Nepos, “Lives


of Military Commanders;" and Suetonius, “Lives of the 19,930

19,892 Twelve Cæsars” (all three in the first century after 26,158

Christ); Diogenes Laertius, “ Lives of the Philosophers” 27,028

26744 (about 205).—Boswell's “Life of Johnson” (published in 39,973

36,947 1790) is the most remarkable English biography.

Biology, termed the science of life and living things

Deaths. by Treviranus, of Bremen, in his work on Physiology,

349,366 published 1802-22. Biology includes zoology, anthro-
578, 159

440.839 pology, and ethnology (which see). Herbert Spencer's 1853


“ Principles of Biology,” published 1865-7. T. H. Ilus657,453


ley, “ Practical Instruction in Biology," 1875. 1858 655,481

449,056 089,881

411,790 Birch - tree. The black (Betula nigra), brought 684,048

4:22.721 from North America, 1736. The birch - tree known as 1861 696, 406


the Betula pumila, introduced into Kew gardens, Eng712.684

436,573 1863 727.417

47:3,537 , land, by Mr. James Gordon, from North America, 1762. 1864 740,275

495.31 --Hardy's Annals. 748,069

Birds were divided by Linnæus into six orders (1735);

IRELAND. ** Births. Deaths, Births. Dealhs. Births. Deaths. by Blumenbach into eight (1805); and by Cuvier into 1865, 748,069 490.909 113,126 70.821 141.970 93, 154 six (1817). The most remarkable works are those pub1866, 753,870 500,689 113,639 71,273 146,237 93,598 lished by John Gould, F.R.S.; they now consist of nearly 1867, 768,349 471,073 114,115 69,024 144,318 93.911

40 folio volumes of colored plates, etc. They include 1868, 786,858 480.622 115,673 69,386 146,10 86,803 1869, 773,381 494,828 113,395 75,789 145,659 89,573

the birds of Europe, Asia, Australia, Great Britain, and 1870, 792,787 515,329 115,423 74.067 150,151 90.695 New Guinea, besides monographs of the humming-birds, 1871, 797,428 514,879 116,127 74.611 151.665 88,720

John Gould died 3 Feb. 1881. Dr. Jolin Latham's 1872, 825,907 492, 265 118,873 75.741 149,292 97.577 1873, 829,778 492.520 119,738 76,857 144,377 97.537 : “Synopsis of Birds," 1781-90. John James Andubon's 1874, 854,956 526,6:32 123.795 80.676 1+1,288 91.961 " Birds of America," 1826-40; see Wild Birds. 1875, 8.50.607 546,453 123,693 81.785 138,320 98,114

" British Ornithologists' l'nion" founded 1858; publish1876, 887,968 510.315 126.749 74.152 1 40, 469 92.324

ed the Ibis, 1859 et seq. 1877, 888,200 500,496 | 126,824 1878, 891.906 5:39,872 126,707

134, 117 99,269

A morphological class tication of birds (based on Hox1879, 882.246 528.194 125,736 73,329 135, 108 105, 132

ley's), put forth by professors Parker and Sewton; En. 1880, 880,520 528,656

cyclopedia Britannica: 9111 cd..

The Wild Birds Protection Act, 43 & 44 Vict. c. 35,
* Approximative; registration defective.


.7 Sept. 1880




1790 1800 1810 18:20 1830 1840 1850





1810 1845



1859 1860




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Birkbeck LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INSTITUTION, Visit of the prince and princess of Wales....... 3 Nov. 1874 Southampton buildings, W.C., the present name of the Pourdation of sir Josiah Mason's college laid by him:

self and Mr. Bright..

23 Feb. 1875 mechanics' institution founded by Dr. Birkbeck in 1823. Wm. Dudley bequeaths 100,0001. for charitable purposes

in Birmingham.. Birkenhead (Cheshire), a modern town on the Annual meeting of the Royal Agricultural Society,

. March, 1876 Mersey, opposite to Liverpool. The great dock here

17-24 July,

.28 Sept. was projected by Mr. John Laird, constructed by Mr. Great Western Arcade opened... Rendell, and opened in Aug. 1847 by lord Morpeth.

Mr. W. E. Gladstone addresses about 30,000 persons in
Bingley hall....

..31 May, 1877 1861 Birkenhead was made a parliamentary borough, Birmingham Liberal Federation formed...... May, June, and Mr. Laird was elected first representative. He died Fire at Mr. Denison's, confectioner; Mrs. Denison and 3 29 Oct. 1874. Birkenhead received a charter of incor- others perish, 26 Aug; verdict at inquest, arson, crim

inal unknowu.

