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334. Memorandum From the President's Assistant for National Security Affairs (Kissinger) to President Nixon1

Washington, December 27, 1971.


Information Items

[Omitted here are summary reports on foreign policy issues unrelated to South Asia.]

India-Pakistan Situation: Ambassador Farland has sent in his assessment of the first few days of Bhutto's regime. He concludes that Bhutto has moved with extraordinary speed to solidify his control of West Pakistan and to set the stage for launching his political and economic reform program. He has been aided in this effort by the widespread demoralization both within the military leadership and the populace as a whole, who seem prepared, at least for the moment, to give him a free hand. The early signs suggest that Bhutto's domestic program will feature social reform and populist assaults on the establishment, while he builds a highly personal, somewhat authoritarian regime. On the international front, Bhutto has taken the first steps toward a new relationship with India with hints of some flexibility on the Bangla Desh issue and Mujib. On relations with the great powers, he seems to be keeping his options open. In sum, Farland says that Bhutto has taken over West Pakistan "lock, stock, and barrel," probably saving it from internal collapse in the process. On the other hand, it is not clear whether Bhutto will be able to rise above his reputation for unscrupulousness, vanity, and intense personal ambition to become a real statesman.

From New Delhi, Ambassador Keating reports that Mrs. Gandhi's domestic political stock has soared while the opposition's has declined in the wake of India's military victory. Personal adulation of Mrs. Gandhi has gone to the extremes with even the opposition leaders hailing her as India's Joan of Arc and the incarnation of various Hindu deities. At the same time, Mrs. Gandhi appears to have retained her cool, calculating manner and is moving to capitalize on her popularity by scheduling new elections in several states.

In other developments over the weekend, U Thant has named Vittorio Winspeare-Guicciardi, Under Secretary General and head of the UN's Geneva office, as his special representative in India and Pakistan

1 Source: National Archives, Nixon Presidential Materials, NSC Files, Box 38, President's Daily Briefs. Top Secret; Sensitive; Codeword.

to go to the subcontinent to help deal with humanitarian problems as called for in the Security Council resolution.2

Bhutto is reported to have announced plans for a judicial inquiry into the causes for Pakistan's defeat. It is not to submit its findings for three months and may be Bhutto's effort to satisfy public opinion with a minimum move.3

[Omitted here are summary reports on foreign policy issues unrelated to South Asia.]

2 See footnote 2, Document 332.


Nixon underlined Bhutto and added a handwritten note that reads: "K―he must be strongly informed-RN will be very opposed to trial of Yahya." Kissinger noted in the margin that he had done so.

335. Telegram From the Department of State to the Embassy in Pakistan1

Washington, December 30, 1971, 1927Z.

233072. Subject: President Bhutto's Letter to President. Ref: State 233015.2 For Ambassador Farland.

1. Septel contains text letter to President from President Bhutto delivered Dept by Ambassador Raza December 21.

2. You should make oral response to letter, indicating that President has received it and is deeply appreciative of concerns raised in letter. You should put your response in context our own concerns which we have expressed publicly and privately on several occasions in recent past, in UN and elsewhere, regarding general humanitarian problems growing out of hostilities East Pakistan. You will want to point out what we have already done in support of Pak approach to ICRC and Swiss Government concerning West Pak and civilian officials East Pakistan. We have also made clear to Indian Government our view that


1 Source: National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, POL 15-1 PAK. Confidential. Drafted on December 27 by Laingen; cleared by Schneider and Davies, in substance by Orson Trueworthy (S/R), in IO by Deputy Assistant Secretary George A. Von Peterfly and Director of the Office of United Nations Political Affairs John A. Armitage, in AID by Williams and MacDonald, and at the White House by Saunders; paragraph 5 was cleared with Agriculture and OMB; and approved by Acting Secretary Johnson. Repeated to New Delhi, Tehran, London, Calcutta, Dacca, and USUN.

2 See Document 330 and footnote 1 thereto.

Indian Army has heavy and continuing responsibility help insure security of minorities and others East Pakistan in current unsettled security situation there.

3. You should then go on to say that we stand ready to assist ICRC and other international organizations in whatever ways that might be practicable in alleviating present human suffering East Pakistan. In doing so you will want to recall a) Bhutto's indication to Secretary December 183 that he understood why US would wish to provide humanitarian assistance in East (subject to understanding that this not be done in way there be any implication of recognition Bangla Desh); and b) call in Security Council Resolution adopted December 214 for international assistance in relief of suffering and rehabilitation of refugees and authorization for Secretary General to assist in this regard.

