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cerned that their aspirations, points of view and cultural identity be taken into due consideration,

16. Conscious of the aspirations of the developing countries for the establishment of a new, more just and more effective world information and communication order,

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17. Proclaims on this 1978 this Declaration on Fundamental Principles concerning the Contribution of the Mass Media to Strengthening Peace and International Understanding, to the Promotion of Human Rights and to Countering Racialism, Apartheid and Incitement to War.

ARTICLE I

The strengthening of peace and international understanding, the promotion of human rights and the countering of racialism, apartheid and incitement to war demand a free flow and a wider and better balanced dissemination of information. To this end, the mass media have a leading contribution to make. This contribution will be the more effective to the extent that the information reflects the different aspects of the subject dealt with.

ARTICLE II

1. The exercise of freedom of opinion, expression and information, recognized as an integral part of human rights and fundamental freedoms, is a vital factor in the strengthening of peace and international understanding.

2. Access by the public to information should be guaranteed by the diversity of the sources and means of information available to it, thus enabling each individual to check the accuracy of facts and to appraise events objectively. To this end, journalists must have freedom to report and the fullest possible facilities of access to information. Similarly, it is important that the mass media be responsive to concerns of peoples and individuals, thus promoting the participation of the public in the elaboration of information.

3. With a view to the strengthening of peace and international understanding, to promoting human rights and to countering racialism, apartheid and incitement to war, the mass media throughout the world, by reason of their role, contribute effectively to promoting human rights, in particular by giving expression to oppressed peoples who struggle against colonialism, neo-colonialism, foreign occupation and all forms of racial discrimination and oppression and who are unable to make their voices heard within their own territories.

4. If the mass media are to be in a position to promote the principles of this Declaration in their activities, it is essential that journalists and other agents of the mass media, in their own country or abroad, be assured of protection guaranteeing them the best conditions for the exercise of their profession.

ARTICLE III

1. The mass media have an important contribution to make to the strengthening of peace and international understanding and in countering racialism, apartheid and incitement to war.

2. In countering aggressive war, racialism, apartheid and other violations of human rights which are inter alia spawned by prejudice and ignorance, the mass media, by disseminating information on the aims, aspirations, cultures and needs of all people, contribute to eliminate ignorance and misunderstanding between peoples, to make nationals of a country sensitive to the needs and desires of others, to ensure the respect of the rights and dignity of all nations, all people and all individuals without distinction of race, sex, language, religion or nationality and to draw attention to the great evils which afflict humanity, such as poverty, malnutrition and diseases, thereby promoting the formulation by States of policies best able to promote the reduction of international tension and the peaceful and the equitable settlement of international disputes.

ARTICLE IV

The mass media have an essential part to play in the education of young people in a spirit of peace, justice, freedom, mutual respect and understanding, in order to promote human rights, equality of rights as between all human beings and all nations, and economic and social progress. Equally they have an important role to play in making known the views and aspirations of the younger generation.

ARTICLE V

In order to respect freedom of opinion, expression and information and in order that information may reflect all points of view, it is important that the points of view presented by those who consider that the information published or disseminated about them has seriously prejudiced their effort to strengthen peace and international understanding, to promote human rights or to counter racialism, apartheid and incitement to war be disseminated.

ARTICLE VI

For the establishment of a new equilibrium and greater reciprocity in the flow of information, which will be conducive to the institution of a just and lasting peace and to the economic and political independence of the developing countries, it is necessary to correct the inequalities in the flow of information to and from developing countries, and between those countries. To this end, it is essential that their mass media should have conditions and resources enabling them to gain strength and expand, and to cooperate both among themselves and with the mass media in developed countries.

ARTICLE VII

By disseminating more widely all of the information concerning the objectives and principles universally accepted which are the bases of the resolutions adopted by the different organs of the United Nations, the mass media contribute effectively to the strengthening of peace and international understanding, to the promotion of human rights, as well as to the establishment of a more just and equitable international economic order.

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ARTICLE VIII

Professional organizations, and people who participate in the professional training of journalists and other agents of the mass media and who assist them in performing their functions in a responsible manner should attach special importance to the principles of this Declaration when drawing up and ensuring application of their codes of ethics.

ARTICLE IX

In the spirit of this Declaration, it is for the international community to contribute to the creation of the conditions for a free flow and wider and more balanced dissemination of information, and the conditions for the protection, in the exercise of their functions, of journalists and other agents of the mass media. Unesco is well placed to make a valuable contribution in this respect.

ARTICLE X

1. With due respect for constitutional provisions designed to guarantee freedom of information and for the applicable international instruments and agreements, it is indispensable to create and maintain throughout the world the conditions which make it possible for the organizations and persons professionally involved in the dissemination of information to achieve the objectives of this Declaration.

2. It is important that a free flow and wider and better balanced dissemination of information be encouraged.

3. To this end, it is necessary that States should facilitate the procurement, by the mass media in the developing countries, of adequate conditions and resources enabling them to gain strength and expand, and that they should support co-operation by the latter both among themselves and with the mass media in developed countries.