.30 Sept. 1878 poration in 1878. Population in 1831, 200; in 1861, 51- Central Library, comprising the chief free reference li649; in 1871, 65,971; see Wrecks, 1852.

brary, and the Shakespeare Library, Cervantes Collec

tion, etc., with priceless treasures, destroyed by fire, Birman Empire, or EMPIRE OF Ava, see Burmese

11 Jan. 1879 Empire and Indiu.

Death of sir Josiah Mason.....

..16 June, 1881 Birmingham, formerly Bromwicham and Brum- Births. The births of children were taxed in Engmegem (Warwickshire), existed in the reign of Alfred, land, viz.: birth of a duke, 30l.; of a common person, 872; and belonged to the Bermengehams, at Domesday 25., 7 Will. III. 1695. Taxed again, 1783. The inSurvey, 1086. There were “many smythes" here in stances of four children at a birth are numerous; but it the time of Henry VIII. (Leland), but its great impor- is recorded that a woman of Königsberg (3 Sept. 1784), tance commenced in the reign of William III.

and the wife of Nelson, a tailor, of Oxford Market, LonGrammar school founded by Edward VI..

1552 don (Oct. 1800), had five children at a birth. The queen Besieged and taken by prince Rupert.

1643 usually presents a small sum of money to a poor woman Buitton manufactures established.


giving birth to three or more living children at one Soho works established by Matthew Boulton about 1764; and steam-engine works about..

1774 time; see Bills of Mortality and Registers. Birmingham Canal originated...


Bishop (Greek ¿TIOKOTOC, overseer), a name given Dr. Ash's hospital founded, 1766; first Birmingham musical festival for it...

1768 by the Athenians to those who had the inspection of Riots against Dr. Priestley and others commemorating the the city. The Jews and Romans had also like officers. French Revolution..

14 July, 1791 St. Peter, styled the first bishop of Rome, was martyred Theatre destroyed by fire..

..7 Aug. 1792 Theatre burned.

:7 Jan. 1820 65. The presbyter was the same as a bishop.-Jerome. Political Union, formed by T. Attwood.

..Feb. 1831 The episcopate became an object of contention about Birmingham made a borough by Reform Act (2 mem

114. The title of pope was anciently assumed by all bers).

1832 Town-hall built...


bishops, and was exclusively claimed by Gregory VII. Political Union dissolved itself.

..10 May, 1834 (1073-85). Birmingham and Liverpool railway opened as the Grand

Bishop of London's Fund, see under Church Junction

.4 July, 1837 London and Birmingham railway openedits entire length,

of England 1864, et seq.; amount received up to 31

17 Sept. 1838 Dec. 1878, 603,7181. Great Chartist riot; houses burned.... 15 July, 1839

Bishops in ExGLAND * were coeval with the intro Town incorporated, and Police Act passed. Meeting of British Association.

29 Aug

duction of Christianity. The see of London mythQueen's College incorporated..

1843 ically said to have been founded by Lucius, king of Corn Exchange opened..

27 Oct. 1817 Britain, 179. British Association (meet again).

.12 Sept. 1819 Queen's College organized.. .Jan. 1853 Bishops made barons..

1072 Public park opened (ground virtually given by Mr. Ad. Intervention of the pope in regard to bishops, 13th cen. derley). ...

.3 Aug 1856 tury. New music hall opened.

......3 Sept. The congé d'élire of the king to choose a bishop origi Another park opened by the duke of Cambridge. 100,000 nated in an arrangement by king John.

persons present (groundgiven by lord Calthorpe), 1June, 1857 Bishops were elected by the king's congé d'élire, 25 Death of G. F. Muntz, M. P.

30 July,
Hen. VIII.

1534 John Bright elected M. P. 10 Aug. 1857, and... . April, 1859 Bishops to rank as barons by stat. Hen. VIII..

1540 The queen and prince consort visit Birmingham, War: Seven were deprived for being married..

1554 wick, etc., for the first time, and open Aston park, Several sutlered martyrdom under queen Mary (see Prot11-16 June, 1858 estants)

1555-6 The Free Library opened.

.. 4 April, 1861 Bishops excluded from voting in the house of peers on Factory explosion, 9 killed. .23 June, 1862 temporal concerns, 16 Char. I....

1641 People's park purchased by corporation. .Sept. 1864 Several protest against the legality of acts of parliament New Exchange opened.

.2 Jan. 1835 passed while they are deprived of votes, 28 Dec.; comThe bank of Attwoods and Spooner stops payment and

mitted to the Tower..

