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the race of progress. Yet, at the close of the nineteenth century she dropped behind Bulgaria in education, in the arts of life, and in military proficiency. Bulgaria, though a peasant democracy like Serbia, had the great advantage of a group of leaders educated at the American Robert College, Constantinople. So Bulgaria, in the first generation of her independent existence, forged ahead, and from 1878 to 1913 every one courted Bulgaria and despised Serbia. The enemies of Turkish rule, like the British Balkan Committee, looked to the Bulgarian army to deliver the Balkan Christians, and scarcely visited Serbia. The Macedonians looked for deliverance to Sofia, not to Belgrade. To Europe in general the Serbians were an unknown race, dwelling somewhere in the interior of Eastern Europe. People forgot that the Serbians under Karageorge and Milosh Obrenovitch had won their liberty from the Turk earlier and with less help from outside, than Greek, Roumanian, or Bulgar. Yet during these years when they were held in such contempt, a remarkable national revival was going on. The present King Peter restored parliamentary government, and presided as a constitutional monarch over the resumed democratic life of the nation. M. Pashich, a man of high honor and ability, was chosen as the people's premier, and he has done almost as much for Serbia as M. Venezelos for Greece. Education and administration were greatly improved. Above all the army was made efficient. The change for the good was most rapid after 1908. In that year Austria proclaimed the formal annexation of the Serb province of Bosnia which she had occupied for the last thirty years. This outrage on Serb race feeling stung the Serbians to the quick, and from that moment forwards they pulled themselves together and began to arm in real earnest. A national moral revival was observed by the very few who watched Serbia. But Turk, Bulgar, and Austrian despised Serbia too much to observe the change. And consequently in three successive years, 1912, 1913, and 1914, Turk, Bulgar, and Austrian have suffered most unexpected defeats at the hands of the Serbian army.

AUSTRIA RULED BY MAGYARS

"Prior to 1868 the various races of Austria-Hungary were ruled by the German-Austrians by the sword. In 1848 the Magyars of Hungary attempted to get free, but they were suppressed by Vienna, largely owing to the great Kossuth's great mistake in refusing to take the Roumanians, Slovaks, and South Slavs into partnership with the Magyars. Kossuth's policy of forcibly 'Magyarizing' all these races of Hungary has become the permanent policy of the race of which he is the hero. The more liberal policy of Deah has unfortunately been abandoned. In 1868 the Austrians of Vienna found they could no longer rule their immense Empire alone, and took the Magyars into partnership. Since then the German-Austrians and the Magyars have divided between them the government of the various races of the Empire-South Slavs and Italians, Slovaks, Ruthenes, Poles, and Czechs. An empire so hetero

geneous in race must either be a despotism ruled by the sword, or a land of federal liberty. Since 1868 it has halted between these two paths, the Magyars pulling towards despotism, while the German-Austrians showed some inclination towards liberalism in their treatment of the Poles. The test case was the treatment of the South Slav race, part of which was in Hungary under the Magyars, and part in Dalmatia and Istria under the Austrians, and part under their joint rule in Bosnia. Unfortunately in the last few years the Magyars have dragged Austria after them in the domestic policy of repression of South Slav national consciousness. The worst incidents of oppression have been the most

recent.

"Austria ought to have solved the problem of nationality on the same lines as those on which people solved the problem of religion two centuries ago by mutual tolerance. Owing to the Magyars, she has missed her opportunity. The domestic system of the Magyars in Hungary has proved fatal to all Europe. For this internal tyranny has involved an aggressive foreign policy in the Balkans towards Serbia. Repression of Croats and Serbs in Hungary necessitated repression of the Croats in Austrian Dalmatia, and of the Serbs in Bosnia. In these circumstances the oppressed Serbs and Croats naturally looked across the Drina to their brothers of free Serbia, especially after Serbia had showed herself redoubtable in war against the Turks and Bulgars in 1912-13. For the same reason it became more than ever essential to the Austrians to prevent the further development of Serbia after her victory over the Turks, lest she should become the liberator of the South Slavs. Hence the fatal policy of Austria in making it a casus belli for all Europe if Serbia got a single port on the Adriatic. By Austrian decree the Serbians were condemned to remain forever a bucolic, inland people, with no seaport, though half the Eastern Adriatic coast is inhabited by their conationals, the South Slavs.

THE GREAT WAR

"The present war was in its origin a 'punitive expedition' against the Serbians, for having the impudence to sympathize with their brother Serbs and Croats in Austria-Hungary. The expedition was to have been made in August, 1913, as Signor Giolitti recently revealed to the world, but owing to Italy's refusal to join the German powers in a war of aggression it was postponed for a year, until the murder of the Archduke by his own Austrian-Serb subjects seemed a fitting opportunity to wipe Serbia off the map.

"Until the various races of Austria-Hungary obtain political selfgovernment and cultural liberty for their languages and schools there will never be peace in Europe. There will always be assassinations, revolts, and finally wars. If a peace is patched up leaving the boundaries of Austria-Hungary intact and with no provision made for a_radical change in the condition of Roumanians, Slovaks, Croats, and Serbs, a

fresh war will only be a question of years, even if every other European problem were satisfactorily solved. All the nationalist movements inside Austria-Hungary have been growing with great rapidity during the last half-dozen years, especially the movement drawing the Croats towards the Serbs. The reign of terror that has existed in these provinces ever since the war began has made it utterly impossible that the old system can continue except as the rule of the sword over a hostile population.

