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and the Spanish settlements, with whom they are now at war. Their numbers and warlike character, the commanding position they occupy in relation to the Missouri trade, and the contemplated establishment at the mouth of Yellow Stone river, coupled to the facility with which (in the event of hostilities between us and the Spanish provinces) they might be sent down in force upon our extended western frontier, evince the wisdom and propriety of cultivating industriously their friendship, in conformity with the general policy of the Government.

Since the conclusion of the late war with England, and the general pacification with the Indians of the Mississippi and Missouri, the Pawnees have committed several wanton and unprovoked murders; and did not, perhaps, in strictness, deserve to have been dealt with so favorably. But they were strangers to the whites— that is, to the Americans; had never visited our settlements, and knew nothing of the character or strength of our Government. They had met with hunting parties occasionally, and, finding them weak and contemptible in their estimation, they had learned (with the help of a few lessons from the Spaniards) to look upon the Government in the same light. Believing, as we did, that their conduct had grown out of these misconceptions, and perceiving the most clear and unequivocal proofs of their humiliation and repentance, we deemed it best to forgive their injuries, and grant them the protection and friendship of the United States; and no Indians with whom we have treated have ever discovered such entire satisfaction, pride, and pleasure at the event.

These people travel principally on horseback, are but little used to marching, and know nothing of canoes. In consequence, we have thought it most advisable to send them home with a handsome present, in order to impress them still more strongly and favorably towards us, and to operate thereby (in some measure) upon the neighboring tribes of the Missouri above them.

To further the views of the Government in relation to the Quapaws, we have despatched an agent (Mr. Benjamin O'Fallon) to them, to communicate our wishes, and make the necessary arrangements for a treaty with them at this place as soon as possible. As yet, we have received no information as to the probable result of his mission.

Our colleague, Governor Edwards, being absent in Kentucky, we have been compelled to proceed in these matters without his counsel or co-operation.

We have the honor to be, most respectfully, sir, your obedient servants,

WM. CLARK,

Auguste CHOUTEAU. To the Hon. J. C. Calhoun, Secretary of War.

INDIAN TREATIES NEGOTIATED BY THE

COMMISSIONERS.

EXHIBIT 189.

Treaty With the Potawatomi, 1815.1

A treaty of peace and friendship, made and concluded at Portage

des Sioux between William Clark, Ninian Edwards, and Aur guste Chouteau, Commissioners Plenipotentiary of the United States of America, on the part and behalf of the said States, of the one part; and the undersigned Chiefs and Warriors of the Poutawatamie Tribe or Nation, residing on the river Illinois, on the part and behalf of the said Tribe or Nation, of the

other part. The parties being desirous of re-establishing peace and friendship between the United States and the said tribe or nation, and of being placed in all things, and in every respect, on the same footing upon which they stood before the war, have agreed to the following articles :

Article 1. Every injury or act of hostility by one or either of the contracting parties against the other, shall be mutually forgiven and forgot.

Art. 2. There shall be perpetual peace and friendship between all the citizens of the United States of America, and all the individuals composing the said Poutawatamie tribe or nation.

*Charles J. Kappler; Indian Affairs, Laws and Treaties, Vol. II, p. no.

Art. 3. The contracting parties hereby agree, promise, and bind themselves, reciprocally, to deliver up all the prisoners now in their hands, (by what means soever the same may have come into their possession,) to the officer commanding at Fort Clarke, on the Illinois river, as soon as it may be practicable.

Art. 4. The contracting parties, in the sincerity of mutual friendship, recognize, re-establish and confirm, all and every treaty, contract, and agreement, heretofore concluded between the United States and the Poutawatamie tribe or nation.

In witness of all and every thing herein determined between the United States of America, and the said Poutawatamie tribe or nation, residing on the river Illinois : we, their underwritten commissioners and chiefs aforesaid, by virtue of our full powers, have signed this definitive treaty, and have caused our seals to be hereunto affixed. Done at Portage des Sioux, this eighteenth day of July, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and fifteen, and of the independence of the United States the fortieth. William Clark,

(L. S.) Ninian Edwards,

(L. S.) Auguste Chouteau,

(L. S.) Sunawchewome, his x mark,

(L. S.) Mucketepoke, or Black Partridge, his x mark, (L. S.) Neggeneshkek, his x mark,

(L. S.) Chawcawbeme, his x mark,

(L. S.) Bendegakewa, his x mark,

(L. S.) Wapewy, or White Hair, his x mark, (L. S.) Outawa, his x mark,

(L. S.) In the presence of R. Wash, secretary of the com

mission, Thomas Forsyth, Indian ag Wm. Irvine Adair, captain Third N. Boilvin, agent,

Regiment U. S. Infantry, T. Paul, C. M.

