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Karim, Muhammad Enayet, Bangladesh Ambassador to the United States, May-August,

1972; thereafter Foreign Secretary of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Karim, S. A., Foreign Secretary of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Bangladesh until

August 1972 Kaul, Triloki Nath, Foreign Secretary of the Indian Ministry of External Affairs from

February 1969 Keating, Kenneth B., Ambassador to India, May 1969-July 1972 Kellogg, Francis L., Special Assistant to the Secretary of State for Refugee and Migra

tion Affairs from January 1971; also Chairman of the Interagency Committee on Pak

istani Refugee Relief Kennedy, Richard T., member of the National Security Council staff, January 1970-Jan

uary 1972 Khan, General Abdul Hamid, Chief of Staff of the Pakistan Army and Deputy Chief

Martial Law Administrator Khan, Abdul Monem, Governor of East Pakistan until March 1969 Khan, Lieutenant General Tikka, Martial Law Administrator and Governor of East Pak

istan, February-September 1971; Commander-in-Chief of the Pakistan Army from

March 1972 Kissinger, Henry A., Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs Kittani, Ismat, United Nations Assistant Secretary-General for Inter-Agency Affairs; also

Special Representative of the Secretary-General for assistance to East Pakistan Klein, Herbert G., White House Director of Communications from January 1969 Kosygin, Aleksei N., Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union

Laingen, L. Bruce, Deputy Chief of Mission in Afghanistan until July 1971; thereafter

Country Director for Pakistan and Afghanistan, Bureau of Near Eastern and South

Asian Affairs, Department of State
Laird, Melvin R., Secretary of Defense, January 1969-January 1973
Lewis, Samuel W., Deputy Chief of Mission in Afghanistan
Lord, Winston, member of the National Security Council staff
Luppi, Hobart, Consul General in Karachi, Pakistan

MacDonald, Donald G., Assistant Administrator for Near East and South Asia, Agency Noyes, James H., Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security

for International Development Malek, Frederick, Special Assistant to the President with responsibility for personnel

operations Malik, A.M., Special Assistant to President Yahya for Displaced Persons and Relief and

Rehabilitation Operations in East Pakistan, July-September 1971; thereafter Gover

nor of East Pakistan Malik, H.R., Chairman of the East Pakistan Agriculture Development Corporation, 1971 Malikyar, Abdullah, Afghan Ambassador to the United States Manekshaw, General Sam Hormusji Framji Jamshedji, Chief of Staff of the Indian Army McNamara, Robert S., President, International Bank for Reconstruction and Develop

ment (World Bank) Meyer, Armin H., Special Consultant in the Bureau of Near Eastern and South Asian

Affairs, Department of State, from April 1972 Mitchell, John, Attorney General, January 1969–February 1972 Moorer, Admiral Thomas H., USN, Chief of Naval Operations until July 1970; thereafter

Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff

Naas, Charles, Political Counselor at the Embassy in Afghanistan
Neumann, Robert G., Ambassador to Afghanistan
Newberry, Daniel O., Deputy Chief of Mission in Afghanistan from October 1972
Nixon, Richard M., President of the United States

Affairs
Nutter, G. Warren, Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs

Oehlert, Benjamin H., Jr., Ambassador to Pakistan until June 1969

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Packard, David, Deputy Secretary of Defense from January 1969
Peterson, Peter G., Assistant to the President for International Economic Affairs, and Ex-

ecutive Director of the Council for International Economic Policy, 1971-January 1972;

Secretary of Commerce, January 1972-January 1973 Pickard, Sir Cyril, British High Commissioner in Pakistan

Qaiyum, Qazi Zahirul, member of the Pakistan National Assembly, Awami League

representative

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Rahman, Sheikh Mujibur, (Mujib) President of the Awami League; Prime Minister and

Minister of Defense of Bangladesh from January 1972
Ram, Jagjivan, Indian Minister of Defense from June 1970
Rasgotra, Maharajakrishna, Minister for Political Affairs of the Indian Embassy in the

United States
Raza, Major General Nawabzada Agha Mohammad, Pakistani Ambassador to the

United States, November 1971-April 1972
Rees, C. Herbert, Director of the Office of South Asian Affairs, Bureau for Near East and

South Asia, Agency for International Development
Richardson, Elliot L., Under Secretary of State until June 1970
Rockwell, Stuart W., Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern and South

Asian Affairs
Rogers, William P., Secretary of State, January 1969-September 1973
Rush, Kenneth, Ambassador to the Federal Republic of Germany, July 1969–February

1972, Deputy Secretary of Defense, February 1972-January 1973
Samad, Abdus, Foreign Minister of Bangladesh
Sarabi, Abdul Wahed, Afghan Minister of Planning
Saunders, Harold H., member of the National Security Council staff
Scali, John, Special Consultant to the President, January 1971-January 1973
Schlesinger, James R., Assistant Director, Bureau of the Budget, 1969; Acting Deputy

Director, 1969–1970; Assistant Director, Office of Management and Budget,

1970–1971; thereafter, Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission Schneider, David T., Country Director for India, Ceylon, Nepal, and the Maldive Is

lands, Bureau of Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs, Department of State, from

