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lawful for the said Governour with the advice and consent of the Councill or Assistants from time to time to nominate and appoint Judges Commissioners of Oyer and Terminer Sheriffs Provosts Marshalls Justices of the Peace and other Officers to Our Councill and Courts of Justice belonging . . . and for the greater Ease and Encouragement of Our Loveing Subjects Inhabiting our said Province . . . and of such as shall come to Inhabit there We doe . . . Ordaine that for ever hereafter there shall be a liberty of Conscience allowed in the Worshipp of God to all Christians (Except Papists) Inhabiting . . . within our said Province... [Courts for the trial of both civil and criminal cases may be established by the General Court, reserving to the governor and assistants matters of probate and administration.] And whereas Wee judge it necessary that all our Subjects should have liberty to Appeale to us . . . in Cases that may deserve the same Wee doe . . . Ordaine that incase either party shall not rest satisfied with the Judgement or Sentence of any Judicatories or Courts within our said Province . . . in any Personall Action wherein the matter in difference doth exceed the value of three hundred Pounds Sterling that then he or they may appeale to us . . . in our . . . Privy Councill . . . And we doe further grant to the said Governor and the great and Generall Court . . . full power and Authority from time to time to make . . . all manner of wholesome and reasonable Orders Laws Statutes and Ordinances Directions and Instructions either with penalties or without (soe as the same be not repugnant or contrary to the Lawes of this our Realme of England) as they shall Judge to be for the good and welfare of our said Province. . . . And for the Government and Ordering thereof and of the People Inhabiting . . . the same and for the necessary support and Defence of the Government thereof [and also] full power and Authority to name and settle Annually all Civill Officers within the said Province such Officers Excepted the Election and Constitution of whome wee have by these presents reserved to us ... or to the Governor . . . and to Settforth the severall Duties Powers and Lymitts of every such Officer . . . and the forms of such Oathes not repugnant to the Lawes and Statutes of this our Realme of England as shall be respectively Administred unto them for the Execution of their severall Offices and places And

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alsoe to impose Fines mulcts Imprisonments and other Punishments And to Impose and leavy proportionable and reasonable Assessments Rates and Taxes upon the Estates and Persons of all and every the Proprietors and Inhabitants of our said Province or Territory . . . for Our Service in the necessary defence and support of our Government of our said Province . . . and the Protection and Preservation of the Inhabitants there according to such Acts as are or shall be in force within our said Province . . [The governor to have a veto on elections and acts of the General Court]... And wee doe . . . Ordaine that the said Orders Laws Statutes and Ordinances be by the first opportunity after the makeing thereof sent or Transmitted unto us . . . for Our . . . approbation or Disallowance And that incase all or any of them shall at any time within the space of three yeares next after the same shall have been presented to us . . . in Our . . . Privy Councill be disallowed and rejected. then such . . . of them as shall be soe disallowed . . . shall thenceforth cease and determine and become utterly void and of none effect [Laws, &c., not disallowed within the three years, to remain in force until repealed by the General Court. Grants of land by the General Court, within the limits of the former colonies of Massachusetts Bay and New Plymouth, and the Province of Maine, excepting the region north and east of the Sagadahoc, to be valid without further royal approval. The governor shall direct the defense of the province, and may exercise martial law in case of necessity;]... Provided alwayes. . . That the said Governour shall not at any time hereafter by vertue of any power hereby granted or hereafter to be granted to him Transport any of the Inhabitants of Our said Province . . . or oblige them to march out of the Limitts of the same without their Free and voluntary consent or the Consent of the Great and Generall Court . . . nor grant Commissions for exercising the Law Martiall upon any the Inhabitants of Our said Province . . . without the Advice and Consent of the Councill or Assistants of the same . . . Provided alwaies . . . that nothing herein shall extend or be taken to... allow the Exercise of any Admirall Court Jurisdiction Power or Authority but that the same be and is hereby reserved to Us... and shall from time to time be .. exercised by vertue of Commissions to be yssued under the Great Seale of

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England or under the Seale of the High Admirall or the Commissioners for executing the Office of High Admirall of England. And lastly for the better provideing and furnishing of Masts for Our Royal Navy Wee doe hereby reserve to Us . . . all Trees of the Diameter of Twenty Four Inches and upwards of Twelve Inches from the ground growing upon any soyle or Tract of Land within Our said Province . . . not heretofore granted to any private persons And Wee doe restraine and forbid all persons whatsoever from felling cutting or destroying any such Trees without the Royall Lycence of Us . . . first had and obteyned upon penalty of Forfeiting One Hundred Pounds sterling unto Ous [Us] . . . for every such Tree so felled cutt or destroyed. . .