4. Similarly, on a basis of equality of rights, mutual advantage, and respect for the diversity of cultures which go to make up the common heritage of mankind, it is essential that bilateral and multilateral exchanges of information among all States, and in particular between those which have different economic and social systems be encouraged and developed.

ARTICLE XI

For this Declaration to be fully effective it is necessary, with due respect for the legislative and administrative provisions and the other obligations of Member States, to guarantee the existence of favourable conditions for the operation of the mass media, in conformity with the provisions of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and with the corresponding principles proclaimed in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations in 1966.

39-422-79- -8

ANNEX B

Subject: International Journalistic Freedom.
Reference: State 296144.

1. At the biennial General Conference of UNESCO, held in Paris October 24-November 28, member states of the organization adopted by consensus a declaration on the mass media which, inter alia, reaffirmed the importance of a free flow of information and gave specific recognition to the need for protection of journalists in the exercise of their profession. The declaration is described in reftel.

2. The Foreign Relations Authorization Act for FY79, signed in October, calls upon the Department for the first time to make a formal report of its efforts to improve the climate for journalists in countries which have a history of harassment or intimidation of foreign correspondents. Department believes that recent consensus adoption of the UNESCO Mass Media Declaration, in which WEO states were successful in obtaining specific recognition of the need to promote the rights of journalists, provides an excellent opportunity for posts to bring our concerns over conditions affecting the exercise of journalism to the attention of governments. Posts are accordingly requested to make representations on this subject.

3. Department recognizes that conditions affecting the press vary greatly from country to country and wishes posts to have an appropriate degree of discretion in making representations on this subject; therefore, points contained in paragraph four below may be drawn upon by posts subject to modifications as needed to adapt them to local circumstances. (Posts in countries where journalists are not, repeat not, harassed may prefer to forego specific representations on the need for journalists' freedom, although it is important to reiterate importance U.S. attaches to the principles enunciated in the UNESCO declaration.)

4. Points to be made by posts:

-The United States avails itself of the occasion of the recent
adoption of the UNESCO Declaration on the Mass Media to
invite the attention of host government to its provisions regard-
ing the importance of a free flow of information and in par-
ticular Article II of the declaration, which states that "* * *
journalists must have freedom to report and the fullest possible
facilities of access to information" and "*** it is essential that
journalists and other agents of the mass media, in their own.
country or abroad, be assured of protection guaranteeing them
the best conditions for the exercise of their profession."
-The United States notes that this declaration of principles was
adopted by the delegates of all 146 UNESCO member states,
thus representing the support of an overwhelming majority of
the world community.

-United States considers it important that every nation recog-
nize the importance of putting into practice the principles ap-
proved by its representatives at the General Conference of the
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organiza-
tion (UNESCO).

-The United States notes that the Universal Declaration of Human Rights also affirms the freedom of individuals to seek, receive, and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.

-United States wishes on its own part to reiterate its conviction that journalists must have the maximum freedom from government interference in the performance of their professional duties.

-Specific steps which can be taken to facilitate the free flow of information through improving the working conditions for journalists include, inter alia:

-Promptly and favorably reviewing journalists' requests for visas:

-Granting multiple entry and exit visas;

-Removing restrictions on the travel of journalists;

-Promptly and favorably reviewing the requests for permission to travel, where such permission is needed;

-Removing restrictions on access by journalists to sources, including organizations and official institutions as well as individuals on a personal basis;

-Ensuring journalists the right to import technical equipment necessary for the exercise of their profession; -Removing restrictions on the ability of journalists to transmit completely, normally and rapidly the results of their professional activity, including tape recordings or film; -Ensuring that the legitimate pursuit of their professional activity will not lead to the expulsion, incarceration, illtreatment or other penalization of journalists;

-Ensuring that journalists enjoy freedom of expression, including freedom from censorship;

-Providing for prompt review of all penalties imposed on journalists.

-The United State firmly believes that an ever wider knowledge and understanding of the various aspects of life in other states is essential to the growth of confidence between peoples and the development of mutual understanding between states. The United States would find disturbing any restriction, harassment or mistreatment of foreign journalists, which will necessarily interfere with the free flow of information and impede the development of mutual understanding between nations. 5. For WEO posts. In addition to drawing on paras 3 and 4, as appropriate, posts may wish to use the following:

-United States appreciates consultation and cooperation at Paris which led to adoption of UNESCO declaration.

-United States would be interested in steps which host governments may be planning to support the declaration whether in terms of furthering concepts of journalists' freedom or in assistance to developing country media programs in support of declaration.

6. For Eastern European countries: You can affirm importance of principle of journalistic freedom to U.S., our satisfaction that world community was able to agree on a declaration, and our view that it is not, repeat not, a pro forma exercise. You should refer to the provisions of the Helsinki Agreements on journalists as essential components of journalists' freedom.

7. For Soviet Union: Representations on this subject may await instructions which will follow by septel.

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