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The Board, in passing upon the ques- 560 were for one year, forty-five for a tion of parole, takes into consideration year and a half, and 148 for two years. all arrests and convictions, no matter In conclusion let me state that I believe where they have taken place, and fixes that when

that when professional criminals are the punishment accordingly. The result charged with felonies and found guilty, is that while under the old law, from they should be sent to the penitentiary January 1, 1891, to June 13, 1895—four and not to the House of Correction or and a half years – out of 184 persons County Jail. On the other hand, I beindicted under the habitual criminal act, lieve that first offenders, especially only thirty were sentenced for six years where the case is of a trivial nature, and over; under the indeterminate law, should not be sent to the Reformatory, for the year ending December 31, 1902, House of Correction or County Jail. there were passed for further confine- There should be some way of releasing ment, four, to six years; two, to eight them on their own recognizance and givyears; two, to eleven years; three, to ing them a chance. I think it would be sixteen years and twenty-six for the far better to do this than to put the maximum term allotted by the statute for stamp of the convict upon them by senthe various offenses.

tencing them, as is often done, for an Let us take the result of the action of hour, a day or a week to the County Jail. the Board of Parole for February, 1903. There are great opportunities for reforOut of fifty cases for parole from Cook mation in first offenders, but comparaCounty, examined by the Board, only tively few in the older ones. This is my two men were paroled after serving one experience in twenty-six or twenty-eight year, while of the old offenders, three years, and after having handled from were passed for six years; one for seven fifty to sixty thousand criminals. years; two for eight years; one for ten years; one for twelve years and six for

The Making of the Modern Farmer the maximum term fixed by law. Now as a comparison, sentences found

By Walter Williams by juries in this city under the told haw THE modern farmer is the creation of as

agricultural college. found in other places, taking the crimes The modern agricultural college is the committed into consideration. For in- result of the Morrill Act by which the stance, out of 987 straight sentences Congress of the United States gave for from January 1, 1891, to June 13, 1895, the making of the farmer eleven million

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acres of land, the greatest single gift to farming of yesterday. Yesterday the education by state or individual. Under plow was wooden and drawn by an ox the provisions of this act, of which Justin team or a single horse. To-day the plow is S. Morrill, United States senator from of steel, drawn by five horses and cultiVermont, was the author, sixty-five insti- vating five acres daily. Yesterday onetutions have been established, land-grant half of one row in each trip across the colleges as they are commonly called, corn-field was cultivated. The soil around Colleges of Agriculture and Mechanic two full rows of corn is to-day tilled by Arts as they are officially known. Upon the three-horse cultivator with less effort these colleges there is an annual expendi- and in less time Machinery has made ture of $11,000,000 by state and nation. of the farmer a skilled workman. In

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In them are enrolled nearly sixty thou- thirty years his efficiency has been insand students. Through them and their creased fivefold. influence the modern farmer is made or The different conditions of the farm made over.

have made necessary different training The agricultural colleges have exceed- for the farmer. Physical strength and ingly broad foundations. They are at endurance to combat the physical difficulliberty to teach anything, even including ties of farm life are no longer sufficient. the classic languages, that may be taught Success as a farmer is not a necessary in any college, but the leading object result of being born on a farm. “shall be to teach such branches of learn- modern farmer must know much that his ing as are related to agriculture and the grandfather did not even dream. The mechanic arts.” To this object they con- care of delicate and expensive machinery, fine closely their curriculum. Agronomy, the soil and its adaptability for various animal husbandry, agricultural chemistry, purposes, transportation and business botany, climatology, dairying, entomol- must be thoroughly learned. He is, with ogy, horticulture, shopwork, veterinary the aid of nature, whose processes he science, rural engineering, rural econom- must understand, a manufacturer. The ics, farm management-along these lines output of his factory he must sell, hence runs the course of study.

he is a merchant. The farm is capital inThe farming of to-day differs from the vested and he is broker. For the training

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of men and women in the complex science physiology, chemistry, animal physiology, of modern agriculture we have the Col- geology, physics, and of the application lege of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts. of these sciences to soils and plants, is The successful modern farmer must necessary.

