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Sources for the Foreign Relations Series

The Foreign Relations statute requires that the published record in the Foreign Relations series include all records needed to provide comprehensive documentation on major U.S. foreign policy decisions and significant U.S. diplomatic activity. It further requires that government agencies, departments, and other entities of the U.S. Government engaged in foreign policy formulation, execution, or support cooperate with the Department of State Historian by providing full and complete access to records pertinent to foreign policy decisions and actions and by providing copies of selected records. Many of the sources consulted in the preparation of this volume have been declassified and are available for review at the National Archives and Records Administration.

The editors of the Foreign Relations series have complete access to all the retired records and papers of the Department of State: the central files of the Department; the special decentralized files ("lot files") of the Department at the bureau, office, and division levels; the files of the Department's Executive Secretariat, which contain the records of international conferences and high-level official visits, correspondence with foreign leaders by the President and Secretary of State, and memoranda of conversations between the President and Secretary of State and foreign officials; and the files of overseas diplomatic posts. All the Department's indexed central files through July 1973 have been permanently transferred to the National Archives and Records Administration at College Park, Maryland (Archives II). Many of the Department's decentralized office (or lot) files covering the 1969–1976 period, which the National Archives deems worthy of permanent retention, have been transferred or are in the process of being transferred from the Department's custody to Archives II.

The editors of the Foreign Relations series also have full access to the papers of President Nixon and other White House foreign policy records, including tape recordings of conversations with key U.S. and foreign officials. Presidential papers maintained and preserved at the Presidential libraries and the Nixon Presidential Materials Project at Archives II include some of the most significant foreign affairs-related documentation from the Department of State and other Federal agencies including the National Security Council, the Central Intelligence Agency, the Department of Defense, and the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

Access to the Nixon White House tape recordings is governed by the terms of the Presidential Recordings and Materials Preservation Act (P.L. 93-526; 88 Stat. 1695) and an access agreement with the Office of

Presidential Libraries of the National Archives and Records Administration and the Nixon Estate. In February 1971 President Nixon initiated a voice activated taping system in the Oval Office of the White House and, subsequently, in the President's Office in the Executive Office Building, Camp David, the Cabinet Room, and White House and Camp David telephones. The audiotapes include conversations of President Nixon with his Assistant for National Security Affairs Henry Kissinger, other White House aides, Secretary of State Rogers, other Cabinet officers, members of Congress, and key foreign officials. The clarity of the voices on the tape recordings is often very poor, but the editors make every effort to try to verify the accuracy of the conversations. Readers are urged to consult the recordings for a full appreciation of those aspects of the discussions that cannot be fully captured in a transcription, such as the speakers' inflections and emphases that may convey nuances of meaning, as well as the larger context of the discussion.

Research for this volume was completed through special access to restricted documents at the Nixon Presidential Materials Project. While all the material printed in this volume has been declassified, some of it is extracted from still-classified documents. The Nixon Presidential Materials Staff is processing and declassifying many of the documents used in this volume, but they may not be available in their entirety at the time of publication.

Sources for Foreign Relations, 1969-1976, Volume XI

In preparing this volume, the editor made extensive use of Presidential papers and other White House records at the Nixon Presidential Materials Project, which proved to be the richest collection bearing on the Nixon administration's management of the crisis in South Asia. The bulk of the foreign policy records at the Nixon Project are in the National Security Council Files. Within the National Security Council Files, the Country Files, the files created for the Indo-Pak crisis, the Backchannel Files, the Kissinger Office Files, and the President's Daily Briefing Files proved to be of particular value. The Backchannel Files were especially important as containing the private channel of communication between Kissinger and Ambassador Farland in Pakistan. The Subject Files were also valuable and include memoranda from Kissinger to Nixon as well as memoranda of conversation involving Kissinger and the President. The President's Trip Files contain the important memoranda of Kissinger's conversations with Soviet Ambassador Anatoly Dobrynin. The National Security Council Institutional Files (H-Files) are a fundamental source for the policy process and for crisis management. The White House Special Files contain the President's Office Files and a number of important Staff Member and Office Files. The editor also made use of the White House tape record

ings, which are of central importance to an understanding of the management of the crisis by Nixon and Kissinger. Extensive extracts from the tape recordings are printed in editorial notes in the volume and the full transcripts will be published in Foreign Relations, 1969–1976, volume E-7, Documents on South Asia, 1969-1972.

