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(b) The interference of Austria and Prussia.

(c) Effect on the course of the Revolution. References:

Harding, chaps. 24, 25.

Myers, chap. 33.

West, chaps. 31, 32, 33, 34.

Robinson and Beard, chaps. 5, 6, 7.
Hazen, chaps. 1-8.


What old principles led the Austrians and Prussians to
invade France without provocation in 1792?
What is the great significance of the French Revolu

Why were the French unable to find a working form of
popular government? Cf. present Russia.

Note the feeling of the reactionary governments toward anything like liberalism.

b. Napoleon: His campaigns.

(1) Napoleon's early career.

(a) Napoleon's characteristics and ambitions.

(b) Qualities of leadership.

(c) Early services to France.

(2) The Empire.

(a) Successive steps in the rise to power.

(b) The creation of the Empire.

(c) Napoleon's war policy.

(3) The military campaigns.

(a) Campaigns during the Directory and Consulate.

i. Italian campaign.

ii. Expedition to Egypt.

(b) Campaigns as Emperor.

i. The struggle against coalitions.

ii. Wars resulting from the Continental System.

iii. The Hundred Days.

(c) Napoleon's rank as a military genius.


Harding, chap. 26, pp. 527-530, 534-541.
Myers, pp. 543-555, 557-568, 573-579.

West, chaps. 35, 36, pp. 489-493, 497-500.
Robinson and Beard, chap. 8, pp. 207-217.
*Hazen, pp. 179-186, 191-205, 208-212, 213-248.

Was the French Revolution a failure?

How do you account for Napoleon? Would the same kind of situation produce such another?

Did Napoleon discredit or create friends for the Revolution?

What feeling have his crushing victories and harsh terms caused toward France on the part of her neigh bors?

Study Napoleon's military principles. How do those of the present German Empire compare with them!

c. Napoleon's reconstruction of Europe.
(1) Napoleon's work in France.

(a) Reform of the administration.
(b) The Code Napoleon.

(2) Changes elsewhere in Europe.

(a) Creation of new governments and states.

(b) The reorganization of Germany.

(c) Dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire.

(3) Summary of achievements.

(a) Napoleon's permanent works.

(b) Their effect on recent Europe.


Harding, pp. 530-534.

Myers, pp. 555-557, 568-573.

West, pp. 493-497.

Robinson and Beard, pp. 193-197.

Hazen, pp. 186-191, 205-208, 212-213.


In what respects does Napoleon deserve to rank among the few great men of history?

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Was Metternich's attitude toward revolution to be wondered at?

Did the Holy Alliance and similar organizations postpone the liberation of Europe seriously?

Where seemed to be the hotbed of revolutionary activity? Why?

What stand did England take on interference to maintain absolutism? Of what importance was her attitude?

b. The French Revolution of 1848.

(1) Downfall of Louis Philippe. (a) Unpopular ministers.

(b) Rise of socialism.

i. National workshops.

(2) Second French Republic.

(a) Election of Louis Napoleon. (3) Second French Empire. (a) Napoleon's coup d'etat.

(b) Aggressive foreign policy. (c) Disastrous results. References:

Harding, pp. 578-587.
*Hazen, chaps. 15, 17.
Myers, pp. 591-594.

West, chaps. 45, 46.

Robinson and Beard, chap. 13.


Note the causes of the rapid growth of the socialistic party in France. What part did this party take in

the Revolution of 1848?

Must we account for the rapid transition from republic to empire in French psychology or in circumstances likely to occur anywhere?

Why, in a time of peace and prosperity, did Napoleon III deliberately choose a policy of war? Did he attain his object at any time?

Sum up the evils now being faced by the French people for which they, as a people, are not to blame.

c. 1848 in Austria and Germany.

(1) Condition of the Austrian Empire.

(a) Agitation of Liberals.

(b) Movements of various races for autonomy. (2) Progress of the Revolution.