4. You should say to Bhutto that in view of these considerations we are indicating to UNSYG that USG stands ready to assist in such humanitarian relief operations as may be requested of UN in the East Pakistan area and which it feels it has the capacity to undertake.5 We want Bhutto to understand, however, that our doing so will depend on a broad range of international support, pursuant to the SC resolution, and that we will look to the UN for leadership in such an effort. FYI: What we have in mind for our part is the considerable amount of foodgrains previously in pipeline for East Pakistan in tranches appropriate to situation as it develops. We intend hold up any commitments on administrative costs at this time. End FYI.

5. You may also inform President Bhutto that President has authorized that negotiations begin with GOP for a new PL-480 Title I Agreement of 300,000 tons wheat and 25,000 tons edible oil (these authorizations having values of approximately $25 million and $10 million respectively). These actions reflect not only awareness of pressing food requirements West Pakistan but also are evidence of desire this Government to assist GOP in difficult tasks overall it now faces in beginning lengthy process of recovery from tragic events of recent weeks." 6. PL-480 negotiating instructions will follow septel.


3 See footnote 2, Document 327.

4 See footnote 2, Document 332.

5 In telegram 232870 to USUN, the mission was instructed to inform the United Nations that the United States was prepared to participate in humanitarian relief operations in East Pakistan subject to the conditions outlined in this paragraph. (National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, SOC 10 BANGLA DESH) Telegram 232870 is published in Foreign Relations, 1969-1976, volume E-7, Documents on South Asia, 1969-1972, Document 197.

"Deputy Chief of Mission Sober conveyed the U.S. response to Bhutto's letter to Foreign Secretary Sultan Khan on January 3, 1972. (Telegram 61 from Islamabad, January 4; National Archives, RG 59, Central Files 1970-73, POL 15-1 PAK)


Note: All references are to document numbers

Agency for International Development

(AID) (see also headings beginning
with U.S. economic aid to), 23, 61
Agha Khan, Prince Sadruddin (see also
UN High Commissioner for
Refugees), 79, 81, 96

Ahmad, Khondkar Mushtaq, 77, 115,
133, 136, 149, 150, 164
Ahmad, M. M.:

East Pakistan food relief, 68, 105, 129
Pakistan Consortium economic aid to
West Pakistan, 68, 96, 97
Political settlement proposals, 34, 43,
44, 49, 100

Ahmed, Tajuddin, 31, 149, 150
Aiken, George D., 240

Alam, M., 122

Ali, M. Hossain, 164

Ali, Mahmud, 161
Allott, Gordon L., 240
Alsop, Joseph, 239
Alvie, Momtaz A., 220
Amin, Nurul, 247, 276
Annenberg, Walter H., 331

Armed Forces Policy Council, 234
Armitage, John A., 335

Atal, J.K., 203, 209

Atherton, Alfred L., Jr., 135, 136
Awami League (see also Political

settlement proposals; Rahman,
Sheikh Mujibur):
Banning of, 22, 53, 83, 84
East Pakistan takeover, 9
Pakistani civil war and, 11, 18, 22
Rahman trial, 119, 121, 128, 130, 137
Senior Review Group meetings, 105,

111, 121

Six-point program, 2, 12, 22, 24, 33,
43, 133

U.S.-Bangladeshi/East Pakistani
relations, 31

U.S. discussions with, 115

Bajwa, Commodore, 102

Bangladesh (see also East Pakistan food

relief; Indian-Bangladeshi/East
Pakistani relations; Pakistani civil
war; U.S.-Bangladeshi/East
Pakistani relations):


British relations with, 31
National Liberation Front, 148
Postwar situation, 310, 325, 329
Soviet relations with, 32, 319
Barber, Anthony, 331
Baxter, Craig, 9

Beam, Jacob D., 142, 162, 168, 200
Belgium. See Pakistan Consortium
economic aid to West Pakistan.
Bell, Brian, 19

Belousovitch, Igor N., 116

Bhashani, Maulana Abdul Hamid,

Bhutto, Zulfiqar Ali:

