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ticipation would be both desirable and possible, even within the budgetary constraints currently affecting the technical agencies. Foreign Service Institute officials are undertaking more active personal contacts with international offices and training officers of technical agencies, to back up the bureaucratic impersonality of distributing printed announcements.
The Foreign Service Institute as a multiagency resource
Under the guidance of the Director General of the Foreign Service, responsibility for furnishing training and instruction to Foreign Service officers of the Department of State is vested in the Foreign Service Institute, with facilities in Rosslyn, Va. Normally, officers and employees of the Department of State make up only about 50 percent of the total enrollment. The other 50 percent is made up of employees of some 27 other departments and agencies of the Federal Government, the largest number of whom usually represent the International Communication Agency, the Agency for International Development and the Department of Defense.
The interagency character of FSI training is thus well established, but it is also evident that even fuller use of FSI facilities by other departments and agencies could contribute to strengthening the ability of the Government as a whole to make effective use of science and technology in international relations.
Staff exchange details
Within the Department of State and among domestic technical agencies, a strong consensus emerged among contributors to this report in support of staff exchange details by which Foreign Service officers are detailed to work in domestic agencies and officers from the domestic agencies work at the Department of State. The duration. of the sojourns has ranged from 6 months to several years. The Department of Energy is currently working closely with OES to establish a more regular program of exchanges in the energy field.
Some 13 FSO's are currently on detail in assignments with high scientific/technical content at the Department of Energy, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, NASA, Commerce, and the Council on Environmental Quality. In this way Foreign Service officers become acquainted with. the planning and implementation of major science and technology programs whose primary purposes are in most instances domestic but which have important foreign affairs implications. The Foreign Service officers in turn contribute their foreign affairs insights to the domestic agency.
Training programs of domestic departments and agencies
Domestic departments of the U.S. Government conduct many inhouse training programs, but none that could be explicitly described as training in the application of science and technology to foreign affairs. The widespread assumption is that such training is primarily the responsibility of the Department of State. In this spirit domestic agencies declare themselves ready and willing to receive from the Department of State:
-general briefings on United States foreign policy;
-advice as to the foreign policy implications of major U.S. and foreign science and technology programs;
-training in foreign languages;
-orientation in Department of State and Embassy administrative and communications procedures related to the overseas travel or assignment of their officers;
-cooperation in the exchange of personnel on details.
Domestic departments and agencies conduct in-house orientation programs on their own objectives, procedures and problems. Foreign Service and Department of State personnel are welcome at such sessions. The domestic agencies also conduct numerous presentations, workshops, and talks on technical topics, but at present there are no systematic procedures whereby interested Department of State and Foreign Service officers could be made aware of the scheduling of such sessions.
To increase the understanding of U.S. foreign policy among their employees, domestic departments make extensive use of such Foreign Service Institute courses as the interdepartmental seminars on foreign policy, and the annual seminar on science, technology, and foreign affairs, where half of the attendees are usually from domestic agencies. Many departments have expressed interest in increasing their utilization of training at the Foreign Service Institute.
It has long been evident that effective integration of science, technology, and foreign policy requires, beyond political awareness and scientific or technological competence, managerial, and leadership skills. Both State and the domestic agencies benefit from access to the range of 2-week seminars, including two which focus on science and technology related issues, conducted by the Office of Personnel Management at its four Executive Seminar Centers at Berkeley, Calif.; Kings Point, N.Y.; Oak Ridge, Tenn.; and Wilmington, Del. Curriculum areas include management; science, technology, and public policy; and environmental quality and natural resources.
An additional advantage characteristic of an interagency resource, of which the Foreign Service Institute is another example, is the opportunity provided for personal contacts between representatives of many Federal departments with common concerns and at comparable career stages.
U.S. Government utilization of nongovernmental training
The Department of State makes use of university training in many areas. including political, economic, managerial, and scientific. Such details total about 40 per year, of which only 1 or 2 are in the science, technology, and policy area.
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration provides grants for the support of programs that contribute to the training of employees, indirectly relevant to the interaction of science, technology, and foreign policy, notably at the universities of Rhode Island, Washington, and Hawaii.
A number of other agencies send personnel to various nongovernmental and technical training programs, such as the Sloan fellowship program, which consider as part of their curriculum the international dimension of science and technology programs.
New programs planned
The Department of State has under review the feasibility of establishing a consultation program for U.S. Ambassadors and other senior
Foreign Service officers designed to familiarize them with the elements of the scientific and technological community most relevant to their overseas mission. These consultations would take place prior to departure for post or during home leave or consultation visits to the United States.