(a) Revolution in Hungary: Kossuth.
(b) Agitation in Bohemia.

i. Flight of Metternich.

ii. Lack of unity among the revolutionists.
iii. Failure of the Revolution.

(3) Risings in Germany.

(a) Constitution granted in Prussia.

(b) Proposals of the Frankfort Parliament.

(c) Hostile attitude taken by Austria.

(d) Virtual failure of the Revolution. References:

Harding, pp. 601-607.

*Hazen, chap. 16.

West, pp. 566-571.

*Robinson and Beard, chap. 14.


Compare the struggles of the Hungarian states for liberty with those of the English colonies in America. In general, what caused the failure of the liberal movements in Austria and Germany, just as success seemed to be at hand?

What is the essential difference between German despotism as now practiced and the system used and advocated by Metternich?


1. The Unification of Italy.

a. Italy from 1815 to 1849.
(1) Italy after the Congress of Vienna.
(a) A "geographical expression."
(b) Italy's tasks.

i. Elimination of foreign control.

ii. Establishment of constitutional government.

(2) The Revolution of 1830.

(a) Liberal agitation everywhere.

(b) Leadership of Sardinia-Piedmont.
i. Constitution granted.

ii. War with Austria.

(c) Failure of the Revolution.

i. Disaffection among the allies.
ii. Defeat of the Sardinian armies.
iii. Humiliating peace with Austria.


Harding, pp. 607, 610-611.

*Hazen, pp. 305-306, 325-329, chap. 23. Myers, pp. 619-624.

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2. The Unification of Germany.

a. Bismarck and the Austro-Prussian War.

(1) Character of the German Confederation. (2) The Zollverein.

(a) Its membership.

(b) Creation of sentiment for unity.

(3) Bismarck's character and policies.

(a) Reorganization of Prussian military system. (b) The policy of "Blood and Iron."

(c) Victory over the Prussian Parliament.

(4) The war with Denmark.

(a) Recovery of Schleswig-Holstein.

(b) Provocation for the Austro-Prussian War.

(5) Seven Weeks' War with Austria.

(a) Excellent preparation of Prussia. (b) Prompt defeat of Austria.

(c) Formation of the North German Confederation.

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b. The Franco-Prussian War.

(1) Napoleon's demands for "compensation." (a) Rebuffs of Prussia.

(2) Fear of Prussia's growing strength.

(a) Dangers of German unification to France. (b) Relative increase of populations.

(3) Diplomacy of Bismarck.

(a) Plans for the humiliation of France.
(b) Designs for further German unification.

(4) Course of the war.

(a) Question of Spanish succession.

(b) French declaration of war.

(c) Immediate Prussian victory.

(5) Terms of peace.

(a) Humiliation of France.

(b) Creation of the German Empire.

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(a) Restriction of popular will.

(b) Circle voting.

(c) The resulting autocracy.

References (brief accounts):

Harding, pp. 630-632.

Hazen, pp. 363-366.

West, pp. 654-660.

Robinson and Beard, pp. 340-348. (Longer accounts):

Hazen, The German Government, War Information Series.

President's Flag Day Address, Note No. 7, War Information Series.

Gerard, My Four Years in Germany, chap. VII. Robinson and Beard, Readings, II, Nos. 267-273. Problems:

What makes it possible for the Kaiser to control all German affairs?

Compare the structure of the German government with that of the United States; with England.

What are the conditions which make revolution in Germany difficult? Under what conditions is revolution deemed possible?

3. France and Britain.

a. The Third French Republic.

(1) Provisional government after the Franco-Prussian


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Cheyney, pp. 167, 304, 427, 439, 455, 517, 537, 593, 606-608, 637-639, 660-664.

Robinson and Beard, Readings, II, Nos. 307-311. Problems:

To what extent should England blame herself for the present uncertainty in Ireland? Has she done all possible to make amends for past mistakes and abuses?