30 Dec. causes much distress..

10 March, The order of archbishops and bishops abolished by the Meeting of British Association (3d).

..6 Sept.

.9 Oct. 1646 Stoppage of the “ Banking Company" ......13 July, 1866 Bishops regain their seats.

... Nov. 1661 First annual horse show...

Seven bishops (Canterbury, Bath, Chichester, St. Asaph, Great Reform meeting.

Bristol, Ely, and Peterborough) sent to the Tower for Violent riots through the lectures of Murphy, an anti

not reading the king's declaration for liberty of conpopery orator, at a tabernacle.

..17, 18 June, 1867 science (intended to bring the Roman Catholics into An additional M. P. given to Birmingham by Reform Act, ecclesiastical and civil power), 8 June; tried and ac

15 Aug

.29-30 June, 1689 Meeting of National Social Science Association. ... 7 Oct. 1868 The archbishop of Canterbury (Dr. Sancroft) and live First club house here opened..

.3 May, 1869 bishops (Bath and Wells, Ely, Gloucester, Norwich, Erdington orphan houses endowed by Josiah Mason, a and Peterborough) suspended for refusing to take the manufacturer of steel pens; begun 1858; finished July, oaths to William and Mary, 1689; deprived...

1690 National Education League meet..

.12, 13 Oct. Retirement of bishops: the bishops of London and DurExplosion at Kynoch's cartridge-factory, Witton; many

ham retired on annuities...

1856 deaths and injuries... .17 Nov. 1870 | The bishop of Norwich resigned

1857 Explosions at Messrs. Ludlow's cartridge factory at Wil- The Bishops' Resignation (for infirmity) Act (authorizing

ton, 17 killed and 53 injured, several dying soon after, the appointment of bishop coadjutors), passed, 11 Aug.

noon, 9 Dec. ; 33 dead up to 13 Dec. ; 51 up to 26 Dec. 1869; made perpetual by act passed... 14 June, 1870 Prince Arthur opens Royai Horticultural Exhibition, Bishopric of St. Albans created, and dioceses of London,

25 June, 1872 Winchester, and Rochester rearranged, 38 & 39 Vict. Sir Josiah Mason (knighted 1872) endows a college for c. 31; passed..

29 June, 1876 practical

1873 Bishopric of Truro founded, 39 & 40 Vict. c. 54; passed, Cannon-hill park (presented to the town by Miss Ry.

11 Aug. 1876 lands) opened...

...1 Sept. Speech of Mr. Bright (after re-election on resuming ollice * Bishops have the titles of Lord and Right Rev. Father in as chancellor of duchy of Lancaster) to about 16,000 God. The archbishops of Canterbury and York, taking place persons in Bingley hall.....

.22 Oct. of all dukes, have the title of Grace. The Bishops of London, Statue of Priestley (in commemoration of his discovery. Durham, and Winchester bave precedence of all bishops: the of oxygen) unveiled by prof. Huxley..... .1 Aug. 1874 | others rank according to seniority of consecration,


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The Bishoprics Act, 41 & 42 Vict. c. 68, authorizes the episcopacy; declared the throne vacant; drew up a endowment of four new bishoprics-Liverpool, New

claim of right; and proclaimed Willam and Mary, castle, and Wakefield (York), and Southwell (Canter

11 April, 1689 bury). The number of bishops in parliament is not to Episcopacy formally abolished, and the bishops' revebe increased.. .....16 Aug. 1878 nues sequestrated

.19 Sept. The Episcopal church was thus reduced to the condition ENGLISH BISHOPRICS.

of a Nonconformist body, at first barely tolerated. It Sees. Founded. Sees. Founded. opened its first congress..

19 May, 1874 London (abpc.)... (?) 179 Lindisse (afterwards Lin. Bishop Rose connected the established episcopal church York (abpc.).. 4th cent. coln, 1067)..


of Scotland with that form of it which is now merely Sodor and Man... .4th cent. Sherborne (afterwards

tolerated, he having been bishop of Edinburgh from Llandafl..

..5th cent. Salisbury, 1042) 705 1687 till 1720, when, on his death, Dr. Fullarton became St. David's. .5th cent. Cornwall (afterwards the first post-revolution bishop of that see.

Fife (now Bangor*. . ..about 516 Devonshire, after

St. Andrews, so called in 1844) now unites the bishSt. Asaph... ..about 560 wards Exeter, 1050).. 909 opric of Dunkeld (reinstituted in 1727) and that of (anterbury (abpc.)..... 598 Wells..

