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policy or internal administration of any foreign state; nor shall anything contained in the said convention be construed to imply a relinquishment by the United States of America of its traditional attitude toward purely American questions.

It appears that the American delegates first declared this reservation on July 25, 1899, which was repeated when their signatures were placed on the convention as stated above. This action was reported to the President by the Secretary of State on December 19, 1899, when the conventions were forwarded without comment or recommendation to the President for submission to the Senate. This convention was duly ratified by the Government of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, on February 5, 1900, the resolution being incorporated in the act of ratification deposited at The Hague, but there is no record of any comment from other Powers, although, of course, the other Powers ratified the treaty or accepted it with the reservations placed upon it. The Senate resolution of ratification, however, did not include a declaration of the reservation above referred to, which was enunciated by the plenipotentiaries at the time of signing the convention and by the President in his proclamation dated November 1, 1901.

The reservation incorporated in the resolution of ratification by the Senate of the Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes concluded in the Second International Peace Conference held at The Hague in 1907 is identical with the reservation to the convention declared by the United States delegates at the First International Peace Conference signed on July 29, 1899.

Again, in ratifying the convention and protocol signed April 2, 1906, after the Algeciras Conference, which regulated in the interest of the Powers commercial intercourse with northern Africa, the Senate resolved:

That the Senate, as a part of this act of ratification, understands that the participation of the United States in the Algeciras Conference and in the formation and adoption of the General Act and Protocol which resulted therefrom was with the sole purpose of preserving and increasing its commerce in Morocco, the preservation of the life, liberty, or property of its citizens residing or traveling therein, and of aiding by its friendly offices and efforts in removing friction and controversy which seem to menace the peace between the Powers signatory with the United States to the treaty of 1880 and without purpose to depart from the traditional American foreign policy which forbids participation by the

United States in the settlement of political questions which are entirely European in their scope.

In February, 1913, the Senate ratified the International Sanitary Convention signed at Paris, January 17, 1913, modifying the International Sanitary Convention of December 3, 1903, with the proviso:

That the Senate advise and consent to the ratification of said convention with the understanding, to be expressed as a part of the instrument of ratification, that nothing contained in Article 9 thereof shall be deemed to prevent the United States from carrying out any special quarantine measures against the infection of its ports which might be demanded by unusual sanitary conditions.

It does not appear that the treaty was referred back to the other Powers for approval of this proviso, nor that such action was required, as there appears to be nothing in the ninth article which would prevent the United States from carrying out such special quarantine measures in the case referred to.

On the other hand, the Senate, in ratifying the proposed arbitration convention negotiated by Secretary Knox under date of August 3, 1911, adopted as a part of the resolution of ratification a proviso

That the Senate advise and consent to the ratification of said treaty, with the understanding, to be made part of such ratification, that the treaty does not authorize the submission to arbitration of any question which affects the admission of aliens into the United States or the admission of aliens to the educational institutions of the several States, or the territorial integrity of the several States or of the United States, or concerning the question of the alleged indebtedness or moneyed obligations of any State of the United States, or any question which depends upon or involves the maintenance of the traditional attitude of the United States concerning American questions commonly described as the Monroe Doctrine, or other purely government policy.

President Taft, considering this proviso to be at variance with the provisions of the treaty and as constituting in effect an amendment to it, withdrew the treaty from further consideration, and no further action was taken upon it.

It would seem, therefore, perfectly clear that a resolution of the Senate interpreting the treaty and clearly reserving American rights can be made without destroying the binding effect of the ratification.



Abbreviations: Ann. sc. pol., Annales des sciences politiques, Paris; Arch. dipl., Archives Diplomatiques, Paris; B., boletin, bulletin, bolletino; P. A. U., bulletin of the Pan-American Union, Washington; Cd., Great Britain, Parliamentary Papers; Clunet, J. de Dr. Int. Privė, Paris; Current History-Current History-A Monthly Magazine of the New York Times; Doc. dipl., France, Documents diplomatiques; B. Rel. Ext., Boletin de Relaciones Exteriores; Dr., droit, diritto, derecho; D. O., Diario Oficial; For. rel., Foreign Relations of the United States; Ga., gazette, gaceta, gazzetta; Int., international, internacional, internazionale; J., journal; J. O., Journal Officiel, Paris; L., Law; M., Magazine; Mém. dipl., Mémorial diplomatique, Paris; Monit., Belgium, Moniteur belge; Martens, Nouveau recueil général de traités, Leipzig; Official Bulletin, Official Bulletin of the United States; Q., Quarterly; Q. dip., Questions diplomatiques et coloniales; R., review, revista, revue, rivista; Reichs G., Reichs-Gesetzblatt, Berlin; Staats, Staatsblad, Netherlands; State Papers, British and Foreign State Papers, London; Stat. at L., United States Statutes at Large; Times, The Times (London).

