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(f) State/FSI annual 1-week course on computers and foreign affairs;
(g) State/FSI basic orientation course for new Foreign Service Officers currently containing a 1-hour briefing on science and technology in the Department of State;
(h) State/FSI annual 9-month executive seminar in national and international affairs for senior officers from State and other executive departments and agencies, containing extensive segments on science and technology-related issues:
(i) State/FSI sponsorship and funding for Foreign Service officers to undertake evening courses in science, technology, and policy at universities in the Washington area;
(j) Office of Personnel Management 2-week courses at its Executive Seminar Centers in science, technology, and public policy and on environmental and resources issues;
(k) Department of Energy 2-day course on the nuclear fuel cycle and technical aspects of nuclear weapons proliferation, given every 2 months at Germantown;
(7) Department of Commerce 10-month science and technology fellowship program for its employees in which a regular work assignment in a Government department is combined with lectures, seminars, visits, field trips and interaction with appropriate people in the Government and private sectors;
(m) Attendance at ad hoc seminars and courses by research organizations, industry, universities, institutes or foundations; (n) Orientation programs organized by domestic agencies, but open to attendance by officers of other departments;
(o) The education of Foreign Service Officers and other permanent employees of Government departments through on-the-job contact with scientists, technologists, scholars and other experts who enter the Government under limited appointments, and internships and "scholar-diplomat” programs.
(p) Exchange details between Government departments and industry, for example, the President's Executive interchange program, and between Government departments and the Congress.
(g) Academic year assignments for senior Government officers at the National War College, Industrial College of the Armed Forces, et cetera.
Adequacy of training resources
In the Department of State and other Executive agencies there is general agreement that existing training opportunities are meeting many of the needs of the U.S. Government. Over the next several years, however, present programs may need to be augmented.
The adequacy of training resources and procedures has been considered in three major studies undertaken at the initiative of the Department of State in 1976 and 1978. The first of these is the study commissioned to a consultant, Dr. T. Keith Glennan entitled "Technology and Foreign Affairs," cited earlier in this report. Dr. Glennan emphasized the value of exchange details among executive depart ments and also made the following general recommendation:
As part of an effort to increase the awareness of the importance of technology in foreign affairs, seek improvement of the capacity of the Department of State and its overseas missions to deal ef
fectively with problems involving the interaction of technology and foreign affairs: develop programs to enhance the 'technical literacy' of executive and professional personnel in other bureaus of the Department (note: meaning outside the Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs) and in U.S. embassies and missions to international organizations. In 1978, a study entitled "Strengthening the Science Attaché Program and the Department's Personnel Resources for Science and Technology" was carried out under the sponsorship of the Department's Under Secretary for Security Assistance, Science, and Technology. Lucy Wilson Benson. Its findings emphasized more the need to improve the level of scientific and technological "literacy" throughout the Foreign Service than the possible training needs of those relatively few officers serving as science attachés or in OES, the Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs. The report recommended increasing the number of Foreign Service officers detailed to universities for advanced training in the interaction of science, technology and policy, and favored increasing the FSI 1-week course in science and foreign affairs to 4 weeks. The pros and cons of this recommendation continue to be debated and implementation is awaiting and will depend on the results of the position and activity survey described earlier.
A third study, conducted by the Foreign Service Institute in 1978, focused on future requirements for the training of FSO's for service. in the Department's Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs (OES). The study has been referred to as "the Armstrong report" after its principal drafter, Oscar V. Armstrong, a Foreign Service officer. The report foresaw a need for increased effort and funding for training, but without stating specific numbers. It also stressed that while an increasing number of foreign policy issues have a science and technology component, the difficulties in dealing with these issues arise from political, economic, security or sociological factors, rather than an inadequate understanding of or attention to the science and technology component.
The Department of State and other executive departments and agencies have identified the following goals in the training of both generalists and specialists in the interaction of science, technology and foreign affairs:
Knowledge of U.S. foreign policy, its goals, formulation and execution.
Knowledge on the part of professional, executive, political, economic and managerial generalists of the processes by which scientific and technological activities are organized and carried out by specialists in the public, business and academic sectors.
"Enough knowledge" on the part of generalists (and this is difficult to define precisely) about scientific and technological considerations to permit these generalists to evaluate sensibly the foreign policy implications of technical programs, research proposals, agreements for cooperation, et cetera.
Overview knowledge in each department or agency of the missions and programs of other departments and agencies whose activities impact on foreign policy and foreign relations.
Knowledge of scientific and technological developments and related political, economic and security policies, programs and trends in countries abroad, relevant to U.S. activities.
Skill in the advocacy and advancement of U.S. positions on scientific and technologically-related issues in bilateral, multilateral and international arenas.
Within the Department of State, training in the integration of science, technology and foreign affairs is of concern to three office areas: The Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs (OES), the Bureau of Personnel, and the Foreign Service Institute. From a policy viewpoint, this training is also an important concern of the Under Secretary for Security Assistance, Science, and Technology.
For the Foreign Service Institute, science and technology training is within the responsibilities of the Dean of the School of Professional Studies. He supervises political and economic training divisions. Both of these divisions are equally concerned with the integration of science and technology into their respective political and economic programs. For pragmatic reasons this training is currently the particular responsibility of the Coordinator for Political Training.
Within OES training has suffered to some degree from the familiar syndrome of having no father but many uncles. A possible solution would be to assign coordination of the Bureau's interests in personnel training to the officer in OES assigned responsibility to backstop the Department's overseas Science Attaché program. The Assistant Secretary and his principal deputies should monitor the career development of all OES personnel in close cooperation with the Bureau of Personnel.