Dunblane (reinstituted in 1731). Ross (of uncertain Rochester...



date) was united to Moray (reinstituted in 1727) in London (see above).. 609 Ely..


1838. Argyll and the Isles never existed independentEast Anglia (afterwards Carlisle


ly until 1817, having been conjoined to Moray and Ross, Norwich, 1091). 630 Peterborough.

1541 or to Ross alone, previously to that year. Galloway Lindisfarne, or Holy Isl- Gloucester t..

has been added to the see of Glasgow. and (afterwards Dur. Br stolt.


Founded. ham, 995)... 634 Chester, Orkney.. ..Uncertain. Argyll .

1200 West Saxons (after- Oxford.

360 Edinburgh

1633 wards Winchester, Ripon


Galloway.. before 500 705)... 635 Manchester 1847


St. Andrews, 800; abpc.. 1470
Mercia (afterwards Lich-

St. Albau's.


Glasgow,about 560; abpc. 1488 Edinburgh.. field, 669). 656 Truro.


Caithness.. .about 1066 Aberdeen and the Isles.. 1721 Hereford.. 676 Newcastle, authorized. .. 1878


. before 1155 Moray (and Ross), primus 1727 Worcester. 680 Southwell

1115 Brechin..

1731 Liverpool....


1124 Glasgow (and Galloway), Bishops in IRELAND are said to have been conse- Aberdeen

1125 St. Andrews (Dunkeld, Dunkeld.

1130 Dunblane, etc.). 1733 crated in the second century; see Church of Trelund.

Dunblane......... before 1153' Argyll and the Isles..... 1847 Prelacies were constituted, and divisions of the bish

Romanist Bishoprics revired by Pope Leo XIII... 4 March, 1878 oprics in Ireland made, by cardinal Paparo, legate from pope Eugene Ill...

Scotch Protestant bishops protest..............13 April, 1878

1151 Several prelates deprived by queen Mary..

1554 Bishops, AMERICAN. The first was Samuel SeaBishop Atherton suffered death ignominiously. 1610 bury, consecrated bishop of Connecticut by four nonTwo bishops deprived for not taking the oaths to William and Mary...

1691 juring prelates, at Aberdeen, in Scotland, 14 Nov. 1784. Church Temporalities Act, for reducing the number of The bishops of New York and Pennsylvania were con

bishops in Ireland, 3 & 4 Will. IV. c. 37, passed 14 Aug. 1833 secrated in London by the archbishop of Canterbury, 4 (By this statuto, of the four archbishoprics of Armagh, Dub: Feb. 1787, and the bishop of Virginia in 1790. Several

lin, Tuam, and Cashel, the last two were to be abolished on the decease of the then archprelates, which has since oc

American bishops formed part of the Pan-Anglican synod curred; and it was enacted that eight of the then eighteen at Lambeth, 24–27 Sept. 1867. The first Roman Catholic bishoprics should, as they became void, be henceforth united bishop of the United States was Dr. Carroll, of Maryto other sces, which was accomplished in 1850; so that the Irish church at present consists of two archbishops and ten land, in 1780. The first Methodist Episcopal bishop orbishops.)

dained in America was Francis Asbury, 27 Dec. 1784. Sees. Founded. Sees.

Founded. Bishops, COLONIAL, etc. I By 15 & 16 Vict. c. 52 Ossory.

402 Ferns..

about 1.98 (1852), and 16 & 17 Vict. c. 49 (1853), the colonial bishTrim

432 Cloyne..

. before 604 Killala.. about 434 Cork

.. about 606 ops may perform all episcopal functions in the United Armagh, 445; abpc 1152 Glandalough. ..before 612 Kingdom, but have no jurisdiction. Emly. .about 418 Derry. ..before 618 Nova Scotia.

1787 | Christchurch, N. Z....... 1856 Elphin. 430 Kilmacduach.. ..about 620


1793 Perth, W. Australia.... Ardagh

454 Lismore.

.about 631
1814 Wellington, N. Z.

1858 Clogher.. before 493 Leighlin..


1824 Nelson, N. Z..
.. about 499 | Mayo..

..about 655

Brisbane, Queensland.. 1859 Ardfert and Aghadoe, Raphoe. ..before 885


1835 British Columbia.. before 500 Cashel

, before 901; abpc. 1152 Australia (see Sydney).. 1836 Goulbourn, N. S.W. Connor.

.. about
Killaloe, (abpc.).

St. Helena.
Tuam, about 501; abpc.. 1152 Waterford..