January, 1919.

30 RUSSIA. All Russian government under Admiral Kolchak announced ministry. Personnel: Current History, 10 (Pt. 1):485.

February, 1919.

8 PANAMA-UNITED STATES. Commercial Travelers Convention signed. Congressional Record, June 4, 1919; P. A. U., 49: 99. March, 1919.

1 KOREA. Declaration of independence made. A constitution was proclaimed on April 27th. Texts: Current History, 10 (Pt. 2): 132.

7 PHILIPPINES. Philippine legislature passed a Declaration of purposes. Text: Current History, 10 (Pt. 2): 129.

15 AUSTRIA. Personnel of cabinet announced with Dr. Karl Renner as Chancellor. Current History, 10 (Pt. 1):470.

28 CHILE-GREAT BRITAIN. A referendum treaty signed for establishment of a peace commission. Summary of text: P. A. U., 48:716.

April, 1919.

1 ITALY. Announced that Italy had raised Adriatic blockade. London Times, April 1, 1919.

1 BLOCKADE. Announced blockade would be raised as regards Poland, Esthonia, German-Austria, Turkey, Bulgaria, CzechoSlovakia and new territories of Roumania and Serbia. London Times, April 1, 1919; London Gazette, April 4, 1919.

4 LITHUANIA. Republic formally declared and A. Smatma elected president. Current History, 10 (Pt. 2): 494.

8 FRANCE SWITZERLAND. New economic convention with France ratified by Swiss Federal Council. London Times, April 11, 1919; Le Temps, April 10, 1919.

SPAIN GREAT BRITAIN. Announced that a new commercial arrangement is about to be signed. London Times, April 9, 1919. 11 PEACE CONFERENCE. International labor program presented. Text: Current History, 10 (Pt. 1): 516.


Asks independence and protests against union with Serbia. Washington Post, April 11, 1919.

15 POLAND. Hugh Gibson appointed American minister to Poland. New York Times, April 16, 1919.

17 CZECHO-SLOVAKIA. Richard Crane appointed American Minister to Czecho-Slovakia. New York Times, April 17, 1919.

17 SWITZERLAND GERMANY. Swiss Federal Council announces that the German Government will be recognized. London Times, April 19, 1919.

ALBANIA. Albania asked Peace Conference for full independence.
New York Herald, April 17, 1919.

18 GREECE JUGOSLAVIA. Announced that treaty of alliance had been concluded. Current History, 10 (Pt. 1):428.

19 GERMANY-JAPAN. Publication of text of alleged treaty. New York Times, April 19, 1919.

20 CZECHO-SLOVAKIA-POLAND. Reported a secret treaty has been. signed. New York Herald, April 20, 1919.


Allied conditions respecting Peace Conference accepted by Germany. Personnel of German delegation. Current History, 10 (Pt. 1): 382.

21 EX-KAISER WILHELM. Belgian delegation to the Peace Conference announced that Belgium would refuse to prosecute Kaiser Wilhelm, on the ground (1) that there is no tribunal competent to hear the charges against the Kaiser, (2) no provision in international law covering such cases, (3) that such action taken would be retroactive, (4) persons guilty of acts punishable under criminal codes in any of belligerents should be tried in the ordinary way. Current History, 10 (Pt. 1): 420; New York Times, April 17, 1919.

21 Walloons of Prussia. Ask to be disannexed from Prussia. New York Times, April 22, 1919.

April 22-August 27.


ROUMANIA-HUNGARY. On April 22 Hungary declared a war of defense against Roumania. On April 25th, Hungary asked an armistice, but refused terms offered on May 8th. Negotiations for armistice continued and a truce was established on May 10th. New York Times, April 22, May 2, 3, 9, 1919; Current History, 10 (Pt. 1): 433. Fighting continued, and on August 4th, Roumanian troops occupied Budapest. London Times, August 7, 1919. On August 7th, the United States sent ultimatum to Roumania demanding withdrawal of severe armistice terms on pain of cessation of shipment of food to Roumania. Washington Post, August 8, 1919. Between August 6th and August 31st notes were exchanged between the Peace Conference and Roumania, the latter still occupying Hungary. Texts of notes exchanged: London Times, August 11, 15, 16, 28, 1919; Washington Post, August 15, 1919; Current History, 10 (Pt. 2): 480; Review of Reviews, 60:379. EGYPT. United States recognized British protectorate. Current History, 10 (Pt. 1):427; New York Times, April 26, 1919; London Times, April 25, 1919.

28 LEAGUE OF NATIONS. Created by the adoption of the revised Covenant at the Fifth Plenary Session of the Peace Conference. Text: London Times, April 29, 1919; Supplement

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