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TUC V "CTAD UCDN
TIL UAILI JIAN U OLIIALU

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GIVES THE ENGLISH-SPEAKING RESIDENTS ON THE ISTHMI'S

THE NEWS

OF THE WORLD DAILY IN SICCINCT FORM,

OLDEST, LARGEST and BEST NEWSPAPER PUBLISHED on th: ISTHMUS.

The Best Vedirle for Advertisers. Published Daily Except Monday. Rates: $ 2.00 P. C., per month.

ADDRESS ALL COMMUNICITIONS TO

The Star & Herald Company,

No. 16 South Ave., Panama.

The Comite Technique left as a heritage a vast amount of valuable papers bearing upon surveys and chartings which have been used to good purpose by the Isthmian Canal Commission. Apart from these, the results of the efforts of the new company were small. The actual construction work was confined principally to excavating in Clilebra cut, and work at the Pacific entrance to the canal. Not to exceed 3,000 men were on the company's pay

rolls at any one time, as compared with the maximum number of 25.000 in the best days of the old company.

The amount of excavation done by the two French companies during the active period of their existence is shown by the following data:

Highest elevation at Cwebra before work began
Highest elevation at Bas Obispo before work began..
Greatest depth of excavation by the French at Cwebra
Greatest depth of excavation by the French at Bas Obispo.
Total excavation by the Frencli including diversion channel

312 ft.
2:33 ft.
161 ft.

148 ft. 70.000.000 Cu. Yds.

MUTTERINGS OF SEPARATION.

Talk of separation bobbed to the surface repeatedly during the interval of eighty or more years between Panama's independence from Spain, and the secession movement of 1903. The tie that bound her to the Granadine Confederation, and later to Colombia had always been a galling one. It was continually a game of give and take, with Panama in the charity role.

The people of the Isthmus were not long in sizing up the situation, and as early as 1827 started a separation movement, which had for its aim annexation with Great Britain. The prime movers of this, set forth the fact that the commercial relations of Panama with the interior departments of Colombia amounted to but little; natural barriers preventing free intercourse, and complained that the inhabitants of the southern part of the republic treated the people of the Isthmus as foreigners and preyed on their commerce. Before the movement had gained much headway however, the patriot, Bolivar stepped into the breach and pacified the secessionists.

The next attempt at separation occurred on November 18, 1810 when the people of the city of Panama, under the leadership of Col. Tom:s Herrera arose en masse and proclaimed their independence. Inasmuch as the civil head of the Isthmus, Dr. Carlos de Icaza, was himself in sympathy with the movement, no opposition was offered by the authorities.

Dr. Rufino Cuervo, at that time Minister of Colombia at Quito, hearing of what was going on in Panama sent Col. Anselmo Pineda and Dr. Ricardo de la Parra there with the object of liscouraging the movement, and to reincorporate the Isthmus into the Granadine Confedera

The commissioners promised a much better adminis

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tration of affairs in which Panama was concerneil, and full amnesty for those connected with the separation plot. In view of the fact that these promises were backed by guarantees from Dr. Cuervo, Gen. Juan José Flores, and the President of Ecuador, the people of the Isthmus entered into a new treaty on December 31, 1841, by which Panama once more became a member of the New Granadian League.

In March 1812, Domingo Caicedo, then Vice-President of New Granada, repudiated this treaty, claiming that Dr. Cuervo and Dr. Parra had exceeded their powers, and in the same year the Granadian Congress repudiated the law granting annesty to the Panameños. Many of the latter to avoid persecution were forced to expatriate emselves.

Another agitation for independence was started in 1860, fostered by José de Obaldia, then Governor. At this period New Granada was badly disorganized, having just been racked by civil war, which resultert in the pro

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The I.C.C. Hospital in Colon - Panama. Isthmian-American & PAR. Memas Agency & Advertising Bureau. 1. Bienkowski

claiming of Tomas Cipriano Mosquera, dictator. Obaldia thought the time propitions and announced his intentions to the Bogota Government, advising that it was proposed to set up an establishment under the protectorate of either the United States, France or England. At this juncture, Obaldin was succeeded by Santiago de la Guardia, as Governor, and the latter neglected to follow up the advantage. Mosquera by this time had gotten his political affairs str:ightened cut somewhat, and turned his attention to the Isthmus. In 1861, he sent a deputy to Colon to meet the Isthmians and arrange a new treaty which provided for more promises and guarantees, but in less than a year Mosquera saw fit to repudiate the agreement.

On Feb. 27, 1855, the Government of New Granada conferrad on the Isthmus, the title of State of Panama," and the rights and privileges of a sovereign state, is distinction not shred in by the other provinces of the Republic. It is doubtful however, if this act ever resulted in any benetit, direct or indirect, to the people of Panama.

IN THE THROES OF REVOLUTION.

The political history of the Isthumus is marked by many a wo und and many a scal', but its troublecl water's has been stirred so often in times past that the breaking out of a l'evolution ceased to excite more than passing comment abroad. Many of these internecine struggles were insignificant in their nature and of short duration, but the war of 1900 to 1902 was of an entirely different character and constituted the most sanguinary epoch in the annals of the Isthmus.

The trouble first started in the interior of Colombia, and before hostilities were finally suspendad, the flame of

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