Cyrus Edwards, Maurice Blondeaux,

Samuel Solomon, Manuel Lisa, agent,

Jacques Mette, John Miller, colonel Third In

Louis Decouagne, fantry,

John A. Camero, Richard Chitwood, Major M. sworn interpreters.

(7 Stat., 123. Ratified, Dec. 26, 1815.)

EXHIBIT 190.

Treaty With the Piankashaw, 1815.1

A treaty of peace and friendship, made and concluded at Portage

des Sioux between William Clark, Ninian Edwards, and Auguste Chouteau, Commissioners Plenipotentiary of the United States of America, on the part and behalf of the said States, of the one part; and the undersigned Chiefs and Warriors of the Piankishaw Tribe or Nation, on the part and behalf of the said Tribe or Nation, of the other part.

The parties being anxious of re-establishing peace and friendship between the United States and the said tribe or nation, and of being placed in all things, and in every respect, on the same footing upon which they stood before the war, have agreed to the following articles :

Article 1. Every injury or act of hostility by one or either of the contracting parties against the other, shall be mutually forgiven and forgot.

Art. 2. There shall be perpetual peace and friendship between all the citizens of the United States of America and all the individuals composing the Piankishaw tribe or nation.

Art. 3. The contracting parties, in the sincerity of mutual friendship, recognize, re-establish, and confirm, all and every treaty, contract, or agreement, heretofore concluded between the United States and the said Piankishaw tribe or nation.

In witness of all and every thing herein determined between the United States of America, and the said Piankeshaw tribe or nation: we, their underwritten commissioners, and chiefs aforesaid, by virtue of our full powers, have signed this definitive treaty, and have caused our seals to be hereunto affixed.

Done at Portage des Sioux, this eighteenth day of July, in the year of our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and fifteen, and of the independence of the United States of America the fortieth.

'Charles J. Kappler: Indian Affairs, Laws and Treaties, Vol. II, p. 111.

William Clark,

(L. S.) Ninian Edwards,

(L. S.) Auguste Choteau,

(L. S.) La-ma-noan, or the Axe, his x mark,

(L. S.) La-mee-pris-jeau, or Sea-wolf, his x mark, (L. S.) Mon-sai-raa, or Rusty, his x mark,

(L. S.) Wa-pan-gia, or Swan, his x mark,

(L. S.) Na-maing-sa, or Fish, his x mark,

(L. S.) Done at Portage des Sioux, in the presence ofR. Wash, secretary to the com

missioners, Thomas Forsyth, Indian agent, Jacques Mette, N. Boilvin, agent,

Louis Decouagne, T. Paul, C. C. M.

John A. Cameron, Maurice Blondeaux,

sworn interpr't'rs. John Hay,

F. Duchouquet, United States John Miller, colonel Third In

interpreter, W. fantry,

Louis Bufait, Indian interpreter, Richard Chitwood, major J. Bts. Chandonnai, interpreter, mounted,

W. Knaggs, Wm. Irvine Adair, captain Third Antoine Bondi,

Regiment U. S. Infantry, Jean Bt. Massac, his x mark. Cyrus Edwards, Saml. Solomon,

(7 Stat., 124. Ratified, Dec. 26, 1815.)

EXHIBIT 191.

Treaty with the Teton, 1815." A treaty of peace and friendship made and concluded at Portage

des Sioux, between William Clark, Ninian Edwards, and Auguste Chouteau, Commissioners Plenipotentiary of the United States of America, on the part and behalf of the said States, of the one part; and the undersigned Chiefs and Warriors of the Teeton tribe of Indians, on the part and behalf of

their said Tribe, of the other part. The parties being desirous of re-establishing peace and friendship between the United States and the said tribe, and of being placed in all things, and in every respect, on the same footing

'Charles J. Kappler: Indian Affairs, Laws and Treaties, Vol. II, p. 112.

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