Within the Bureau of Personnel, and under the Director of the Office of Foreign Service Career Development and Assignments, training is the responsibility of the Chief of the Training and Liaison Staff. Career development officers, organized on functional lines, are responsible for recommending the training of political, economic, consular and administrative officers. At the present time officers with experience in science and technology functions are not treated as a separate functional group. As part of the personnel survey mentioned above, the Department will assess the effect of this situation on staffing and career patterns in the international science and technology field.
With respect to the corps of career Foreign Service officers, the Department continues to treat scientific and technological skills as subskills of both the political and the economic functions. This approach has the drawback of giving science and technology training several uncles but no single father. This problem is currently receiving further study and will be discussed again in the follow-up to this report.
Training of Foreign Service officers
A recent syllabus for each of the two principal FSI courses in science, technology and foreign affairs is submitted in appendix I to this report. The first of these, entitled "Science and Foreign Affairs" is intended to make Foreign Service officers more aware of and sensitive to the relationships between science, technology, and foreign affairs. It appears in 1975 that the course might be dropped for lack of
interest on the part of Foreign Service officers, and also reluctance of supervisors to spare officers for training. This is not, however, a problem peculiar to OES in times of increasing workloads and decreasing personnel resources. Although there has been enough interest and support to assure continuation of the course, the problem of limited interest continues.
The second course deals with computers and foreign affairs. Also attached is a syllabus for the FSI Foreign Affairs Interdepartmental Seminar.
Motivation for training
As of 1975, the Department of State and the Congress, as evidenced in its report, were aware of the problem of motivating Foreign Service officer interest in science and technology. It is clear that an important obstacle continues to be the perception among Foreign Service officers that service in functions with a high scientific or technological component is not "career enhancing," and that available training is not relevant enough to job requirements.
The Department of State is currently considering ways to change these perceptions. Difficulties are compounded by pressures from the constituencies of all functional areas of the Foreign Service, whether consular, administrative, economic, or political, that their function be at least as career-enhancing as any other function. For reasons beyond the scope of this report, opportunity for promotion continues to be restricted whatever the functional specialty. Also, over the years, Foreign Service assignment procedures have changed from reliance on "open assignment" procedures in which the officer's own preferences are given greater consideration.
Despite these problems, motivation for FSO's to undertake science and technology training and assignments will be increased by assuring that science and technology qualifications receive due weight in selecting officers for senior positions and promotions.
Science and technology "modules" in economics courses
Reflecting the inseparability of economic, scientific and technolog ical considerations, the Foreign Service Institute also includes scientific and technological "modules" or segments in two of its major training programs:
-An annual 26-week course in economic and commercial studies: -An annual 16-week course of political and economic training. The first course is designed for selected midlevel officers whose primary skill or functional interest is as economic officers. The second is aimed at increasing the economic and political awareness of officers whose primary functions are consular or administrative. Both courses include modules on quantitative analysis, computer applications, reSource, and environmental issues.
Other Department of State training related to science and technology The economic studies division of the Foreign Service Institute also arranges ad hoc training in the field of energy in cooperation with the Department's Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs, the Defense Petroleum Institute, and representatives of the oil industry. From one to five officers undertake this training each year, traveling to Oklahoma and Texas for field studies.
The Foreign Service Institute helps arrange 2- to 6-week orientation courses each summer for regional minerals and petroleum attachés. This program could be expanded. The substantive content is provided by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Bureau of Mines, and the Department of Interior. The only costs are those of travel and per diem for visits to mining regions.
The Foreign Service Institute offers an annual 5-day seminar on computers and foreign affairs. This is an elementary "awareness" program for nonspecialists, designed to acquaint foreign affairs personnel with current or anticipated impacts of revolutionary developments in communications technology. The course is open to personnel from all executive agencies at a fee of $341 as of 1978.
Other long-term training opportunities for FSO's include university programs in systems analysis and in multilateral diplomacy. Both strengthen the ability of the FSO to manage programs that combine science, technology and foreign affairs.
Details to universities for advanced training
Between 1968 and 1978 the Department of State detailed 10 officers to universities for advanced training in the area of science, technology, and public policy. Two were senior officers in the staff support category of personnel and six were midlevel or junior Foreign Service
Procedures to date enable interested officers to request midlevel university training and to specify whether the training should be political, economic, scientific, or other. The officer also has the initiative with respect to choosing the university he wishes to attend, although his choice must be approved by personnel officers and by the Foreign Service Institute. Programs in science and technology chosen by Foreign Service officers have included those at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, George Washington University, the University of California at Berkeley, and Purdue. Suitable training programs exist also at Cornell, Stanford, and a number of other universities.
In most years, about 40 midlevel Foreign Service officers have been sent on all types of university details. The great majority of these details are for studies in economic and political areas without a strong scientific or technological emphasis. This puts into relief the relatively small number of FSO's undertaking science, technology, and foreign affairs training.
Training in foreign affairs of specialists from domestic technical agencies
The Foreign Affairs Interdepartmental Seminar at the Foreign Service Institute is designed to bring senior and mid-level officers of other departments and agencies into contact with Foreign Service officers also attending the course, and with major foreign affairs issues affecting the Department of State and dornestic agencies alike. Subjects covered at this seminar include the foreign policy process, the role of Congress in foreign affairs, major international economic issues, arms control and disarmament, human rights, the problems of terrorism, food, energy and environmental issues, and population problems, among others. (See appendix I.)
Many executive departments and agencies send personnel to this 2-week course, at a cost of $320 per enrollee as of 1978. Greater par