1837 Waiapu, N. Z..
.about 510 | Limerick.. .before 1106

1839 Ontario, Canada

1861 Kildare before 519 Kilinore..


Nassau, Bahamas..
520 Dublin (abpc.).


1841 Grafton, Australia. 1863 Achonry.

530 | Kilfenora........
. before 1254 New Zealand (see Christ.

Dunedin, N. Z....

1866 Louth. 534


Maritzburg. S. Africa.... 1869 Clonmacnois.

(For the new combina


1842 Auckland, N. Z.. Clonsert...

tions, see the sepa-
Guiana, S. America..

..... about 570 rate articles.)

Huron, Canada...


1871 Bishops in SCOTLAND were probably nominated in Tasmania...



Colombo, Ceylon. 1845 Ballarat. the fourth century.

Fredericton, N.B..

Moosonee The Reformers, styling themselves “the Congregation Adelaide, S. Australia.. 1847 Algoma ..

1873 of the Lord,'' having taken up arms and defeated the Cape Town..

St. John's, Kaffraria... queen-mother, Mary of Guise, called a parliament, Melbourne..

| Athabasca..

1874 which set up a new form of church polity on the Gen- Newcastle, N. S.W.

Saskatchewan. evese model, in which bishops were replaced by Sydney (metrop. of Aus- Niagara.

1875 "superintendents"

1561 tralia)...


1877 Episcopacy restored by the regent Morton (see Tulchan Rupert's Land

1849 Transvaal. Bishops)

1572-3 Victoria, Hong Kong,

Lahore.. Three prelates for Scottish sees consecrated at Lambeth Sierra Leone.

1852 North Queensland 1878 (John Spottiswood, Gawin Hamilton, and Andrew Graham's Town..

1853 Travancore and Cochin.. 1879 Tamb) for Glasgow, Galloway, and Brechin.... 21 Oct. 1610 Natal, S. Africa.

New Caledonia (British Episcopacy abolished, the bishops in a body deposed, and Mauritius...

1854 Columbia)...... four excommunicated, by a parliament elected by the Labuan....

1855 New Westminster... people (Covenanters), which met at Glasgow.... Dec. 1638 Episcopacy restored; an archbishop (James Sharp) and 1 Between 1847-59, Miss (now baroness) Burdett-Coutts gave three bishops consecrated by Sheldon, bishop of Lon. 60,000L. to endow colonial bishoprics. In 1866 she petitioned

...15 Dec. 1661 parliament, on account of some of the bishops professing in. The Scottish convention expelled the bishops; abolished dependence of the church of England. Since then, colonial

bishops have been appointed without intervention of the civil * An order in council, Oct. 1838, directed the secs of Bangor power. Much discussion took place in 1867. through the depand St. Asaph to be united on the next vacancy in either, and osition of Dr. Colenso, bishop of Natal, by his metropolitan. Manchester, a new see, to be created thereupon; this order, Dr. Gray, bishop of Cape Town, and the attempts of the latter as regarded the union of the sces, was rescinded in 1846. to consecrate a new bishop, in opposition to the law; see un

| The sees of Bristol and Gloucester were united, 1856. der Africa and Church of England.

1019 Montreal...


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committed for trial for conspiracy to defraud, 21 Jan. Jerusalem.. 1841 | Falkland Isles.

1869 1869, were tried and acquitted, 13-23 Dec. 1869. I, the Melanesia.. 1860 Madagascar...

1870 United States the term Black Friday is applied to FriHonolulu. 1861 Bloemfontein..

day, 24 Sept. 1869, when a group of speculators in New Zanzibar and Central Af- Zululand...

1871 rica.... 1863 North China...

1872 York succeeded in advancing the price of gold very sudNiger Territory.. 1864

denly to 162}, and creating a disastrous panic. Bishops, SUFFRAGAN, to assist metropolitans, ex- Black Monday, Easter-Monday, 14 April, 1360, isted in the early church. Twenty-six, appointed by “so full dark of mist and hail, and so bitter cold that Henry VIII. 1534, were abolished by Mary, 1553, and re- many men died on their horsebacks with the cold.”— stored by Elizabeth, 1558. The last appointed is said to Stow. In Ireland, Black Monday was the day on which have been Sterne, bishop of Colchester, 1606. The ap- a number of the English were slaughtered at a village pointment of suffragan bishops was revived in 1869, and near Dublin, in 1209. archdeacon Henry Mackenzie, suffragan bishop of Not- Black Money, base foreign coin so terined, 1335. tingham (iliocese of Lincoln) was consecrated 2 Feb. 1870,

Black Monks, see Dominicans. and archdeacon Edward Parry, suffragan bishop of Dover (diocese of Canterbury), 23 March, 1870. Others have Black Museum, at Scotland Yard, is a collection been appointed since: Guildford, 1874; Bedford, 1879.

of relics connected with crime, begun in 1874. Bismuth was recognized as a distinct metal by

Black Prince, Edward, eldest son of king Edward Agricola in 1529. It is very fusible and brittle, and of III., born 15 June, 1330; victor at Poitiers, 19 Sept. 1356; a yellowish white color.

at Najara, 3 April, 1367; died 8 June, 1376. Bissextile, see Calendar and Leap-year.