These principles come into have business ability, but he must also use everywhere. It is for the particular know how to grow crops, feed animals college to teach special adaptation. and maintain the productive power of Upon the foundation thus acquired, the the soil. Every detail of farming may be student of agriculture specializes. If he understood and yet the farmer lacking desires to grow stock he studies the business ability be financially a failure. origin, development and care of animals; The agricultural college does not teach if he wishes to raise corn or wheat he business ability. No college endows be- devotes his time to agronomy and its alyond man's birthright. The agricultural lied sciences. There are no longer procollege teaches the “how" of farming. fessors of agriculture in the agricultural The Experiment Station makes discovery colleges. Instead are professors of the in agricultural science. The college

college various separate and distinct subdivisions teaches the practical application. It which combined we call by the allpoints out that a certain variety of corn embracing word, agriculture. The stuproduces more on the same soil and with dent who seeks to specialize finds class the same treatment than other varieties. room and laboratory with open door. It teaches that to secure the best results Does training in agriculture pay? seed of undoubtedly strong vitality Does it pay to know that one hundred should be planted and shows how this bushels of corn fed to a certain type of seed may be best selected and stored. animal will yield $75, while the same

Specific conditions change with locali. amount of corn fed to another type of ties, but all agricultural colleges teach animal will yield only $50? Does it pay first the fundamental principles which to know that one variety of potatoes will underlie all farming. Knowledge of plant yield three hundred bushels per acre

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while another variety of potatoes on the higher ideals of life, social preëminence, same soil and with exactly the same the agricultural college education pays treatment will yield only 200 bushels per even larger

larger dividends. Investigation acre? Does it pay to know how to save shows that the training of the modern the life of a valuable farm animal by farmer takes him back to the farm and knowledge of veterinary science? With makes him a leader there. such questions the inquiry as to the The Michigan Agricultural College, the profitableness of agricultural education oldest college of agriculture in the United finds emphatic and convincing answer. States, has graduated over a thousand

It is sometimes said that an agricul. men, of whom sixty per cent are engaged tural college education pays only the stu- in active farm work and nearly all the dent who seeks to teach in an agricul- others in teaching or investigating in tural college or become an investigator in agricultural colleges or stations. The an agricultural experiment station. The percentage in other colleges is equally as demand for such teachers and investi. large. The college is solving the problem gators has drawn heavily upon the of how to keep the boys on the farm and graduating classes of the colleges. But also the problem of how to draw from the the training is profitable also for the city to the farm. The state has large modern farmer. If the result is meas- benefit here. ured merely by money standards, the Agricultural education is not expenagricultural education pays. If it is sive. An investigation shows that the measured by other standards: leadership, average cost of attending any one of a

half dozen leading agricultural colleges is less than $240 a year. At the same time it was shown that it is possible in nearly every college for any student in good health to make his own way. In one college twelve of a class of sixteen paid their own expenses during an entire four years' course.

That the state believes in this making of the modern farmer is shown by the constantly increasing appropriations by the various legislatures for the agricultural colleges. In seven years the total appropriations have increased one hundred per cent. That the farmer believes


THE SEISMOGRAPH AT BELEN COLLEGE OBSERVATORY NEAR HAVANA, CUBA It is said to be the only instrument of the kind in the West Indies. It was installed just in time to record the earthquake

at Kingston, Jamaica

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The least oscillation of the earth causes the delicately constructed mechanism to record the vibrations on the smoked

paper covering the cylinder

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ANseveni ficf goeat importance to the

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in being made along the new and broad right angles, one of which lies from
lines is shown by the constantly growing north to south while the other extends
enrollment in the agricultural colleges. from east to west.
To-day the enrollment is larger than the The apparatus consists of two horizon-
entire number of students sent out dur- tal pendula, and a mechanical regulator
ing all the years since the first college placed upon a sheet of smoked paper.
began its work.

The two seismographs are exactly alike,

the one which lies from north to south The New Seismic Station at Havana

will show the component vibration from

east to west, and the other, which is laid By Louis C. Kane

from east to west, will show the compoN event of great importance to the nent vibration from north to south. In

the case of an earthquake the base and all
vana, Cuba, the latter part of February, other parts of the apparatus naturally
when the new seismic station for the re follow the same movement while the per-
cording of the earth's disturbances was pendicular arm remains motionless as
officially inaugurated and the delicate in- though suspended in the air by an in-
strument put into practical operation at visible hand. The metal cylinder, which
that place.

is covered by the smoked paper and re-
This station is not under government volved by clockwork, is located beneath
control but is an adjunct to the observa the point of the pen at the end of the
tory of the College of Belen, located a arm, which works horizontally and per-
few miles from the city of Havana,,which pendicularly, and truthfully marks every
is conducted by the Jesuit fathers, and movement of the earth's surface.
with the new instrument it is their inten These seismographs not only exactly
tion to study seismic phenomena.

reveal the oscillations of the earth, but
A small brick building has been erected permit their distance, their extension and
on the brow of a low hill, and the appa- their magnitude to be measured with the
ratus rests upon a cement foundation laid utmost precision, whether there be trem-
upon a solid rock subsoil so that the in- bling at thousands of miles distance or
strument does not come into contact with shakings at the bottom of the ocean. The
the earth. Its base has two branches at instruments are so very delicately con-

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