The political training division of the Department of State's Foreign Service Institute anticipates introducing scientific and technologically related issues into sessions of 1- or 2-day "political workshop" seminars in 1979. The aim is to amplify the content of the basic 5-day seminar on science, technology, and foreign affairs to reach officers deterred by the 5-day format, but able to detach themselves for 1 or 2 days from daily responsibilities. Through exposure to different issues with a high science and technology quotient in successive sessions, attendees will be able gradually to accumulate exposure to the science and technology dimension of foreign policy.
Also under study are the possibilities and funding implications of a more structured and augmented program of interagency details. These could include short, for example, 2-week familiarization details as well as details for 2 or 3 years.
D. CONTRACTS, GRANTS, AND CONSULTANTS ON TRAINING
The Glennan report on "Technology and Foreign Affairs" is the principal example in recent years of a study by knowledgable persons outside the Federal Government dealing with science, technology, and foreign affairs. Another important report in this area is the study on "Public Policy and Technology Transfer" conducted in 1977 and 1978 cooperatively by the George Washington University, the Fund for Multinational Management Education, the Council of the Americas, and the United States Council of the International Chamber of Commerce, at the request of the Department of State. No domestic agencies have commissioned studies dealing specifically with the interaction of science, technology, and foreign affairs, or with training for this interaction.
E. ACTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
1. One principal conclusion regarding the training of U.S. Government personnel in the application of science and technology to foreign relations has emerged in preparing this report: While training resources and opportunities are less than ideal, they should be gradually increased as resources permit and as officers and employees become better motivated to acquire this training through recognition of its relevance and perception of clear career rewards in the field of science, technology, and foreign affairs.
2. Changes in current assignment and training procedures should be considered following completion of a survey of the activities of all political, economic, and scientific officers in the Department of State and at all Embassies and posts overseas to obtain an up-to-date "photograph" of the perceived scientific and technological content of these activities. The survey properly analyzed should help the Department of State assess the character and extent of necessary changes in recruitment, selection and training, and career development and assignment policies for political, economic, and commercial officers as well as for science and technology officers.
3. The following are additional actions and recommendations, some of which are being implemented, while others require further study and will be discussed in detail in the followup report:
(a) Increase the number of personnel exchanges conducted between the Department of State and domestic agencies with international programs;
(b) Establish a program of consultations in the science and technology area for Ambassadors, Deputy Chiefs of Mission, and other senior officers of the Department of State and Foreign Service;
(c) Interest greater numbers of Foreign Service officers in either attending short "awareness" seminars or presentations in science and technology related areas;
(d) Increase from one to two or three the number of midlevel FSO's attending advanced university training each year in the interaction of science, technology, and foreign policy, and assure that at the end of the academic year they are assigned to a science and technology related position;
(e) Allocate one science and technology slot in the senior university training program for a senior officer;
(f) Give further study to the advantages of lengthening the basic Foreign Service Institute course on science, technology, and foreign affairs from 1 week to 4 weeks;
(g) Give greater emphasis in Foreign Service recruitment and career advisory programs to the opportunities open to candidates who can combine a background in science and technology with aptitudes for applying it to the political, economic, and managerial responsibilities of the Department of State;
(h) Make domestic and technical agencies aware of the training opportunities available at the Foreign Service Institute.
INTERNATIONAL COMMUNICATIONS POLICY
This report, submitted pursuant to Section 601 of Public Law 95426, addresses overall United States policy with respect to major international communications issues. Specifically, these issues include: -The recently adopted UNESCO mass media declaration and related UNESCO issues.
-The review of worldwide radio frequency allocations at the 1979 World Administrative Radio Conference (WARC 79). -Consideration by the U.N. Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space of principles to govern the international operations of direct broadcast satellites (DBS).
-International issues related to transborder flows of data between computers.
-Communications assistance to developing countries.
This report examines the relationships among these issues; describes U.S. interests, objectives, positions, and methods of coordination with respect to each.
THE IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATIONS ISSUES
Communications, used broadly to include the exchange of information, has assumed new importance in recent years. Although international conventions on the subject go back to the 19th century, the need previously was to reach technical accommodation. That need continues. In addition, communications issues are increasingly political and economic.
Since the end of World War II, the United States and its democratic allies have strongly supported the free flow of information, as expressed by Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which asserts the right of everyone "to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers." We consider this principle an important part of our renewed commitment to human rights as a central element of our foreign policy. Many countries, however, resist the principle of Article 19. Communist and other totalitarian regimes are concerned that the unrestricted flow of information across their borders may erode their authority. Developing countries worry about the erosion of traditional values and culture and deplore their dependence on "foreign" (i.e., Western) information systems.