Black Rock. The vicinity of Black Rock, a short

distance below Buffalo, was the scene of stirring events Bithynia, a province in Asia Minor, previously during the war of 1812-15. An American expellition called Bebricia, is said to have been invaded by the opposite that place destroyed the enemy's boats and batThracians under Bithynus, son of Jupiter, who gave it teries, 29 Nov. 1812. On 11 July, 1813, gen. Peter B. the name of Bithynia. It was subject successively to the Porter, with a considerable force, defended it against a Assyrians, Lydians, Persians, and Macedonians. Most of British force 340 strong under licut.-col. Bisshopp. The the cities were rebuilt by Grecian colonists.

Americans Jost 9 men, the British 23. On 30 Dec. 1813, Dydalsus revolted and reigned, about.. ........ B.C. 410-430 col. Hall, of New York, was at Black Rock with 1200 Botyras, his son, succeeds.. Bas, or Bias, son of Botyras, 376; repulses the Greeks...

militia. They were attacked on that day by a British Zipates, son of Bias, resists Lysimachus..

326 and Indian force 1000 strong. The Americans had 50 He dies, leaving four sons, of whom the eldest, Nicomedes killed and 52 wounded; the British, 25 killed and 50 I., succeeds he invites the Gauls into Asia)..


wounded. Again, on 3 Aug., 1200 British troops were He rebuilds Astacus, and names it Nicomed a..

264 Zielas, son of Nicomedes, reigns..

about 250 repulsed in this vicinity by a rifle corps of 240 men, Intending to massacre the chiefs of the Gauls at a feast, under major Lodowick. The Americans lost 2 killed

Zielas is detected in his design, and is himself put to and 8 wounded. The British lost 50. death, and his son Prusias I. made king, about........

228 Prusias defeats the Gauls, and takes cities

223 Black Rod has a gold lion at the top, and is carried Prusias allies with Philip of Macedon, and marries Apa. by the usher of the order of the Knights of the Garter mea, his daughter.....

208 Ho receives and employs Hannibal, then a fugitive, 187;

(instituted 1349), instead of the mace. He also keeps who poisons himself to escape betrayal to the Romans 183 the door when a chapter of the order is sitting, and durPrusias II. succeeds...

180 ing the sessions of parliament attends the house of lords Nicomedes II. kills his father Prusias and reigns.

149 Nicomedes III., surnamed Ph lopator..

and acts as their messenger to the commons. Deposed by Mithridates, king of Pontus.

Black Sea, THE ECXINE (Pontus Euxinus of the Restored by the Romans.

ancients), a large internal sea between the S. W. provBequeaths his kingdom to the Romans.. Pliny the Younger proconsul...

103 inces of Russia and Asia Minor, connected with the sea The Oghusian Tartars settle in Bithynia, .

1231 of Azoff by the straits of Yenikalė, and with the sea of The Othman Turks take Prusa, the capital (and make it

Marmora by the channel of Constantinople. the seat of their empire till they possess Constantinople) 1327

This sea was much frequented by the Greeks and Italans, Bitonto (Naples). Here Montemar and the Span- till closed to all nations by the Turks after the fall of iards defeated the Germans, 27 May, 1734, and thereby Constantinople in 1453. acquired the kingdom of the Two Sicilies for Don Car- The Russians obtained admission by the treaty of Kai


.10 July, 1774 los.

It was partially opened to British and other traders (since Black Act, 9 Geo. I. c. 22 (1722), was passed to

which time the Russians gradually obtained the pre

ponderance).. punish armed persons termed blacks, going about in dis- Entered by the British and French fleets, at the requisi

1779 guise with their faces blacked, robbing warrens and fish- tion of the Porte, after the destruction of the Turkish ponds, cutting down plantations, killing deer, etc. By fleet at Sinope by the Russians, 30 Nov. 1853....3 Jan. 1854 this act, sending anonymous letters demanding money,

A dreadful storm in this sea raged, and caused great loss

of life and shipping, and valuable stores for the allied etc., was made felony.

armies. See Russo-Turkish War........13 to 16 Nov. Black Art, see Alchemy, Witchcraft.