No. 25. Navigation Act

April 10/20, 1696

THE Navigation Act of 1672, besides laying duties on certain "enumerated articles," had aimed to provide a more effective system of administration for the colonial customs service; but in the years immediately following the revolution of 1688, the acts of trade, never much regarded in the colonies, were extensively violated. In particular, the lack of a system of registry for English-built ships made the enforcement of the acts difficult, and led to complaints from British merchants of loss of revenue; and it was to supply this lack that the act of 1696 was especially designed. “All further shipping

laws were in the nature of detailed regulations, and this act . . . may be said to have added the finishing touch to the colonial system so far as shipping was concerned” (Channing).

REFERENCES. Text in Statutes of the Realm, VII., 103-107. The act is cited as 7 and 8 Wm. III., c. 22.

AN ACT for preventing Frauds and regulating Abuses in the Plantation Trade.

[Recital that notwithstanding 12 Car. II., c. 18, 15 Car. II., c. 7, 22 & 23 Car. II., c. 26, and 25 Car. II., c. 7, great abuses are committed:] For Remedy thereof for the future bee itt enacted. . . That after . . . [March 25, 1698,] . . . noe Goods or Merchandizes whatsoever shall bee imported into or exported out of any Colony or Plantation to His Majesty in Asia Africa or

America belonging or in his Possession or which may hereafter belong unto or bee in the Possession of His Majesty . . . or shall bee laden in or carried from any One Port or Place in the said Colonies or Plantations to any other Port or Place in the same, the Kingdome of England Dominion of Wales or Towne of Berwick upon Tweed in any Shipp or Bottome but what is or shall bee of the Built of England or of the Built of Ireland or the said Colonies or Plantations and wholly owned by the People thereof or any of them and navigated with the Masters and Three Fourths of the Mariners of the said Places onely (except such Shipps onely as are or shall bee taken Prize . . . And alsoe except for the space of Three Yeares such Foreigne built Shipps as shall bee employed by the Commissioners of His Majesties Navy for the tyme being or upon Contract with them in bringing onely Masts Timber and other Navall Stores for the Kings Service from His Majesties Colonies or Plantations to this Kingdome to bee navigated as aforesaid and whereof the Property doth belong to English Men) under paine of Forfeiture of Shipp and Goods.

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V. AND for the more effectuall preventing of Frauds and regulating Abuses in the Plantation Trade in America Bee itt further enacted . . . That all Shipps comeing into or goeing out of any of the said Plantations and ladeing or unladeing any Goods or Commodities whether the same bee His Majesties Shipps of Warr or Merchants Shipps and the Masters and Commanders thereof and their Ladings shall bee subject and lyable to the same Rules Visitations Searches Penalties and Forfeitures as to the entring lading or dischargeing theire respective Shipps and Ladings as Shipps and their Ladings and the Commanders and Masters of Shipps are subject and lyable unto in this Kingdome . . . [by virtue of the act 14 Chas. II., ch. 11]. . . . And that the Officers for collecting and manageing His Majesties Revenue and inspecting the Plantation Trade in any of the said Plantations shall have the same Powers and Authorities for visiting and searching of Shipps and takeing their Entries and for seizing and securing or bringing on Shoare any of the Goods prohibited to bee imported or exported into or out of any the said Plantations or for which any Duties are payable or ought to have beene paid by any of the

before mentioned Acts as are provided for the Officers of the Customes in England by the said last mentioned Act . . . [of 14 Chas. II., ch. 11,] . and alsoe to enter Houses or Warehouses to search for and seize any such Goods. . . .

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XV. [(AND 1) bee itt further enacted That all Persons and theire Assignees claymeing any Right or (Property 2) in any. Islands or Tracts of Land upon the Continent of America by Charter or Letters Patents shall not att any tyme hereafter alien sell or dispose of any of the said Islands Tracts of Land or Proprieties other than to the Naturall Borne Subjects of England Ireland Dominion of Wales or Towne of Berwick upon Tweed without the License and Consent of His Majesty ... signifyed by His or Their Order in Councill first had and obteyned. . . .]

XVI. [And for a more effectuall prevention of Frauds which may bee used to elude the Intention of this Act by colouring Foreigne Shipps under English Names Bee itt further enacted . . . That from and after . . . [March 25, 1698,] . . . noe Shipp or Vessell whatsoever shall bee deemed or passe as a Shipp of the Built of England Ireland Wales Berwick Guernsey Jersey or of any of His Majesties Plantations in America soe as to bee qualifyed to trade to from or in any of the said Plantations untill the Person or Persons claymeing Property in such Shipp or Vessell shall register the same as followeth (that is to say) If the Shipp att the tyme of such Register doth belong to any Port in England Ireland Wales or to the Towne of Berwick upon Tweed then Proofe shall bee made upon Oath of One or more of the Owners of such Shipp or Vessell before the Collector and Comptroller of His Majesties Customes in such Port or if att the tyme of such Register the Shipp belong to any of His Majesties Plantations in America or to the Islands of Guernsey or Jersey then the like Proofe to bee made before the Governour together with the Principal Officer of His Majesties Revenue resideing on such Plantation or Island

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1 Omitted in the Ms.

2 The Ms. has Propriety.

The passage in brackets is annexed to the original act in a separate schedule.

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