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United States to use the land and naval forces of the United States to carry these resolutions into effect.

Whereas the abhorrent conditions which have existed for more than three years in the Island of Cuba, so near our own borders, have shocked the moral sense of the people of the United States, have been a disgrace to Christian civilization, culminating, as they have, in the destruction of a United States battle ship, with two hundred and sixty-six of its officers and crew, while on a friendly visit in the harbor of Havana, and can not longer be endured, as has been set forth by the President of the United States in his message to Congress of April eleventh, eighteen hundred and ninety-eight, upon which the action of Congress was invited: Therefore,


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First. That the people of the Island of Cuba are, and of right ought to be, free and independent.

Second. That it is the duty of the United States to demand, and the Government of the United States does hereby demand, that the Government of Spain at once relinquish its authority and government in the Island of Cuba and withdraw its land and naval forces from Cuba and Cuban waters.

Third. That the President of the United States be, and he hereby is, directed and empowered to use the entire land and naval forces of the United States, and to call into the actual service of the United States the militia of the several States, to such extent as may be necessary to carry these resolutions into effect.

Fourth. That the United States hereby disclaims any disposition or intention to exercise sovereignty, jurisdiction, or control over said Island except for the pacification thereof, and asserts its determination, when that is accomplished, to leave the government and control of the Island to its people.

No. 185. Declaration of War

April 25, 1898

THE destruction of the battleship Maine in the harbor of Havana, on the night of February 15, 1898, was followed, March 9, by the appropriation of $50,000,000 for the national defence. An account of the Maine affair, together with the findings of the court of inquiry, was laid before Congress

by President McKinley in his message of March 28. April 11 the President asked for authority to intervene and end the war in Cuba. On the 22d a blockade of the north coast of Cuba, and of Cienfuegos on the south coast, was proclaimed, and on the next day 125,000 volunteers were called for under authority of the joint resolution of April 20 [No. 184]. On the 25th the President announced the withdrawal of the Spanish minister, and recommended a declaration of war. A joint resolution was at once introduced in the House by Adams of Pennsylvania, from the Committee on Foreign Affairs, and passed both houses the same day without divisions. A proclamation regarding neutrals was issued April 26. May 25 a call for 75,000 additional volunteers was issued. By a proclamation of June 27, the blockade was extended to the whole of the south coast of Cuba, and to San Juan, Porto Rico. Acts of July 8, 1898, and March 3, 1899, provided for the reimbursement to States of the expenses incurred by them on account of the war. REFERENCES. - Text in U. S. Statutes at Large, XXX., 364. For the proceedings see the House and Senate Journals, 55th Cong., 2d Sess., and the Cong. Record. There was no debate in the House, and the discussion in the Senate was with closed doors. For the correspondence with Spain see the Foreign Relations, 1897 and 1898. The report of the Maine court of inquiry is Senate Doc. 207, 55th Cong., 2d Sess.; the report on the investigation of the War Department, Senate Doc. 221, 56th Cong., 1st Sess.; the “beef” inquiry, Senate Doc. 270, ibid. See also Notes on the Spanish-American War, Senate Doc. 288, ibid.

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An Act declaring that war exists between the United States of America and the Kingdom of Spain.

Be it enacted. First. That war be, and the same is hereby, declared to exist, and that war has existed since . . . [April 21, 1898]. . ., including said day, between the United States of America and the Kingdom of Spain.

Second. That the President of the United States be, and he hereby is, directed and empowered to use the entire land and naval forces of the United States, and to call into the actual service of the United States the militia of the several States, to such extent as may be necessary to carry this Act into effect.

No. 186. Annexation of the Hawaiian


July 7, 1898

IN January, 1893, Queen Liliuokalani of the Hawaiian Islands was forced to abdicate, and a provisional government was proclaimed, followed in July, 1894, by the establishment of a republic. The constitution of the republic expressly authorized a treaty of “political or commercial union" with the United States. A treaty of annexation, concluded in 1893, was withdrawn by President Cleveland. A second treaty was signed June 16, 1897, and ratified by the Senate of Hawaii. On the outbreak of the war with Spain the United States assumed to use the islands as a naval base. May 4, 1898, while the treaty of annexation was pending, Francis G. Newlands of Nevada introduced a joint resolution for annexation, the resolution being one of several similar propositions which had been submitted to Congress. The terms proposed by the resolution were substantially the same as those embodied in the pending treaty. The resolution was reported without amendment May 17, but was not taken up until June 11. On the 15th a substitute declaring against the acquisition of the islands by any foreign power, and guaranteeing their independence, was rejected by a vote of 96 to 204, and the resolution passed, the final vote being 209 to 91. The resolution was reported in the Senate June 17 without amendment, taken up on the 20th, and debated until July 6, when, by a vote of 42 to 21, it was agreed to. The formal transfer of the islands took place August 12. An act of April 30, 1900, provided a territorial form of government.