The Black Sea was opened to the commerce of all nations

by the treaty of 1856. Black Assize, see under Oxford.

The article of the treaty of Paris, 30 March, 1856, by which

the sea was opened to the commerce of all nations, and Black Book (Liber Niger), a book kept in the ex- interdicted to any ships of war; and the erection of chequer, which received the orders of that court. It was military maritime arsenals forbidden, was repudiated published by Hearne in 1728.

by a Russian circular, dated.

.....31 (19) Oct. 1870

After some correspondence, the meeting of a conference A book doubtfully said to have been kept in monasteries, on the subject, in London, was agreed to by all the wherein details of the enormities practised in religious houses powers concerned in the treaty. were entered for the inspection of visitors, under Hen. VIII. The conference met in London 17 Jan. 1871, and a treaty 1535. The name was given to the list of pensioners, printed was signed by which the neutralization of the sea was 1831; and to other books. Seo Italy, 1876. The title Black abrogated: but it was agreed by a special protocol that Book was given to a list of Habitual Criminals, 1869-76; pub. no nation shall liberate itself from the obligations of a lished by lieut..col. Du Cane of Brixton, liarch, 1877.

treaty without the consent of the others who signed it,

13 March, 1871 Black Death, see Plagues, 1340 and 1866.

Blockade of the Black Sea declared hy Turkey ring Black Friars, see Dominicans.

...... about 3 May, 1877 Black Friday, 11 May, 1866, the height of the Black Watch, armed companies of the loyal clans commercial panic in London, through the stoppage of (Campbells, Monros, etc.) employed to watch the HighOverend, Gurney, & Co. (limited), on 10 May. Messrs. lands from about 1725 to 1739, when they were formed John Henry and Edmund Gurney and their partners, I into the celebrated 420 regiment, enrolled as “ The Royal

the war.....


A. D.

Highland Black Watch." Their removal for foreign Blanketeers. A number of operatives who, on service probably facilitated the outbreak in 1745. They 10 March, 1817, met in St. Peter's field, near Manchester, wore dark tartans, and hence were called Black Watch. many of them having blankets, rugs, or great-coats rolled They distinguished themselves in the Ashantee war, up and fastened to their backs. This was termed the Jan., Feb. 1874.

Blanket meeting. They proceeded to march towards Blackburn, Lancashire, so called in Domesday- London, but were dispersed by the magistracy. It is book. The manufacture of a cloth called Blackburn stated that their object was to commence a great insurcheck, carried on in 1650, was superseded by Blackburn rection; see Derby. Eventually the ringleaders had an grays. In 1767, James Hargreaves, of this town, in- interview with the cabinet ministers, and a better unvented the spinning-jenny, for which he was eventually derstanding between the working classes and the gorexpelled from the county. About 1810 or 1812, the ernment ensued. townspeople availed themselves of his discoveries, and Blankets are said to have been first made at Brisengaged largely in the cotton manufacture, now their tol by Thos. Blanket, in the fourteenth century. This staple trade. Blackburn murder, see Trials, July, 1876. is doubtful.

Blackfriars Bridge, London. The first stone of Blasphemy was punished with death by the law the late bridge was laid 31 Oct. 1760, and it was com- of Moses (Lev. xxiv.), 1491 B.C.; and by the code of pleted by Mylne in 1770. It was frequently repaired, Justinian, A.D). 529. It is punishable by the civil and 1834-50, and began to sink. In 1864 it was pulled down, canon law of England, regulated by 60 Geo. III. c. 8 and a temporary bridge erected. The foundation of a (1819). Daniel Isaac Eaton was tried and convicted in new five-arched bridge, designed by Mr. Joseph Cubitt, London of blasphemy, 6 March, 1812. Robert Taylor, was laid by lord mayor Hale, 20 July, 1865, and the a protestant clergyman, was tried twice for the same bridge was opened by the queen 6 Nov. 1869. The first crime. He was sentenced to two years' imprisonment, railway train (London, Chatham, and Dover) entered the and largely fined, July, 1831. In Dec. 1840, two pube city of London over the new railway bridge, Blackfriars, lishers of blasphemous writings were convicted. 6 Oct. 1864.

