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Declaration. These points, also applicable in whole or part to other regions at the discretion of the U.S. Embassy, likewise enumerate the concrete steps which are necessary to implement the guarantees of journalistic freedom called for in the UNESCO Declaration.

Specific steps listed by the instructions to facilitate the free flow of information through improving the working conditions for journalists include:

-promptly and favorably reviewing journalists' requests for

visas; -granting multiple entry and exit visas; -removing restrictions on the travel of journalists; -promptly and favorably reviewing the requests for permission

to travel, where such permission is needed; -removing restrictions on access by journalists to sources, includ

ing organizations and official institutions as well as individuals

on a personal basis; --ensuring journalists the right to import technical equipment

necessary for the exercise of their profession; -removing restrictions on the ability of journalists to transmit

completely, normally and rapidly the results of their profes

sional activity, including tape recordings or film; —ensuring that the legitimate pursuit of their professional activ

ity will not lead to the expulsion, incarceration, ill-treatment or

other penalization of journalists; -ensuring that journalists enjoy freedom of expression, including

freedom from censorship; -providing for prompt review of all penalties imposed on jour

nalists. For those particular states 1 noted (based on Congressional hearings, consultation with media leaders, and reports by respected human rights organizations in particular Freedom House) for their abuse or restriction of journalists, special emphasis was laid on expressing the sensitivity of this issue to the United States, the seriousness with which we view it, and its potential for adversely affecting our bilateral relations, in addition to the other points made.

The UNESCO Mass Media Declaration is attached as Annex A and the Department's instructions to posts on journalistic freedom as Annex B. A supplemental report will be submitted when replies from Embassies on this subject have been received and compiled.

1 These countries are: Algeria, Argentina, Central African Empire, Chile, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Ethiopia. GDR. Haiti, Israel, Laos. Lebanon, Libya, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru. Poland, PRC, Philippines, Somalia, Syria, Tanzania, Urugiay, U.S.S.R., Yugoslavia, and Zaire.

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The General Conference,

1. Recalling that by its Constitution the purpose of Unesco is to "contribute to peace and security by promoting collaboration among the nations through education, science and culture in order to further universal respect for justice, for the rule of law and for the human rights and fundamental freedoms" (Art. I, 1), and that to realize this

purpose the Organization will strive “to promote the free flow of ideas by word and image" (Art. I,2).

2. Further recalling that under the Constitution the Member States of Unesco, “believing in full and equal opportunities for education for all, in the unrestricted pursuit of objective truth, and in the free exchange of ideas and knowledge, are agreed and determined to develop and to increase the means of communication between their peoples and to employ these means for the purposes of mutual understanding and a truer and more perfect knowledge of each other's lives” (sixth preambular paragraph),

3. Recalling the purposes and principles of the United Nations, as specified in the Charter.

4. Recalling the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations in 1948 and particularly Article 19 which provides that “everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers"; and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations in 1966, Article 19 of which proclaims the same principles and Article 20 of which condemns incitement to war, the advocacy of national, racial or religious hatred and any form of discrimination, hostility or violence.

5. Recalling Article 4 of the International Convention on Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations in 1965, and the International Convention of the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime and Apartheid adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations in 1973 whereby the States acceding to these Conventions undertook to adopt immediate and positive measures designed to eradicate all incitement to, or acts of, racial discrimination, and agreed to prevent any encouragement of the crime of apartheid and similar segregationist policies or their manifestations,

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6. Recalling the Declaration on the Promotion among Youth of the Ideals of Peace, Mutual Respect and Understanding between Peoples, adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations in 1965,

7. Recalling the declarations and resolutions adopted by the various organs of the United Nations concerning the establishment of a New International Ecomomic Order and the role Unesco is called upon to play in this respect,

8. Recalling the Declaration of the Principles of International Cultural Co-operation, adopted by the General Conference of Unesco in 1966,

9. Recalling Resolution 59 (I) of the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted in 1946 and declaring

“Freedom of information is a fundamental human right and is the touchstone of all the freedoms to which the United Nations is consecrated;

Freedom of information requires as an indispensable element the willingness and capacity to employ its privileges without abuse. It requires as a basic discipline the moral obligation to seek the facts without prejudice and to spread knowledge without malicious intent;

10. Recalling Resolution 110(II) of the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted in 1947 condemning all forms of propaganda which are designed or likely to provoke or encourage any threat to the peace, breach of the peace, or act of aggression,

11. Recalling Resolution 127(II), also adopted by the General Assembly in 1947, which invites Member States to take measures, within the limits of constitutional procedures, to combat the diffusion of false or distorted reports likely to injure friendly relations between States, as well as the other resolutions of the General Assembly concerning the mass media and their contribution to strengthening peace, thus contributing to the growth of trust and friendly relations among States,

