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Immediately after the interment of the corpfe, the members of the Cincinnati held a meeting in Savannah, and refolved, That in token of the high refpect and veneration in which the fociety hold the memory of their late illuftrious brother, Major-General Greene, deceased, George Washington Greene, his eldest fon, be admitted a member of this fociety, to take his feat on his arriving at the age of eighteen years.' This fon of the General's lately embarked for France, to receive his education with George Washington, fon of the Marquis de la Fayette, that active and illuftrious friend of America.

General Greene left behind him a wife and five children, the eldest of whom, who has been juft mentioned, is about thirteen years old.

On Tuesday, the 12th of Auguft, the United States in Congress affembled came to the following refolution: That a monument be erected to the memory of Nathaniel Greene, Efq. at the feat of federal government, with the following infcription:

Sacred to the Memory of
who departed this Life,

on the nineteenth of June, MDCCLXXXVI;
in the Service of the United States,


Commander of their Army
in the

Southern Department:

The United States in Congrefs affembled,
in Honour of his
Patriotifm, Valour, and Ability,
have erected this monument.

NOTE (D) for Page 112.


HE enthufiaftic zeal and great fervices of the Marquis de la Fayette, merit a particular detail. At the age of nineteen he cfpoufed the caufe of America, with all the ardor which the moft generous philanthropy could infpire. At a very early period of the war, he determined to embark from his native country, for the United States. Before he could complete his intention, intelligence arrived in Europe, that the American infurgents, reduced to two thoufand men, were flying through Jerfey before a British force of thirty thoufand regulars. This news fo effectually extinguished the little credit which America had in Europe, in the beginning of the year 1777, that the commiffioners of Congress at Paris, though they had previously encouraged this project, could not procure a veffel to forward his intentions. Under thefe circumftances they though t it but honeft to diffuade him from the prefent profecution of his perilous enterprife. It was in vain they acted fo candid a part. The flame which America had kindled in his breaft, could not be extinguifhed by her


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Hitherto,' faid he, in the true spirit of patriotism, I have only cherished your caufe-now I am going to ferve it. The ⚫ lower it is in the opinion of the people, the greater will be the effect of my departure; and fince you cannot get a veffel, I fhall purchase and fit out one to carry your difpatches to Congrefs and myfelf to America.' He accordingly embarked and arrived at Charlefton early in the year 1777. Congrefs foon conferred on him the rank of major-general. He accepted the appointment, but not without exacting two conditions, which difplayed the elevation of his fpirit: the one, that he should ferve on his own expence; the other, that he should begin his fervices as a volunteer.

He was foon appointed to command an expedition to Canada. The plan was to cross the lakes on the ice; the object, to feize Montreal and St. John's. He was now at the age of twenty, and muft have keenly experienced the allurements of independent command; but his cool judgment, and honeft heart, reftrained him from indulging a paffion for military fame, under circumftances that might have injured the caufe which he had fo zealously efpoufed. He found that, in cafe of his proceeding, the army under his command would be in danger of experiencing a fate fimilar to that of the unfortunate Burgoyne. With a boldness of judg ment, that would have done honor to the moft experienced general, and without advancing beyond Albany, he relinquished the expedition. Soon after, he received the thanks of Congrefs for his prudence.

In the four campaigns which fucceeded the arrival of the marquis de la Fayette in America, he gave repeated proofs of hls military talents, in the middle and eastern ftates; but the events that took place under his command in Virginia, deferve particular notice.

Early in the year 1781, while the war raged to the fouthward of Virginia, the marquis de la Fayette was detached on an expedition against Portsmourh; but here his active zeal received a check, no lefs fatal to his hopes than when he was obliged to relinquish the expedition to Canada. The engagement near the capes of the Chefapeek, between the French chef d'efcadre d'Eftouches, and the British admiral Arbuthnot, which took place on the fifth of March, 1781, defeated the enterprife. Upon this event, he marched back to the Head of Elk, where he received an order from General Washington to return to Virginia, to oppofe General Philips, who had joined General Arnold at Portfmouth. Although the troops under his command were in want of almoft every thing, he nevertheless proceeded with them to Baltimore. Here he learned that General Philips was urging preparations to embark at Portfmouth, with upwards of three thoufand men. With the Marquis de la Fayette it was a moment of extreme distress and embarrassment. In his whole command, there was not one pair of fhoes; but the love and confidence he had univerfally excited, enabled him to obtain a loan of money, which procured him fome neceffaries for his troops, and gave renewed vigor to his march. He fuppofed Richmond to be the object of General Philips, and therefore marched thither with fo great expedition, that he arrived at that place the evening before General Philips. He was joined the first night after his arrival by Major-General Baron Steuben, with a corps of militia. In this manner was the capital of Virginia, at that time filled with almost



all the military ftores of the state, faved from the most imminent danger. The British appeared the next morning at Manchefter, juft oppofite to Richmond. The two armies furveyed each other for fome time, and then General Philips, apprehending it to be too hazardous to attack the Marquis de la Fayette in his ftrong pofition, very prudently retired.