Indo-Pakistani war, 198, 199
Cease-fire, 319

Cease-fire negotiations, 275, 276,
277, 280, 282, 293, 300, 301,
307, 310, 313

Political settlement proposals, 2, 8,

12, 22, 53, 263

Political situation, 102, 198, 199

Awami League takeover and, 9
Civilian coalition government, 247,
254, 276

Leadership appointment, 328
Pakistani civil war and, 11

Pre-civil war negotiations and, 2, 6,

Postwar situation, 329, 332, 334
Humanitarian issues, 330, 335
U.S.-West Pakistani discussions,
327, 328, 333

Speech (March 14, 1971), 9
U.S. aid requests, 313, 333

Blee, David H., 6, 11, 17, 23, 24, 32, 60
Blood, Archer K.:

Indo-Pakistani war possibility, 21
Pakistani civil war, 13, 17, 18, 19, 20,
42, 81

Boatner, Colonel, 234

Bourquein, Robert L., 19

Brandt, Willy, 197

Bray, Charles, 17, 48, 213, 218, 238
Brett, Brig. Gen. Devol:

Senior Review Group meetings, 6,
105, 111, 120


Brett, Brig. Gen. Devol-Continued
WSAG meetings, 60, 126, 183
Brewster, Robert C., 74, 94

Brezhnev, Leonid Ilyich, 230, 236, 253,
269, 274, 283, 284
Brohi, A. K., 130, 208
Bush, George H. W.:
Indo-Pakistani war:
Cease-fire, 324, 325

Cease-fire negotiations, 263, 282,
285, 293

Foreign national evacuation, 275
U.S.-Indian discussions, 289
UN Security Council meeting
proposals, 218, 223, 224
U.S.-Chinese discussions, 274
Butcher, W. Scott, 19, 260

Canada. See Pakistan Consortium
economic aid to West Pakistan.

Carce, Robert, 19

Cargill, Peter, 91

Central Intelligence Agency (CIA):
Indo-Pakistani war, 215, 224, 239, 246,

Indo-Pakistani war possibility, 60,


Pakistani civil war, 5, 24
Political settlement proposals, 2
Soviet-Indian relations, 132

U.S. military aid to East Pakistan,

Central Treaty Organization (CENTO),
125, 248, 255

Ceylon, 6, 22

Chancellor, John, 315

Chapman, General, 234

Ch'en Ch'u, 274

China, Republic of, 127

Chinese influence in Pakistan:

Embassy assessments, 34
Kissinger-Farland covert

conversation, 42
Kissinger memoranda, 36

Senior Review Group meetings, 23

Soviet-Indian relations and, 87
U.S.-Indian discussions, 91, 94
U.S. military aid to West Pakistan

and, 80

Chinese People's Republic (see also

Chinese influence in Pakistan; U.S.
China initiative; Chinese and U.S.-
Chinese headings under other topics):
Pakistani civil war, 12, 17, 23, 27, 32, 57

Chinese People's Republic-Continued
Soviet-Indian relations and, 132
UN Security Council discussions,
228, 229, 232

Choudhury, Zakaria, 31

Chou En-lai, 99, 103, 106
Cochran, Douglas M., 61, 116
Congress, U.S.:

Indo-Pakistani war and, 221, 240
U.S. aid to West Pakistan and, 105,
144, 235

U.S. economic aid to India cutoff and,
223, 240, 248

U.S. relief aid and, 155

Connally, John B., Jr., 3, 237, 251, 256
Connell, Col. James, 6, 32, 105, 111,


Constable, Peter:

Indo-Pakistani war possibility, 114,
171, 176

U.S. military aid to West Pakistan,
131, 139

West Pakistan-Bangladesh

negotiation proposals, 136, 149,
150, 164, 171

Cotton, Norris H., 240
Crane, Kent, 17

Crocker, Chester A., 194
Cromer, Earl of, 154, 331
Cummings, Theodore, 42
Curran, Robert T., 140, 196
Cushman, Lt. Gen. Robert E., Jr.:
Political settlement proposals, 24
Senior Review Group meetings, 17,
23, 32, 120, 121

UN Security Council meeting
proposals, 194

WSAG meetings, 183, 194, 196, 198,
209, 213

Dam, Kenneth, 120

Davies, Rodger P., 49, 160, 164, 207, 335
Davis, Jeanne W.:

East Pakistan food relief, 23, 60, 123,


Indo-Pakistani war, 196, 198, 209, 213,
218, 224, 235, 248

Indo-Pakistani war possibility, 60,

125, 144, 169

Nixon-Yahya Khan correspondence,
152, 169

Senior Review Group meetings, 6, 23,

32, 105, 111, 120

UN Security Council discussions, 224

All references are to document numbers

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