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Those Indians wish a certain Tract of Country to be assigned them; its bounds to be ascertained; and that the most efficient measures may be taken to prevent our own Citizens from mixing with them, or otherwise intruding upon their lands. We have the honor to be, &c.
The Secretary of War to Commissioners Clark, Edwards
Department of War, November 24, 1813. GENTLEMEN:
The letter of the honorable Ninian Edwards and Auguste Chouteau Esq. of the 29th ultimo has been received by mail.
In concluding a peace with the Kanzas tribe of Indians, you have pursued the course adopted by the commissioners appointed to treat with the northern tribes. The hostilities of the various tribes inhabiting the country west of the Mississippi have been so general, that this course appears to be necessary, and is entirely approved by the President.
The exertions which the United States have made to effect a general pacification with their Indian neighbors, pursuant to the stipulations of the treaty of Ghent, the refusal of the Sacs of Rock river to attend the negotiations set on foot by the President for that purpose, and the acts of hostilities which they have committed since they were notified to attend the American commissioners, would justify the infliction of the severest chastisement upon those savages. The President, however, always disposed to pursue the most liberal policy towards the Indian tribes within our territories, preferring their reclamation by peaceful measures to their punishment by the application of the military force of the nation, receives
‘American State Papers, Indian Affairs, Vol. II, p. 12.
with pleasure the intimation that this tribe has manifested a disposition at this late hour to listen to the voice of reason and justice, and to return to the habits of peace and friendly intercourse with the United States. You are therefore authorized and instructed 10 permit the deputation of Sacs to meet you at such time and place as shall be convenient to you, and proceed to adjust with them the conditions of peace agreeably to your general instructions.
The surrender of all property stolen or plundered since they were notified to attend the commissioners of the United States may properly be required as preliminary to the permission to attend for the purpose of treating. In granting this permission, they ought to be distinctly informed that it is entirely the result of the clemency and humanity of the President towards them in particular, and of his general disposition to treat with liberality and equity all the Indian tribes within the limits of the United States whose conduct shall not render a different policy indispensable.
Instructions upon the subject of the claim of the Winnebagoes will be communicated to you in due time, if it shall be thought that they are necessary. I have the honor to be,
WILLIAM H. CRAWFORD. Governor William Clark, Ninian Edwards, and Auguste Chouteau, Esq.
EXHIBIT 185. Governor Clark and Auguste Chouteau to the Secretary of War.'
St. Louis, Missouri Territory,
July 1, 1817 SIR:
After a long interval of business, as commissioners, &c., a very full and respectable deputation of chiefs and principal men from the Ottoe, Missouria, and Poncarar tribes of Indians, accompanied by the first chief of the Pawnee republic, and two chiefs of the upper tribe of Sioux, arrived at St. Louis a few days ago, for the
, purpose of entering into a treaty with the United States. The cause of their not attending our general invitation earlier than the present time was (as they state) owing to an indirect warfare which existed between them and the other tribes inhabiting the country immediately between them and the white settlers. To avoid those enemies, they applied to Mr. Lisa, United States Indian agent, who has thought it his duty to accompany these chiefs to this place; and as they appeared extremely anxious to treat, and as we believed it important to gratify their wishes, on several accounts, and particularly so in consequence of the great exertions which we have some reasons to believe are making to prevent many of the Indian tribes, we, in the absence of Governor Edwards, at his home, in Kaskaskia, concluded with those tribes (who were fully represented) treaties, which we have the honor herewith to transmit.
'American State Papers, Indian Affairs, Vol. II, p. 147.
The Upper Sioux, and the several tribes of Pawnees, not having a sufficient deputation to treat, we have postponed entering into any negotiation with them, further than merely explaining to them the just and honorable policy of the Government towards the Indian tribes. These Sioux chiefs are of a large tribe of that nation who rove on the upper parts of the Missouri. The Pawnee chief who visits us is the principal chief of one band only. It is to be regretted that a full deputation of all the tribes of the Pawnee nation did not attend and adjust the difference which exists between them and the white traders and hunters who have visited their country in the last two years, as we are informed a serious conflict took place last summer between a party of that nation and the white traders under the control of Mr. Auguste Chouteau, jun., in which one white man and several Pawnees were killed. Several other acts of violence have been committed by that nation unprovokedly. Their numbers, and the intervening country which they occupy, contiguous to the Spanish settlements, render them important to us as a nation with whom the United States should be on the most friendly terms.
In a former communication we gave it as our opinion that a treaty with those tribes would be highly important; and, should we receive instructions on that subject, we shall immediately adopt the most proper measures to have them carried into effect. We have the honor, &c.
AUGUSTE CHOUTEAU. Hon. Secretary of War, Washington City.
Governor Clark, Governor Edwards and Auguste Chouteau to
the Secretary of War.1
St. Louis, March 31, 1817. SIR:
A deputation of chiefs and warriors from the Menomonies arrived at this place on the 20th instant, under the invitation we gave them last year, with the view of entering into a treaty of peace and friendship with the United States.
We invited them to meet us here at the commencement of last summer, or as soon thereafter as they should find it convenient. They now say they have done so; and have come in compliance with our invitation, urging many very plausible reasons for not having attended sooner.
It would have answered no good purpose for us to have told them we had no longer any authority to treat with them. They would not have understood us; and the British traders might have handled it very much to the injury of the Government, in persuading them they were deceived and trified with, and had been invited to travel a long journey merely to be laughed at. In this way, the dissatisfaction felt at present by many of the lake tribes would doubtless have been greatly increased, and might probably have been blown up into an open war with us.
Taking all things into consideration, therefore, and regarding the general policy of the Government, we thought its interest would be promoted by entering into a treaty with them, conformably to instructions given us on former occasions, although our authority to do so has ceased.
We have the honor, herewith enclosed, to forward you a duplicate of the treaty;
And have the honor to be, most respectfully, sir, your obedient servants,
AUGUSTE CHOUTEAU. The Hon. Secretary of War.
'American States Papers, Indian Affairs, Vol. II,
George Graham to Governor Clark.1
Department of War, June 9, 1817. SIR:
Your letters of the 31st of March and 20th of April were submitted to the President, and returned to this Department only a few days before he left this on his tour to the eastward.
The treaty entered into with the Menomonie tribe of Indians has been approved by him, and will be submitted to the Senate at the next session.
Should a deputation of the chiefs of the Pawnee and Ottoe tribes come to St. Louis with a view of entering into a treaty in consequence of the invitation formerly given to them by the commissioners, you will, in that event, reassemble the commissioners, and enter into a negotiation with them.
No decision has yet been made on any of the claims transmitted by you to my predecessor, or on those lately forwarded. I have the honor to be, &c.
GEORGE GRAHAM. Governor Wm. Clark, St. Louis.
Governor Clark and Auguste Chouteau to the Secretary of War.?
St. Louis, July 9, 1818. SIR:
A very full and respectable deputation of the principal chiefs and warriors from the four Pawnee tribes having arrived here a short time since, (in compliance with the general views of the Government, and the instructions received from your Department of the 9th June, 1817,) we entered into negotiations with them, and concluded treaties which we have the honor herewith to transmit for the President's approbation.
The Pawnee tribes are warlike and powerful, and inhabit the country about the river Platte, stretching immediately between us
'American States Papers, Indian Affairs, Vol. II, p. 148. 2 American State Papers, Indian Affairs, Vol. II,