12. Recalling resolution 9.12 adopted by the General Conference of Unesco in 1968 reiterating Unesco's objective to help to eradicate colonialism and racialism, and resolution 12.1 adopted by the General Conference of Unesco in 1976 which proclaims that colonialism, neocolonialism and racialism in all its forms and manifestations are incompatible with the fundamental aims of Unesco,

13. Recalling resolution 4.301 adopted in 1970 by the General Conference of Unesco on the contribution of the information media to furthering international understanding and co-operation in the interests of peace and human welfare, and to countering propaganda on behalf of war, racialism, apartheid and hatred among nations, and aware of the fundamental contribution that mass media can make to the realization of these objectives,

14. Recalling the Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice adopted by the General Conference of Unesco at its twentieth session,

15. Conscious of the complexity of the problems of information in modern society, of the diversity of solutions which have been offered to them, as evidenced in particular by consideration given to them within Unesco as well as of the legitimate desire of all parties con

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cerned that their aspirations, points of view and cultural identity be taken into due consideration,

16. Conscious of the aspirations of the developing countries for the establishment of a new, more just and more effective world information and communication order,

17. Proclaims on this 1 upon

1978 this Declaration on Fundamental Principles concerning the Contribution of the Mass Media to Strengthening Peace and International Understanding, to the Promotion of Human Rights and to Countering Racialism, Apartheid and Incitement to War.

ARTICLE I The strengthening of peace and international understanding, the promotion of human rights and the countering of racialism, apartheid and incitement to war demand a free flow and a wider and better balanced dissemination of information. To this end, the mass media have a leading contribution to make. This contribution will be the more effective to the extent that the information reflects the different aspects of the subject dealt with.

ARTICLE II 1. The exercise of freedom of opinion, expression and information, recognized as an integral part of human rights and fundamental freedoms, is a vital factor in the strengthening of peace and international understanding. 2. Access by the public to information should be guaranteed by the diversity of the sources and means of information available to it, thus enabling each individual to check the accuracy of facts and to appraise events objectively. To this end, journalists must have freedom to report and the fullest possible facilities of access to information. Similarly, it is important that the mass media be responsive to concerns of peoples and individuals, thus promoting the participation of the public in the elaboration of information.

3. With a view to the strengthening of peace and international understanding, to promoting human rights and to countering racialism, apartheid and incitement to war, the mass media throughout the world, by reason of their role, contribute effectively to promoting human rights, in particular by giving expression to oppressed peoples who struggle against colonialism, neo-colonialism, foreign occupation and all forms of racial discrimination and oppression and who are unable to make their voices heard within their own territories.

4. If the mass media are to be in a position to promote the principles of this Declaration in their activities, it is essential that journalists and other agents of the mass media, in their own country or abroad, be assured of protection guaranteeing them the best conditions for the exercise of their profession.

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1. The mass media have an important contribution to make to the strengthening of peace and international understanding and in countering racialism, apartheid and incitement to war.

2. In countering aggressive war, racialism, apartheid and other violations of human rights which are inter alia spawned by prejudice and ignorance, the mass media, by disseminating information on the aims, aspirations, cultures and needs of all people, contribute to eliminate ignorance and misunderstanding between peoples, to make nationals of a country sensitive to the needs and desires of others, to ensure the respect of the rights and dignity of all nations, all people and all individuals without distinction of race, sex, language, religion or nationality and to draw attention to the great evils which afflict humanity, such as poverty, malnutrition and diseases, thereby promoting the formulation by States of policies best able to promote the reduction of international tension and the peaceful and the equitable settlement of international disputes.

ARTICLE IV The mass media have an essential part to play in the education of young people in a spirit of peace, justice, freedom, mutual respect and understanding, in order to promote human rights, equality of rights as between all human beings and all nations, and economic and social progress. Equally they have an important role to play in making known the views and aspirations of the younger generation.


In order to respect freedom of opinion, expression and information and in order that information may reflect all points of view, it is important that the points of view presented by those who consider that the information published or disseminated about them has seriously prejudiced their effort to strengthen peace and international understanding, to promote human rights or to counter racialism, apartheid and incitement to war be disseminated.

ARTICLE VI For the establishment of a new equilibrium and greater reciprocity in the flow of information, which will be conducive to the institution of a just and lasting peace and to the economic and political independence of the developing countries, it is necessary to correct the inequalities in the flow of information to and from developing countries, and between those countries. To this end, it is essential that their mass media should have conditions and resources enabling them to gain strength and expand, and to cooperate both among themselves and with the mass media in developed countries.


By disseminating more widely all of the information concerning the objectives and principles universally accepted which are the bases of the resolutions adopted by the different organs of the United Nations, the mass media contribute effectively to the strengthening of peace and international understanding, to the promotion of human rights, as well as to the establishment of a more just and equitable international economic order.

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