REFERENCES. —Text in U. S. Statutes at Large, XXX., 750, 751. For the proceedings see the House and Senate Journals, 55th Cong., 2d Sess., and the Cong. Record. See also Senate Report 681 and House Report 1355The re

port of the Hawaiian commission is Senate Doc. 16, 55th Cong., 3d Sess. On the earlier relations with Hawaii see Senate Report 227 and House Exec. Doc. 47, 53d Cong., 2d Sess.

Joint Resolution To provide for annexing the Hawaiian Islands to the United States.

WHEREAS the Government of the Republic of Hawaii having, in due form, signified its consent, in the manner provided by its constitution, to cede absolutely and without reserve to the United States of America all rights of sovereignty of whatsoever kind in and over the Hawaiian Islands and their dependencies, and also to cede and transfer to the United States the absolute fee and ownership of all public, Government, or Crown lands, public buildings or edifices, ports, harbors, military equipment, and all other public

property of every kind and description belonging to the Government of the Hawaiian Islands, together with every right and appurtenance thereunto appertaining: Therefore,

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Resolved... That said cession is accepted, ratified, and confirmed, and that the said Hawaiian Islands and their dependencies be, and they are hereby, annexed as a part of the territory of the United States and are subject to the sovereign dominion thereof, and that all and singular the property and rights hereinbefore mentioned are vested in the United States of America.

The existing laws of the United States relative to public lands shall not apply to such lands in the Hawaiian Islands; but the Congress of the United States shall enact special laws for their management and disposition: Provided, That all revenue from or proceeds of the same, except as regards such part thereof as may be used or occupied for the civil, military, or naval purposes of the United States, or may be assigned for the use of the local government, shall be used solely for the benefit of the inhabitants of the Hawaiian Islands for educational and other public purposes.

Until Congress shall provide for the government of such islands all the civil, judicial, and military powers exercised by the officers of the existing government in said islands shall be vested in such person or persons and shall be exercised in such manner as the President of the United States shall direct; and the President shall have power to remove said officers and fill the vacancies so occasioned.

The existing treaties of the Hawaiian Islands with foreign nations shall forthwith cease and determine, being replaced by such treaties as may exist, or as may be hereafter concluded, between the United States and such foreign nations. The municipal legislation of the Hawaiian Islands, not enacted for the fulfillment of the treaties so extinguished, and not inconsistent with this joint resolution nor contrary to the Constitution of the United States nor to any existing treaty of the United States, shall remain in force until the Congress of the United States shall otherwise determine.

Until legislation shall be enacted extending the United States customs laws and regulations to the Hawaiian Islands the existing customs relations of the Hawaiian Islands with the United States and other countries shall remain unchanged.

The public debt of the Republic of Hawaii, lawfully existing at the date of the passage of this joint resolution, including the amounts due to depositors in the Hawaiian Postal Savings Bank, is hereby assumed by the Government of the United States; but the liability of the United States in this regard shall in no case exceed four million dollars. So long, however, as the existing Government and the present commercial relations of the Hawaiian Islands are continued as hereinbefore provided said Government shall continue to pay the interest on said debt.

There shall be no further immigration of Chinese into the Hawaiian Islands, except upon such conditions as are now or may hereafter be allowed by the laws of the United States; and no Chinese, by reason of anything herein contained, shall be allowed to enter the United States from the Hawaiian Islands.

The President shall appoint five commissioners, at least two of whom shall be residents of the Hawaiian Islands, who shall, as soon as reasonably practicable, recommend to Congress such legislation concerning the Hawaiian Islands as they shall deem

necessary or proper.

SEC. 2. That the commissioners hereinbefore provided for shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.

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OVERTURES for peace between the United States and Spain were begun July 26, 1898, through Jules Cambon, the French ambassador, resulting, August 12, in the signing of a protocol and the suspension of hostilities. Commissioners on the part of the United States were named August 26, Senator George Gray of Delaware being appointed, September 9, in place of Justice Edward D. White, who declined to serve. The commissioners of the two countries met at Paris October 1, and December 10 concluded a treaty of peace. The Senate ratified the treaty February 6, 1899, and April 11 the treaty was proclaimed. The appropriation of $20,000,000 called for by Article III was made March 2.

REFERENCES. - Text in U. S. Statutes at Large, XXX., 1754-1762. For the protocols and other documents see Senate Doc. 62, 55th Cong., 3d Sess.

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