Such was the great fuperiority of numbers, by the combination of the forces under General Arnold, General Philips, and Lord Cornwallis-fo fatal to all the fouthern ftates would have been the conqueft of Virginiathat the Marquis de la Fayette had before him a labour of the lait confequence, and was preffed on all fides by innumerable difficulties.

In the first moments of the rifing tempeft, and until he could provide against its utmost rage, he began to retire with his little army, which confifted of about a thoufand regulars, two thoufand militia, and fixty dragoons. Lord Cornwallis, exulting in the profpect of fuccefs, which he thought to be heightened by the youth of his opponent, incautiously wrote to Great Britain, that the boy could not efcape him.' The engagement, however, which was to confirm his promife, was fedulously avoided. Finding it impoffible to force an action, he next endeavoured to cut off the communication of the Marquis de la Fayette with General Wayne, who, with eight hundred Pennfylvanians, was advancing from the northward. The junction, however, was effected at Rackoon Ford, without lofs. The next object of Lord Cornwallis, was to get poffeffion of the American ftores, which, for their greater fecurity, had been removed from Richmond to Albemarle old court-houfe, above the Point of Fork. While the troops commanded by the Marquis de la Fayette and General Wayne were forming a junction, Lord Cornwallis had gotten between them and their public ftores. The poffeffion of thefe was a principal object with both armies. The Marquis de la Fayette, by forced marches, got within a few miles of the British army, when they were yet diftant two days march from Albemarle old court-houfe. Once more the British general confidered himself fure of his adverfary. To fave the ftores he knew was his defign, but to accomplish that object, his lordship faw no practical way but by a road, in palling which, the American army might be attacked to great advantage. It was a critical moment, but the Marquis de la Fayette had the good fortune to extricate himself. He opened in the night, by part of his army, a nearer road to Albemarle, which, having been many years difufed, was much embarrafled, and, to the aftonilhment of Lord Cornwallis, pofted himfelf in a ftrong pofition the next day between the British army and the American stores.

His lordship, finding all his fchemes fruftrated, fell back to Richmond, whither he was followed by the Marquis de la Fayette. The main American army in Virginia was now reinforced by the troops under MajorGeneral Baron Steuben, and by volunteer corps of Virginia and Maryland gentlemen. And the Marquis de la Fayette had the addrefs to imprefs Lord Cornwallis with an idea, that his force was much greater than he actually commanded. His lordship, therefore, retreated to Williamfburg.

After a feries of manoeuvres, which it is not neceffary to relate, and in which the British general difplayed the boldness of enterprize, and the young marquis the found judgment of age, blended with the ardour of


youth, the former fixed himself and his army at York-town. The latter, under various pretences, fent the Pennsylvania troops to the fouth fide of James River; collected a force in Gloucefter county, and made fundry arrangements fubfervient to the grand defign of the whole campaign, which was the capture of Lord Cornwallis, and the British army under his command.

Sometime after the capture of Cornwallis, the Marquis de la Fayette went to France, where he fuccefsfully ufed his endeavours to promote the commercial and political interest of these states.

Pennfylvania, in order to fhow her efteem for this gallant nobleman, has lately erected part of her western territory into a feparate county, and named it FAYETTE,



'HE ftates east of New-York, were formerly called the New-Eng


England. Several things are common to them all. Their religion, manners, cuftoms, and character; their climate, foil, productions, natural history, &c. are in many respects fimilar. Many of the historical events which took place in their fettlement, and in their progress until the year 1692, are intimately connected. Thefe confiderations have led to the following general defcription of New-England.

As the territory of Vermont was included in fome of the original patents granted by the Plymouth Company, and was fettled wholly from New-England, it is confidered as a part of it, and included in the follow ing account.



Length 350 Between {

Breadth 140

Between 41 and 46° North Latitude.
30 and 8° Eaft Longitude.


Boundaries.] New-England is bounded, north by Canada; eaft by Nova-Scotia and the Atlantic ocean; fouth by the Atlantic and Long Inland Sound, and weft by New-York. It lies in the form of a quarter of a circle. Its weft line, beginning at the mouth of Byram river, which empties into Long Island Sound, at the fouth-weft corner of Connecticut, latitude 41°, runs a little east of north, until it ftrikes the 45th degree of latitude, and then curves to the eastward almost to the Gulf of St. Lawrence.

Civil divifions.] New-England is divided into five ftates, viz. NewHampshire, Maffachusetts, Rhode-Ifland, Connecticut, and Vermont. Theie ftates are fubdivided into counties, and the counties into townfhips.

Face of the country', mountains, &c.] New-England is a high, hilly, and in fome parts a mountainous country, formed by nature to be inhabited by a hardy race of free, independent republicans.-The mountains are comparatively fmall, running nearly north and fouth in ridges parallel to each other. Between thefe ridges, flow the great rivers in majestic meanders, receiving the innumerable rivulets and larger ftreams which proceed from the mountains on each fide. To a fpectator on the top of a neighbouring mountain, the vales between the ridges, while in a state of nature, exhibit a romantic appearance. They feem an ocean of woods, fwelled and depreffed in its furface like that of the great ocean itself. A richer, though lefs romantic view, is prefented, when the vallies, by induftrious husbandmen, have been cleared of their natural growth; and the fruit of their labour appears in loaded orchards, extenfive meadows, covered

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