"Some people ask why, if the subject races of Austria-Hungary are thus alienated from the government, they do not now rise in insurrection. The answer is because all the young men are taken into the army by the modern system of military slavery, and all the leaders are in prison or in exile. If that had been done in Italy and throughout Europe in March, 1848, there would have been no year of revolutions. The modern militarist organization make revolutions impossible. That is why Europe is in very great danger of falling under a system of tyranny -far more impregnable to assault and more pitiless to prayer than the tyrannies against which the peoples of Europe rose in 1848. We are told that the time for small States has gone by. But if the big Empires that devour them deny racial, cultural, and political liberty within their borders, and turn all their subjects irrespective of personal or racial differences, into so many pieces of a grinding military machine, then the extinction of little democracies, like Serbia and others elsewhere, will mean the extinction of human freedom and of all that is noblest in the spirit of man."

Thursday Evening, April 22

The guest on this evening was Rev. Marshall Dawson, of Tacoma, Washington, who delivered an illustrated lecture: "The Panama Exposition, Yosemite, and Ranier." It developed into one of the most interesting travel talks ever given before the Club members. S. W. Reynolds presided and introduced the speaker.

ART AND LIBRARY COMMITTEE

NEW BOOKS

The following books have been added to the Library:

LITERATURE

The Bibelot (22 volumes).

BIOGRAPHY

Autobiography of Theodore Roosevelt.
Luther Burbank, volumes 1 and 2.
Autobiography of Benjamin F. Butler.

American Women in Civic Work, Helen C. Bennett.
Life of Henry Rochefort (2 volumes).

ECONOMICS

Out of Work, Frances A. Kellor.

Purchasing Power of Money, Irving Fisher.
Fundamental Sources of Efficiency, Fletcher Durell.

At the Eleventh Hour.

Kissing the Rod.

A Mother in Exile.

FICTION

The Wanderer's Necklace, H. Rider Haggard.
The Clean Heart, A. S. Hutchinson.

The Alster Case, Rufus Gillmore.
The Great Gay Road, Tom Gallon.
Colonial Greatheart, H. C. Bailey.
The Wondrous Wife, Charles Marriott.
The Loser Pays, Mary Openshaw.
The Homesteaders, V. D. Bayles.

Who Goes There? Robert W. Chambers.
A Siren of the Snows, Stanley Shaw.
Angela's Business, Henry S. Harrison.
The Harbor, Ernest Poole.

Darkness and Dawn, George C. England.

The Story of Stephen Compton, J. E. Patterson.
Maurin the Illustrious, Jean Aicard.

HISTORY

The War in Europe, Albert Bushnell Hart.

The Home of the Blizzard (2 volumes), Douglas Mawson. European Police Systems, Raymond B. Fosdick.

Russia and the Russian People, L. G. Redmond-Howard. France and the French People, L. G. Redmond-Howard. Belgium and the Belgian People, L. G. Redmond-Howard. Austria and the Austrian People, L. G. Redmond-Howard. Origins of the War, J. Holland Rose.

Times History of the War.

Pictorial War Record (2 volumes).

REFERENCE

The Modern House, Walter S. Sparrow.
Catholic Encyclopedia (16 volumes).
Official Reference Library (2 volumes).

TRAVEL

The Discovered Country, Steward E. White.

The Committee acknowledges donations of books from the following:

Thomas B. Mosher.

H. F. Wallace.

H. F. Jenkins.

Joseph C. Pelletier.

John A. Fish

Arthur H. Hayward.

Harold A. Yeames.

Nelson Gorman.
F. B. Smith.

Dr. G. P. Wiksell, has presented to the Club a framed engraving of Otto von Bismarck, which was made from a photograph taken in Berlin, and which he presented to General Grant when he made his world tour in 1880.

There has been on exhibition in the Art Gallery on the third floor a miniature of the Revere School, Canton, Massachusetts, which is one of the open-air type, and which is loaned by the Massachusetts Society for the Relief and Control of Tuberculosis.

The Army and Navy Journal has been added to the list of periodicals to be found in the newspaper-room.

READING ROOM

The Art and Library Committee announces that the room known as the Assembly Room, directly over the Library, has been assigned by the House Committee as a reading-room. The room has been fitted with comfortable chairs and is a quiet, restful retreat.

Books may be taken from the Library to this room by members, and should be returned to the Library after reading.

After taking books from the library shelves members are requested to replace them in the same location, or leave them upon the tables.

HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS

The Committee desires to call the especial attention of the new members to the collection of old documents, autographed letters of historical importance, which are placed in various parts of the house, especially in the Old Boston room over the Somerset Street entrance and the Dramatic Room on the tenth floor, in room lettered "O."

The Committee again requests that members who may possess historical documents or other items of interest will loan or donate them to the Club, so that they may be enjoyed not only by our large membership, but by visitors who come to the Club from all parts of the United States. These items may be sent to the Art and Library Committee, care of the Civic Secretary.

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