August 1969
Selden, Armistead, I., Jr., Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Secu-

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rity Affairs Seraj, Dr. Majid, Afghan Minister of Public Health Shafiq, Mohammad Moussa, Afghan Foreign Minister, July 1971-December 1972; there

after also Prime Minister Shakespeare, Frank, Director, United States Information Agency, February 1969-Febru

ary 1973

Shultz, George P., Secretary of Labor, January 1969-June 1970; first Director of the Of

fice of Management and Budget, June 1970-May 1972 Singh, Dinesh, Minister of External Affairs of India, February 1969–June 1970 Singh, Kewal, Foreign Secretary of the Foreign Ministry of India from November

1972 Singh, Swaran, Indian Minister of Defense until June 1970; thereafter, Minister of Ex

ternal Affairs

Sisco, Joseph J., Assistant Secretary of State for International Organization Affairs until

February 1969; thereafter, Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs; also Chairman of the NSC Interdepartmental Group for the Near East

and South Asia Sober, Sidney, Director of the Office of Regional Affairs, Bureau of Near Eastern and

South Asian Affairs, Department of State until November 1969, thereafter Deputy

Chief of Mission in Pakistan Sonnenfeldt, Helmut, member of the National Security Council staff, 1969–1972 Sorabi, Abdul Wahid, Minister of Planning of Afghanistan Spain, James W., Director of the Office of Pakistan and Afghanistan Affairs, Bureau of

Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs, Department of State, January-July 1969; Chargé d'Affaires in Pakistan, July-November 1969; thereafter Country Director for

Pakistan and Afghanistan until July 1970. Spengler, William F., Country Director for Pakistan and Afghanistan, Bureau of Near

Eastern and South Asian Affairs, Department of State, July 1970-July 1971 Spivack, Herbert D., Consul General in Dacca, June 1971-September 1972 Stans, Maurice, Secretary of Commerce, January 1969-January 1972 Stone, Galen L., Chargé d'Affaires in India from August 1969 Sultan Khan, Mohammad, Foreign Secretary of the Foreign Ministry of Pakistan until

April 1972, thereafter Ambassador to the United States

Timmons, William, Deputy Assistant to the President for Legislative Affairs, January

1969–February 1970; thereafter, Assistant to the President for Legislative Affairs Thant, U, Secretary-General of the United Nations until December 1971

Van Hollen, Christopher, Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern and South

Asian Affairs, May 1969-September 1972; thereafter, Ambassador to Sri Lanka Volcker, Paul A., Under Secretary of the Treasury for Monetary Affairs Vorontsov, Yuli M., Minister of the Soviet Embassy in the United States

Wali, Major General Sardar Abdul, Commander of the Central Forces of Afghanistan Weinberger, Caspar W., Deputy Director, Office of Management and Budget, July

1970-May 1972; Director, May 1972-January 1973 Williams, Maurice J., Deputy Administrator, Agency for International Development;

Chairman of Interdepartmental Working Group on East Pakistan Disaster Relief

Yaftali, Abdullah, Deputy Prime Minister of Afghanistan until July 1971
Yahya Khan, General Agha Mohammad, Chief Martial Law Administrator, President,

Minister of Defense, and Minister of Foreign Affairs of Pakistan, March 1969–

December 1971 Young, David, Jr., member of the National Security Council staff from January 1970 Yung, Ali Yavar, Indian Ambassador to the United States until May 1970 Yusuf, S. M., Foreign Secretary of the Foreign Ministry of Pakistan until April 1972

Zahir, Abdul, Afghan Prime Minister, June 1971-December 1972
Zahir, Mohammad, King of Afghanistan
Ziegler, Ronald L., Press Secretary to the President, January 1969-January 1973
Zumwalt, Admiral Elmo R., Chief of Naval Operations

South Asia Crisis, 1971

1.

Editorial Note

According to Henry Kissinger, "When the Nixon administration took office, our policy objective on the subcontinent was, quite simply, to avoid adding another complication to our agenda.” (Kissinger, White House Years, page 848) As events developed in South Asia, that proved to be an increasingly difficult objective to achieve. A political crisis developed in Pakistan out of Bengali demands for autonomy for East Pakistan, demands which were highlighted by the results of a general election in December 1970. The subsequent crisis, which roiled the subcontinent in conflict from March to December 1971, led to warfare between India and Pakistan, and eventuated in the transition of the east wing of Pakistan into the new nation of Bangladesh. The United States, which was using Pakistan at the time as a conduit in conducting secret negotiations with China, intervened in the crisis to try to prevent fighting between India and Pakistan. When fighting developed, the Nixon administration "tilted" toward Pakistan.

The background to the crisis in Pakistan, and the developing tensions between the United States and India are documented in a companion Internet publication, Foreign Relations, 1969–1976, volume E-7, Documents on South Asia, 1969–1972. This publication also documents such bilateral issues as economic and military assistance as well as the aftermath of the crisis. In 1972 the Nixon administration had to weigh the timing of recognition of the new government in Dacca, a decision that bore on relations with Pakistan, and reestablish a working relationship with India, as the dominant power on the subcontinent. Separate internet publications document relations with Afghanistan and with Bangladesh.

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