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contrary, according to their best light from the worde of God, and all wholsome and sound advice which shall be given by the elders and churches in the jurisdiction, so farr as may concerne their civill power to deale therein.

Seconly, they shall have power to mak and repĉale lawes, and, while they are in force, to require execution of them in all the severall plantations.

Thirdly, to impose an oath upon all the magistrates, for the faithfull discharge of the trust comitted to them, according to their best abilityes, and to call them to account for the breach of any lawes established, or for other misdemeanors, and to censure them, as the quallity of the offence shall require.

Fowerthly, to impose and [an] oath of fidelity and due subjection to the lawes upon all the free burgesses, free planters, and other inhabitants within the whole jurisdiction.

5ly to settle and leivie rates and contributions upon all the severall plantations, for the publique service of the jurisdiction.

6ly, to heare and determine all causes, whether civil or criminall, which by appeale or complaint shall be orderly brought unto them from any of the other Courts, or from any of the other plantations, In all which, with whatsoever else shall fall within their cognisance or judicature, they shall proceed according to the scriptures, which is the rule of all rightous lawes and sentences, and nothing shall pass as an act of the Generall Court butt by the consent of the major part of magistrates, and the greater part of Deputyes.

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No. 14. Maryland Toleration Act

April, 1649

PRACTICAL religious toleration existed in Maryland from the first, although for some years the Jesuits were the only clergy in the colony. The Puritan party, however, increased; and the success of Parliament in its struggle with the king forced Baltimore not only to protect the Catholics, but also to guard against the charge that Maryland was a Catholic colony. To that end, in 1648 he removed the governor, Thomas Greene, a Catholic, and appointed William Stone of Virginia, a Protestant and an adherent of the Parliamentary

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cause. With the new commissions for the governor and council, Baltimore also sent drafts of sixteen proposed laws, one of which, apparently, was the Toleration Act. The act was passed by an assembly the majority of whom were probably Catholics, held at St. Mary's, April 2–21, 1649. A proviso in Stone's commission, forbidding him to assent to the repeal of any law, past or future, concerning religion, was designed to prevent later interference. In 1654, when the Puritans gained control, the protection hitherto accorded to Catholics was withdrawn; but the act of 1649 was revived in 1658, on the restoration of Baltimore's authority, and was incorporated in the revision of the laws made in 1676. An order of 1659, imposing penalties upon Quakers, seems not to have been enforced.

REFERENCES. - Text in Browne's Archives of Maryland, I., 244-247. On the general subject of toleration in Maryland, see references in Winsor's Narr. and Crit. Hist., III., 560-562.

AN ACT CONCERNING RELIGION

[The first part of the act provides for the punishment of blasphemy and Sabbath-breaking, and of such persons as shall call any one within the Province "an heretick, Scismatick, Idolator, puritan, Independant, Prespiterian popish prest, Jesuite, Jesuited papist, Lutheran, Calvenist, Anabaptist, Brownist, Antinomian, Barrowist, Roundhead, Separatist, or any other name or terme in a reproachfull manner relating to matter of Religion."] And whereas the inforceing of the conscience in matters of Religion hath frequently fallen out to be of dangerous Consequence in those commonwealthes where it hath been practised, And for the more quiett and peaceable governement of this Province, and the better to preserve mutuall Love and amity amongst the Inhabitants thereof. Be it Therefore . . . enacted (except as in this present Act is before Declared and sett forth) that noe person or persons whatsoever within this Province, or the Islands, Ports, Harbors, Creekes, or havens thereunto belonging professing to believe in Jesus Christ, shall from henceforth bee any waies troubled, Molested or discountenanced for or in respect of his or her religion nor in the free exercise thereof within this Province or the Islands thereunto belonging nor any way compelled to the beleife or exercise of any other Religion against his or her consent, soe as they be not unfaithfull to the Lord Proprietary, or molest or conspire against the civill Government established or to bee established in this Province under him or his heires. And that all & every person and persons that shall

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presume Contrary to this Act and the true intent and meaning thereof directly or indirectly either in person or estate willfully to wrong disturbe trouble or molest any person whatsoever within this Province professing to beleive in Jesus Christ for or in respect of his or her religion or the free exercise thereof within this Province other than is provided for in this Act that such person or persons soe offending, shalbe compelled to pay trebble damages to the party soe wronged or molested, and for every such offence shall also forfeit 20 sterling in money or the value thereof

Or if the partie soe offending as aforesaid shall refuse or bee unable to recompense the party soe wronged, or to satisfy such ffyne or forfeiture, then such Offender shalbe severely punished by publick whipping & imprisonment during the pleasure of the Lord proprietary, or his Leiuetenant or cheife Governor of this Province for the tyme being without baile or maineprise. . . .