Blasting Gelatine (a mixture of nitro-glycerine Blackheath, Kent, near London. Here Wat Tyler and gun-cotton), a violent explosive prepared by Alfred and his followers assembled, 12 June, 1381; and here also Nobel, and modified by professor Abel, 1879. Jack Cade and his 20,000 Kentish men encamped, 1 June,

Blazonry. Bearing coats-of-arms was introduced 1450 ; see Tyler and Cade. Here the Cornish rebels were defeated and Flammock's insurrection quelled, 22 and became hereditary in France and England about June, 1497. The ancient cavern, on the ascent to Black- 1192, owing to the knights painting their banners with heath, popularly termed "the retreat of Cade," and of different figures, thereby to distinguish them in the crubanditti in the time of Cromwell, was rediscovered in

sades.-Duydule. 1780. Several daring highway robberies were commit- Bleaching was known in Egypt, Syria, India, and ted near the heath, and the youthful culprits punished, Gaul.-- Pliny. An improved chemical system was adoptin 1877; see Trials.

ed by the Dutch, who introduced it into England and Black-hole, see Calcutta.

Scotland in 1768. There were large bleach-fields in

Lancashire, Fife, Forfar, and Renfrew, and in the vale Black-lead, see Graphite.

of the Leven, in Dumbarton. The application of the Black-letter, employed in the first printed books gas chlorine to bleaching is due to Berthollet’s discorin the middle of the fifteenth century. The first print- ery, about 1785. Its combination with lime (as chloride ing-types were Gothic; but they were moditied into the of lime) was devised by Mr. Tennant, of Glasgow, who present Roman type about 1469: Pliny's “ Natural His- took out a patent for the process in 1798, and by his firm tory” was then printed in the new characters.

it is still extensively manufactured. In 1822 Dr. Cre Black-mail, a compulsory payment for protection published an elaborate series of experiments on this subof cattle, etc., made in the border counties, was probibited stance. In 1860 bleaching and dyeing works were placed by Elizabeth in 1601. It was exacted in Scotland from under the regulations of the Factories Act. the lowlanders by the bighlanders till 1745. It checked Blenheim (or PLINTHEIM) a village in Bavaria agricultural improvement.

on the left bank of the Danube, near the town of HochBlacks, or Neri, see Bianchi.

stett, the site of a battle fought 2 Aug. (N. S., 13) 1704, Blackstocks, Battle at. On 20 Nor. 1780, Ameri- the duke of Marlborough, and the French and Bava

between the English and confederates, commanded by cans under gen. Sumter, and British cavalry under col. rians, under marshal Tallard and the elector of Bavaria. Tarleton, had an engagement at Blackstock’s plantation, The latter were defeated with the loss of about 12,000 on the Tyger river, Union District, S. C.

After a sharp killed, and 13,000 prisoners (including Tallard). Bavaengagement, Tarleton fled, leaving nearly 200 men dead ria became the prize of the conquerors. The British or wounded upon the field. Sumter lost only 3 killed and 5 wounded.

parliament gave Marlborough the bonor of Woodstock

and hundred of Wotton, and erected for him the house Blackwall (London), the site of fine commercial of Blenheim.* docks and warehouses; see Docks. The Blackwall rail

Blind. The first public school for the blind was way was opened to the public, 4 July, 1840; the east- established by Valentine Haily, at Paris in 1784. The ern terminus being at Blackwall wharf, and the western first in England was at Liverpool, in 1791; in Scotland, in Fenchurch street.

at Edinburgh, in 1792; and the first in London in 1799. Blackwater, BATTLE OF, in Ireland, 14 Aug. 1598, Printing in raised or embossed characters for the use of when the Irish chief O'Neil defeated the English under the blind was begun at Paris by Haiiy in 1786. The sir Henry Bagnall. Pope Clement VIII. sent O'Neil a whole Bible was printed at Glasgow in raised Roman consecrated plume, and granted to his followers the same characters about 1818. A sixpemy magazine for the indulgence as to crusaders.

blind, edited by the late rev. W. Taylor, F.R.S., so emiBlackwood's EDINBURGHI MAGAZINE established, nent for his forty years' exertions on behalf of these suf1817.

ferers, was published in 1855-6. He aided the estab

lishment of a college for the blind of the upper classes Bladensburg, sec Washington, 1814.

at Worcester, in 1866. There is hardly any department Blanc, see Mont Blanc.

Blandford's Act, 19 & 20 Vict. c. 101, for aug- * On 5 Feb. 1861, a fire broke out at this place, which dementation of benefices, etc., passed 1856.

stroyed the “Titian Gallery” and the pictures: the latter, a

present from Victor Amadeus, king of Sardinia, to John, the Blank Verse, sce l'erse.

great duke of Marlborough.

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