Second in importance to the records in the Nixon Presidential Materials Project are the records of the Department of State. The Department's Central Files contain cable traffic that illuminated the crisis as it developed and was the channel for instructions dealing with such issues as assistance for the Bengali refugees that flooded into India from East Pakistan and contacts with representatives of the Awami League. The lot files of the Department were also important, particularly the files of Assistant Secretary of State Joseph Sisco that contain the only record found of a meeting of the NSC crisis management group, the Washington Special Actions Group.

The Kissinger Papers at the Library of Congress in large measure replicate documentation found in other collections. In the Geopolitical File, the file on Memoranda to the President, and the Presidential File, the editor did find some important documentation unique to the collection. The collection also contains the records of Kissinger's telephone conversations. Boxes 359-375 contain a chronological file of transcripts of conversations covering the period 1969-1972. Boxes 394-395 comprise the Dobrynin file of telephone conversations, including Kissinger's conversations with Ambassador Dobrynin and Chargé Vorontsov. Boxes 396-397 contain transcripts of conversations recorded at Kissinger's residence. The entire collection is invaluable for the light it sheds not only on the crisis in South Asia but also on the full range of foreign policy issues dealt with by the Nixon administration. Copies of the Kissinger telephone conversations are now open at the National Archives and are part of the Nixon Presidential Materials.

The editor also had access to the files of the Department of Defense and the Central Intelligence Agency. The files of the Office of the Secretary of Defense and the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs were valuable for the issue of military assistance to India and Pakistan. The files of the Central Intelligence Agency, particularly the NIC Registry of NIE and SNIE Files and the DCI (Helms) Files, were essential for the intelligence reports and assessments on which the Nixon administration based its policy judgments.

Almost all of this documentation has been made available for use in the Foreign Relations series thanks to the consent of the agencies mentioned, the assistance of their staffs, and especially the cooperation and support of the National Archives and Records Administration. In

addition, John H. Taylor, Executive Director of the Richard Nixon Library & Birthplace Foundation, facilitated access to relevant tape recordings of the Nixon White House.

The following list identifies the particular files and collections used in the preparation of this volume. The declassification and transfer to the National Archives of the Department of State records is in process, and many of these records are already available for public review at the National Archives.

Unpublished Sources

Department of State

Central Files. See National Archives and Records Administration below.

Lot Files. For other lot files already transferred to the National Archives and Records Administration at College Park, Maryland, Record Group 59, see National Archives and Records Administration below.

INR/IL Historical Files

Files of the Office of Intelligence Coordination, containing records from the 1940s through the 1970s, maintained by the Office of Intelligence Liaison, Bureau of Intelligence and Research

National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, Maryland Record Group 59, Records of the Department of State

Central Files

AGR 15 PAK: food supply, Pakistan

AV 2 INDIA: general aviation reports and statistics, India
AV 12 INDIA: aircraft and aeronautical equipment, India
AID 9 INDIA: loans for economic development, India
AID 9 PAK: loans for economic development, Pakistan
AID (US) INDIA: general policy, U.S. aid to India
AID (US) PAK: general policy, U.S. aid to Pakistan

AID (US) 9 INDIA: U.S. loans to India for economic development
AID (US) 15 PAK: PL-480, Food for Peace program, Pakistan
AID (US) 15-8 PAK: commodity sales for foreign currency, Pakistan
AID (US) 15–8 PAK: PL-480 Title I commodity sales, Pakistan
DEF PAK-US: defense affairs, Pakistan-United States

