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feveral times, was fuch as rendered them proper fubjects of a mad-house, or a houfe of correction; and it is to be lamented that ever any greater feverities were ufed. I will mention one or two inftances of their conduct, which clearly manifeft a species of madness. • Thomas New houfe went into the meeting-house at Bofton with a couple of glafs bottles, and broke them before the congregation, and threatened, Thus till the Lord break you in pieces. Another time M. Brewiter came in with her face fmeared as black as a coal. Deborah Wilfon went through the ftreets of Salem naked as he was born.' While we condemn the feverity with which the Quakers were treated on the one part, we cannot, at the fame time, avoid cenfuring their imprudent, indelicate and infatuated conduct on the other.

Thefe unhappy difturbances continued until the friends of the Quakers in England interpofed, and obtained an order from the king, September 9th, 1661, requiring that a ftop fhould be put to all capital or corporal punishments of his fubjects called Quakers. This order was prudently complied with, and the disturbances by degrees fubfided. From this time the Quakers became in general an orderly, peaceable people, and have fubmitted to the laws of the governments under which they have refided, except fuch as relate to the militia and the fupport of the miniftry, and in their fcruples as to these they have from time to time wifely been indulged. They are a moral, friendly, and benevolent people, and have much merit as a body for their ftrict difcipline, regular correfpondence, for their hofpitality, and particularly for their exertions in the abolition of the flavery of the Negroes. In this land of civil and religious freedom, it is hoped that perfecution will never again lift its direful head against any religious denomination of people, whofe fentiments and conduct are confiftent with the peace and happinefs of fociety.

Soon after the restoration of Charles II. in 1660, many complaints were made to his majefty refpecting the colony, and, agreeably to a requifition from him, agents were fent over to anfwer to them. These were favourably received, and returned in a fhort time with letters from the king, commanding the alteration of fome of the laws and cuftoms, and directing the administration of juftice to be in his name. The letters not being ftrictly obeyed, and new complaints coming to the king's ears, four commiffioners were dispatched in 1665 to the colony, with abfolute authority to hear and determine every caufe. This authority met with merited oppofition. The colonifts adhered to what they imagined to be their juft rights and privileges, and though fomewhat culpable for their obftinate defence of a few unwarrantable peculiarities, deferve commendation for their general conduct. The commiflioners left the colony diffatisfied and enraged.


Their report, however, occafioned no trouble from England, on ac

We cannot be underflood hereby to direct or wish that any indulgence should be granted to thofe perfons commonly called Quakers, whofe principles being inconfiftent with any kind of government, we have found it neceffary by the advice of our parliament here, to make a sharp law against them, and are well contented that you do the like there.


count of the jealoufies of government which then prevailed there, and the misfortunes of the plague and fire of London.

The colony now attained a more profperous condition than it had hitherto known. A fpirit of industry and œconomy pervaded the people, and many of the magiftrates and merchants became opulent. The civil and ecclefiaftical parts of the conftitution had, from the beginning, been harmoniously united, and continued to be until 1670, when a divifion, which had been made fome years before in the church, originated a difpute, in which the civil authority interpofed, and claimed a fuperiority to the ecclefiaftical. The clergy, notwithstanding, continued to have great influence in government until the diffolution of the charter.

The war, commonly called Philip's war, occafioned the next difturbances in the colony. This war lafted feveral years. Many Indians were engaged in it. They meditated the general deftruction of the Englifh, and much cruelty was exercifed by both parties, until a period was put to hoftilities by the death of Philip, the Indian chief, in 1676.

In the height of the diftrefs of the war, and while the colony was conrending for the poffeffion of the foil with the natives, complaints were renewed in England, which ftruck at the powers of government, and an enquiry was fet on foot, and followed from time to time until 1684, when a judgment was given against the charter.

The fucceeding year, the legislature, expecting every day to be fuper ceded, paid little attention to public affairs.

In 1686, May 15th, a commiffioner arrived, appointing a prefident, and divers gentlemen of the council, to take upon them the adminiftration of government. This administration was fhort, and productive of no grievances.