No. 15. First Navigation Act

1660

UNDER the early colonial charters, the American colonies were generally exempted, either wholly or for a term of years, from the operation of the various acts for the regulation of trade then in force. The activity of the Dutch, however, gradually secured to that nation the virtual control of the colonial carrying trade. To regain this trade for the English, Parliament, in 1645, passed the first of a long series of acts and ordinances commonly spoken of collectively as the Navigation Acts. The ordinance of 1645 prohibited the importation into England, in other than English vessels manned by English seamen, of whale oil and other products of the whale fisheries. An ordinance of the following year restricted the foreign trade of the colonies to English bottoms. In 1649 the importation into England, Ireland, "or any of the dominions thereof," of French wines, wool, and silk was prohibited. In 1650, Virginia and certain of the West India colonies, where opposition to Puritanism had broken out, were declared to be in rebellion; and in order "to hinder the carrying over of any such persons as are enemies to this Commonwealth, or that may prove dangerous to any of the English plantations in America," foreign vessels were forbidden to trade with the colonies, save under license from Parliament or the Council of State. An act of 1651 embodied "a policy of coercion pure and simple," forbidding the importation of products of Asia, Africa, or America into Great Britain or the British colonies except in British or colonial vessels;

restricting the importation of European products to British vessels, or vessels of the country where the goods were produced or of the port from which they were usually shipped; limiting the trade in fish to British or colonial vessels; and excluding foreign vessels from the English coasting trade. The act of 1660, usually known as the First Navigation Act, embodied, in more systematic form, the important provisions of earlier acts, with the object of protecting both English and colonial shipping, and exploiting the colonial trade for the benefit of the mother country. As the act was passed by the Convention Parliament, it was confirmed in 1661 by the first Parliament, known technically as the thirteenth, regularly assembled after the restoration of Charles II.

REFERENCES. - Text in Statutes of the Realm, V., 246-250. The act is cited as 12 Car. II., c. 18. On the history and effects of the Navigation Acts, as touching America, see Beer's Commercial Policy of England towards the American Colonies, in Columbia Coll. Studies, III., No. 2.

AN ACT for the Encourageing and increasing of Shipping and Navigation.

[I.] For the increase of Shiping and incouragement of the Navigation of this Nation, wherin under the good providence and protection of God the Wealth Safety and Strength of this Kingdome is soe much concerned Bee it Enacted . . . That from and after . . . [December 1, 1660] . . ., and from thence forward noe Goods. or Commodities whatsoever shall be Imported into or Exported out of any Lands Islelands Plantations or Territories to his Majesty belonging or in his possession or which may hereafter belong unto or be in the possession of His Majesty His Heires and Successors in Asia Africa or America in any other Ship or Ships Vessell or Vessells whatsoever but in such Ships or Vessells as doe truely and without fraude belong onely to the people of England or Ireland Dominion of Wales or Towne of Berwicke upon Tweede, or are of the built of, and belonging to any of the said Lands Islands Plantations or Territories as the Proprietors and right Owners therof and wherof the Master and three fourthes of the Marriners at least are English under the penalty of the Forfeiture and Losse of all the

1 Question having arisen in regard to the definition of English built ships and English mariners in this act, these terms were further defined by an act of 1662, 14 Car. II., c. 11, sect. 5: "And that no Forreign built Ship (that is to say) not built in any of His Majesties Dominions of Asia Africa or America or other then such as shall (bona fide) be bought before [October 1, 1662,] ...

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Goods and Commodityes which shall be Imported into, or Exported out of, any the aforesaid places in any other Ship or Vessell, as alsoe of the Ship or Vessell with all its Guns Furniture Tackle Ammunition and Apparell. . .

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[III.] And it is further Enacted that noe Goods or Commodityes whatsoever of the growth production or manufacture of Africa Asia or America or of any part thereof . . . be Imported into England Ireland or Wales Islands of Guernsey or Jersey or Towne of Berwicke upon Tweede in any other Ship or Ships Vessell or Vessels whatsoever, but in such as doe truely and without fraude belong onely to the people of England or Ireland, Dominion of Wales or Towne of Berwicke upon Tweede or of the Lands Islands Plantations or Territories in Asia Africa or America to his Majesty belonging as the proprietors and right owners therof, and wherof the Master and three fourthes at least of the Mariners are English under the penalty of the forfeiture of all such Goods and Commodityes, and of the Ship or Vessell in which they were Imported with all her Guns Tackle Furniture Ammunition and Apparell. . .

[IV] And it is further Enacted . . . that noe Goods or Commodityes that are of forraigne growth production or manufacture and which are to be brought into England Ireland Wales, the Islands of Guernsey & Jersey or Towne of Berwicke upon Tweede in English built shiping, or other shiping belonging to some of the aforesaid places, and navigated by English Mariners as abovesaid shall be shiped or brought from any other place or Places, Country or Countries but onely from those of their said. Growth Production or Manufacture, or from those Ports where the said Goods and Commodityes can onely or are or usually have beene first shiped for transportation and from none other Places or Countryes under the penalty of the forfeiture of all such of the aforesaid Goods as shall be Imported from any other place next ensuing and expresly named in the said List shall enjoye the priviledge of a Ship belonging to England or Ireland although owned or manned by English (except such Ships only as shall be taken at Sea by Letters of Mart or Reprizal and Condemnation made in the Court of Admiralty as lawfull Prize) but all such Ships shall be deemed as Aliens Ships . . . it is to be understood that any of His Majesties Subjects of England Ireland and His Plantations are to bee accounted English and no others. . . ." - ED.

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