DEF 1-1 ASIA SE: contingency military planning, Southeast Asia

DEF 7 PAK-US: military visits and missions, Pakistan-United States

DEF 12-5 ASIA SE: procurement and sale of armaments, Southeast Asia

DEF 12-5 INDIA: procurement and sale of armaments, India

DEF 12-5 PAK: procurement and sale of armaments, Pakistan

DEF 15 PAK-US: bases and installations, Pakistan-United States

DEF 15-10 PAK-US: establishment, construction, and termination of bases and installations, Pakistan-United States

DEF 18-8 INDIA: testing and detection of nuclear explosions, India
DEF 21 PAK: military communications, Pakistan

E 8 PAK: economic conditions, Pakistan

FT 18-1 INDIA-US: licenses for foreign trade, India-United States
LEG 7 FRELINGHAUSEN: legislative visits, Peter Frelinghausen

ORG 7 S: organization and administration, visits by Secretary Rogers

ORG 7 S/NM: organization and administration, visits by the Secretary's Coordinator for International Narcotics Affairs

ORG 7 U: organization and administration, visits by the Under Secretary of State

POL AFG-PAK: political affairs and relations, Afghanistan-Pakistan

POL CHICOM-US: political affairs and relations, People's Republic of China-United States POL INDIA-PAK: political affairs and relations, India-Pakistan

POL INDIA-US: political affairs and relations, India-United States

POL PAK: political affairs and relations, Pakistan

POL PAK-US: political affairs and relations, Pakistan-United States
POL 1 INDIA-US: general policy, India-United States

POL 1 PAK-US: general policy, Pakistan-United States

POL 1 ASIA SE-US: general policy, Southeast Asia-United States
POL 1-1 INDIA-PAK: contingency planning, India-Pakistan
POL 7 INDIA: visits and meetings with Indian leaders
POL 7 PAK: visits and meetings with Pakistani leaders
POL 7 US/AGNEW: visits and meetings, Vice President Agnew
POL 7 US/CONNALLY: visits and meetings, John Connally
POL 7 US/KISSINGER: visits and meetings, Henry Kissinger
POL 12 INDIA: political parties, India

POL 12 PAK: political parties, Pakistan

POL 14 INDIA: Indian elections

POL 14 PAK: Pakistani elections
POL 15 PAK: government, Pakistan
POL 15-1 INDIA: Indian head of state

POL 15-1 PAK: Pakistan head of state

POL 15-1 US/NIXON: United States head of state

POL 15-2 PAK: legislature, Pakistan

POL 15-5 PAK: constitution, Pakistan

POL 17 PAK/US: diplomatic and consular representation, Pakistan-United States

POL 18 PAK: provincial, municipal, and state government, Pakistan

POL 21 INDIA-USSR: peace and non-aggression, India-USSR

POL 23-8 PAK: demonstrations, riots, and protests, Pakistan

POL 23-9: rebellion and coups

POL 23-9 PAK: rebellion and coups, Pakistan

POL 27 INDIA-PAK: military operations, India-Pakistan

POL 27-14 INDIA-PAK: truce, ceasefire, and armistice, India-Pakistan

POL 27-14 INDIA-PAK/UN: truce, ceasefire, and armistice, India, Pakistan, and the UN

POL 29 PAK: political prisoners, Pakistan

POL 32-1 INDIA-PAK: India-Pakistan border disputes

PR 11-3: press conferences and interviews

REF PAK: refugees and migration, Pakistan

SOC 10 PAK: disasters and disaster relief, Pakistan

SOC 11-5 INDIA: traffic in narcotics, India

SOC 11-5 PAK: traffic in narcotics, Pakistan

Lot Files

NEA Files: Lot 73 D 69

Subject files of Assistant Secretary of State Joseph Sisco for 1970-1971, maintained by the Bureau of Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs

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