On the 19th of December, the fame year, arrived Sir Edmund Andros, with a commiffion from King James for the government of New-Eng land. Connecticut, however, was not included in his commiffion. His kind profeffions encouraged, for a while, the hopes of the people, who, from his character, expected a different treatment from him. He food acted out himself, and, together with his council, did many arbitrary acts to the oppreffion of the people, and the enrichment of himself and followers.

The prefs was reftrained-public thanksgiving, without an order from the crown, was prohibited-fees of all officers were encreased, and the people compelled to petition for new patents of their lands, for which they were obliged to pay exorbitant prices.

The colony was greatly difquieted by thefe and fimilar tyrannical pro ceedings; and when news arrived of the declaration of the Prince of Orange, in 1689, the governor and about fifty others were feized and confined, and afterwards fent home, and the old magiftrates reinftated in

their offices.

The affairs of the colony were conducted with prudence, and liberty being granted to the people by the crown, to exercife for the prefent their former government, they proceeded with regularity according to the old charter, ftriving in vain to get it confirmed, until, in 1692, they received and adopted a new one. The new charter comprehended all the territory of the old one, together with the colony of New-Plymouth,


the Province of Main and Nova-Scotia, and all the country between the Province of Main and Nova-Scotia, as far northward as the River St. Lawrence *; alfo Elizabeth Islands, and the islands of Nantucket and Martha's Vineyard.

By the new charter, the appointment of the governor was in the crown, and every freeholder of forty fhillings fterling a year, and every inhabi tant of forty pounds fterling perfonal eftate, was a voter for reprefentatives.

The French of Quebec inftigating the Indians, and joining with them to plunder and kill the English, and the French of Acadie infefting the coafts, and taking many veffels, the general court in the winter of 1689 meditated an attack upon Port-Royal, now called Annapolis-Royal, and upon Quebec. Forces were fent out and took Port-Royal, and the whole fea-coaft from that to Penobscot, and the New-England fettlements.

The fuccefs of this expedition, and the ravage of the French and Indians at the opening of the fpring, determined the general court to profecute their defign upon Quebec. But the feafon was fo far advanced when the troops arrived at Canada-the French fo fuperior in number-the weather fo tempeftuous, and the ficknefs fo great among the foldiers, that this expedition was attended with great lofs.

A truce was concluded with the neighbouring Indians, while the troops were gone out of the colony, but hoftilities were foon renewed.

The French and Indians molefted the inhabitants of the frontiers daily. Acadie fell again into the hands of the French, and was afterwards retaken by the English. The inhabitants of this territory experienced the greateft fufferings at every change of their mafter.

A new expedition was planned against Canada, and affiftance from England folicited year after year for the reduction of the French, who were endeavouring by the aid of the favages to ruin entirely the British fettlements.

In 1692, the spirit of infatuation refpecting witchcraft was again revived in New-England, and raged with uncommon violence. Several hundreds were accufed, many were condemned, and fome executed. Various have been the opinions refpecting the delufion which occafioned this tragedy. Some pious people have believed there was fomething fu pernatural in it, and that it was not all the effect of fraud and impofture. Many are willing to fuppofe the accufers to have been under bodily dif orders which affected their imaginations. This is kind and charitable, but fcarcely probable. It is very poffible that the whole was a scene of fraud and impofture, began by young girls, who at firft perhaps thought of nothing more than exciting pity and indulgence, and continued by adult perfons, who were afraid of being accufed themfelves. The one and the other, rather than confefs their fraud, fuffered the lives of fo

* Since the treaty of Utrecht, in 1713, Nova Scotia was arbitrarily taken from Maffachusetts, and erected into a jeparate government. And by the treaty of 1783, the territory between the Highlands, which form a part of the northern boundary of the United States, and the River St. Lawrence, was ceded to Great-Britain.

many innocents to be taken away through the credulity of judges and juries.

That the odium of this tragic conduct might not reft upon the NewEnglanders alone, it ought here to be obferved, that the fame infatuation was at this time current in England. The law by which witches were condemned, was a copy of the ftatute in England; and the practice of the courts was regulated by precedents there afforded. Some late inftances prove that England is not entirely cured of that delufion.

In 1711, fome fhips and troops being fent over, the colony troops joined them, and an attempt was made upon Canada, in which the greater part of them perifhed. This difafter was very grievous to the people of New-England, and many perfons, in confequence of it, abandoned every expectation of conquering Canada.