Account for the Ulster phenomenon.

What is the nature of the most recent proposal made by England in the interests of Home Rule in Ireland? How is the disaffection in Ireland a constant thorn in the side of England?



1. Partition of Africa.

a. Problems of European expansion.
(1) Desire for colonial empires.
(a) Overpopulation in Europe.
(b) Problems of food supply.
(c) Outlets for manufactures.

(d) Ambition for cultural expansion.
(2) The exploration of Africa.
(a) The slave traffic.

(b) Livingstone and Stanley.
(c) The services of Belgium.

(3) The scramble for territory.

(a) Means used to obtain territories.
(b) The Congress of Berlin.

(c) Final partition of the continent. References:

Harding, pp. 685-689.

Hazen, pp. 507-514.

West, pp. 720-722.

Rose, Development of the European Nations, 18701914, chaps. 4, 5, 6, 8, in Part II.

National Geographic Magazine, Vol. 26, pp. 272-274, "Growth of Europe During Forty Years of Peace." Robinson and Beard, Readings, II, Nos. 375-379. Problems:

Why was the partition of Africa so long delayed? What part does Africa promise to play in future world events?

Why are African colonies such expensive luxuries?
Why are they retained when they involve enormous
expense yearly?

b. The resulting African situation.
(1) Rivalry over African possessions.

(a) Lack of natural boundaries.

(b) Necessity of extensive development. (c) Extent of African colonial empires. (2) Recent incidents.

(a) The Fashoda incident and its outcome.

(b) Disputes over Morocco.

(c) Demands of Italy for African holdings.
(d) Influence on the war situation.

(3) Present status of Africa.

(a) War operations in Africa.

(b) Capture of German holdings.

(c) Consolidation of previous interests.


Harding, pp. 689-690.

*Hazen, pp. 404-408, 414, 373-374, 519, 521. Cheyney, pp. 672-676.

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What appears to be the future of Japan? What of the "Yellow Peril "?

3. The Balkan Situation.

a. Liberation of the Balkan States.
(1) Turkish control of the Balkans.

(a) Centuries of misrule.

(b) The nature of Turkish government. (2) Early wars for liberation.

(a) The Greek war for independence.

i. The aid of Russia.

ii. Treaty of Adrianople.

(b) Russo-Turkish War of 1877-8.
i. Interests of Russia.

ii. Treaty of San Stefano.
iii. Subsequent Treaty of Berlin.
(3) The Balkan Wars of 1912-13.
(a) The object.

(b) Success of the Balkan allies.

(c) Attitude of the Great Powers.

(d) The Treaty of London.

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Why were the Balkans so long in gaining their free-

Account for Russia's interest in the freedom of the
Balkan states.

Why have the Great Powers undone so much costly
work as regards the ending of the Turkish Empire in

Should not Europe have received the treaty of San
Stefano with great satisfaction?

b. Conflicting Balkan interests.

(1) Wars among the Balkan states.

(a) Rival claims of Servia and Bulgaria.

(b) Hostility of Greece and Romania.

(c) General conflict.

(d) The Treaty of Bucharest.

(2) Results of the conflicts.

(a) New alliances among the Great Powers.

(b) The changed Balkan map.

(c) Unsatisfactory racial conditions.

i. The crushing of "national" hopes.

ii. The ignoring of economic needs.
iii. Creation of Albania.

iv. Disposition of Bosnia and Herzegovina. (3) Relation of the Balkans to the war.

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National Geographic Magazine, vol. 27, articles on Serbia and Bulgaria; vol. 28, 185-249, Rumania and Greece, pp. 295-329, "Greece of To-day;

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360-391, Rumania, the Pivotal State."

" vol. 30, pp.

War Cyclopedia, "Balkan Wars," "Drang nach Osten,"


Robinson and Beard, Readings, II, Nos. 351-363.


Why is the Balkan situation so complex and persistently unsatisfactory?

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