Frequent excurfions on the frontiers immediately followed; but as foon as the peace of Utrecht was known, the Indians of the various tribes requefted to be at peace with the English-afked pardon for their violation of former treaties, and engaged for the future to demean themselves as good fubjects of the crown of Great-Britain. Articles of a general treaty were drawn up and figned by both parties.

From 1675, when Philip's war began, to the prefent time, 1713, five or fix thoufand of the youth of the country had perifhed by the enemy, or by diftempers contracted in the fervice of their country. The colonies, which ufually doubled their inhabitants in five and twenty years, had not at this time double the number which they had fifty years before. The profpect of a long peace, which the general treaty afforded, was interrupted by the machinations of one Ralle, a French Jefuit, who infligated the Indians to make fresh incurfions on the borders of the colony in 1717. After feveral ineffectual attempts to perfuade the Indians to defift from their opera tions, forces were fent out by government from time to time, who deftroyed feveral parties of the Indians, but there was no ceffation of hoftilities until the death of Ralle in 1724.

In 1725, a treaty was made with the Indians, and a long peace fuccecded it. The length of the peace is in a great measure to be attributed to the favourable acts of government, made foon after its commencement, refpecting the Indian trade.

In 1721, the fmall-pox made great havock in Bofton and the adjacent towns. Of 5889, who took it in Boston, 844 died. Inoculation was introduced on this occafion, contrary however to the minds of the inhabitants in general. Dr. C. Mather, one of the principal minifters of Bolton, had obferved, in the Philofophical Tranfactions, a letter from Timonius from Conftantinople, giving a favourable account of the operation. He recommended it to the phyficians of Botton to make the experiment, but all declined except Dr. Boylston. To thew his confidence of fuccefs, he began with his own children and fervants. Many pious people were ftruck with horror at the idea, and were of opinion that if any of his patients fhould die, he ought to be treated as a murderer.

All orders of men, in a greater or lefs degree, condemned a practice which is now univerfally approved, and to which thoufands owe the prefervation of their lives.

In 1745, according to a propofal and plan of the governor of this colony, Louifburg was befieged and taken. The poffeffion of this place appeared neceflary for the fecurity of the English fishery, and prevented an attack upon Nova-Scotia, which the French had meditated and threatened.

The reduction of Louifburg by a British colony, furprized Great-Britain and France, and occafioned both powers to form important plans for the next year. Great-Britain had in view the reduction of Canada, and the extirpation of the French from the northern continent. France, the recovery of Louifburg, the conqueft of Nova-Scotia, and the deftruction of the English fea-coaft from Nova-Scotia to Georgia. Great preparations were accordingly made by both monarchs. A very formidable French fleet failed for the American coaft; a British fquadron was long expected to oppose them, and to protect the colonies; but expected in vain. The colonies were in immediate and imminent danger. Fortunately for them, the French fleet was rendered unfit to accomplish their defign, by a violent ftorm, which damaged moft of the fhips fo much, that they were obliged to return to France, or retire to the Weft-Indies to refit.

Pious men faw the immediate hand of divine providence in the protection, or rather refcue of the British colonies this year, as they had done in the almost miraculous fuccefs of the Cape Breton expedition, the year before.

By the time the fears of the colonies, which had been excited by the French fleet, were removed, the feason was too far advanced to profecute the Canada expedition. The inactive profecution of the war in Europe on both fides, indicated peace to be near, which the next year was effected.

Here Governor Hutchinfon ends his hiftory of Maffachufetts. It belongs to the profeffed hiftorian to relate the important events which have happened fince. Several of them, however, may be found in the foregoing history of the United States. It ought in juftice here to be observed, that in point of military, political, and literary importance, Maffachufetts is inferior to none, and fuperior to moft, of the itates in the union.



Including the lands which lie east, as far as Nova-Scotia,
(Belonging to Massachusetts.)



Length 300 Between


Between {43° and 460 North Latitude.
and 8 Eaft Longitude.

Boundaries.] B feparate the rivers which fall into the St. Lawrence,

OUNDED north-weftwardly by the high lands, which

from thofe which fall into the Atlantic ocean; eastwardly by the river St.



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