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Croix, and a line drawn due north from its fource to the faid high lands, which divides this territory from Nova Scotia; fouth-eaftwardly by the Atlantic ocean; and weftwardly by New-Hampshire.

The Old Province of Main (included in the limits prefcribed above) is bounded on the fouth-weft and weft by New-Hampshire; fouth-eaft by the Atlantic ocean, and north and north-eaft by the land, called in fome maps Saghadahok. It was fuppofed, at the time of its being made a province, to have been 20 miles fquare; but by a fettlement of the line in 1737, on the part or fide adjoining New-Hampshire, the form of the land was reduced from a fquare to that of a diamond. The Province of Main contains, according to Douglafs, about 9,600 fquare miles.

Civil divifion.] The whole Province of Main, and the territory to the eaft of it as far as the western boundary of Nova-Scotia, were formerly in one county, by the name of Yorkshire. In 1761, this extenfive county was divided into three counties. The easternmoft, called LINCOLN, Contains all lands eaft of Sagadahok, and fome part of Main, viz. George: town, on the fea-coaft, and all the lands between the rivers Kennebek and Amerafcoggin.

This county is faid to be 150 miles fquare. It has been in agitation for feveral years to divide it into three, but for various reasons the divifion has hitherto been delayed. For the accommodation of the inhabitants, it is at prefent divided into three districts, in each of which is a judge, a register of probates, and a register of deeds. A great part of this county is yet in a state of nature; it is, however, rapidly fettling. The frontier inhabitants on each fide of the Canada line, are but a few miles apart.

Next to Lincoln is CUMBERLAND county, of which Portland is the county town, and capital of the whole territory. This county contains nearly half the Old Province of Main. The reft of the Province of Main is included in YORK County. These three counties are fubdivided into ninety-four townships, of which Lincoln contains fifty-three, Cumberland twenty, and York twenty-one. Thefe counties, in 1778, had fix regiments of militia.

In 1778, a ftate tax of .254,718 16 11, was affeffed on the polls and estates, within the Commonwealth of Maffachusetts, by their general court. The following apportionment of that tax to the three counties abovementioned, will ferve to fhew the proportion which they bear to the whole ftate.

York county
Cumberland, do.
Lincoln, do.

£11,102 16 87
6,428 6 2
1,782 7 8

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Which is nearly one thirteenth part of the whole fum.


£19,313 10 6.

Rivers.] St. Croix is a fhort and inconfiderable river, forming the eaftern boundary of the United States *. It falls into Paffamaquoday bay, Penobscot

* Governor Pownal fuppofes that Paffamaquody river, which is fifteen or twenty miles east of St. Croix, is the real eastern boundary of New England.


Penobscot river rifes in fome ponds in the heart of the country, and paffing through feveral fmall lakes, it tumbles for near two iniles over falls, which effectually prevent any further marine navigation. To these falls, which are about fifty miles from the fea, this river is navigable for veffels of an hundred tons. It empties into Penobscot bay.


Kennebek river rifes from a little pond in the height of land, in northlatitude 45° 20 and about 5° 10' eaft longitude. Its general courfe is from north to fouth. It is navigable for velfels of an hundred tons, to Hallowell, fifty miles from Small-point, at the mouth of the river.

Sagadahok or Amerafcoggin river, which, properly fpeaking, is but the main western branch of the Kennebek, rifes in latitude 44° 50° north-eastward of the White Hills, in lake Umbagoog. Peabody river, and another branch, fall into this main ftream, from the east fide of the White Hills. Its courfe is fouth about twenty-fix miles, then east north-" eaft fixty, when it meets a fecond main stream from the north-eaft, thirtyfour miles from its fource. Hence the river runs fouth forty miles. În this course it paffes within two miles of the fea-coaft, then turns north, and running over Pejepfkaeg falls into Merry Meeting bay; from thence, with the waters of Kennebek, which likewife fall into this bay, with feveral other small ftreams, it paffes off to the fea, fixteen miles, by the name of Kennebek, or Sagadahok river.

The Dutch formerly had a fettlement at the place that is now called Newcastle, which was under the jurifdiction of the then governor of New-York, then called Manhadoes. The town was built on a beautiful neck of land, where rows of old cellars, near each other, are now to be seen.

Saco river has two fources, one in Offipee pond, near Offipee mountain; the other, which is its principal branch, falls from the fouth fide of the White Hills. The former is called Offipee, and the latter Pigwaket river. (Offipee pond and Offipee mountain are in New-Hampshire, as are the White Hills.) Thefe foon unite, and the river, keeping in a general fouth eastern courfe for fixty or feventy miles, paffes between Pepperillborough and Biddeford townships, into Saco bay, near Winter Harbour. Marine navigation is stopped by Saco falls, feren or eight miles from the fea. At these falls, which are about twenty feet in height, are the greatest board-works in this part of the country. The river here is broken by fmall islands in fuch a manner as to afford a number of fine faw-mill feats. Before the war, 4,000,000 feet of pine boards were annually fawed by the mills at this place. Logs are floated down the river from fixty or feventy miles above the mills; and veffels can come up quite to the mills to take in their lading.

Befides these are a number of fmaller rivers. Stevens's, a falt water river; Prefumfcut and Royal rivers run into Cafco Bay. Kennebunk


For, faid he, The French, according to their mode of taking possession, always fixed a cross in every river they came to. Almost every river on the coast of Sagadabok has, in its turn, been deemed by them La Riviere de St. Croix. Under equivocation of this general appellative, they have amufed our negotiators on every occafion.

Governor Pownal fays, thirty-five.

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and Moufom rivers, extend fome distance into the country, and empty into Wells bay. Webhannet river is the principal entrance by water into the town of Wells, and has a barred harbour. York river runs up feven or eight miles, and has a tolerable harbour for veffels under 200 tons. Its rocks render it fomewhat hazardous for ftrangers. Spurwing river runs through Scarborough to the weftward of Cape Elizabeth, and is navigable a few miles for veffels of an hundred tons. Sheepfcut is navigable twenty or thirty miles, and empties into the ocean at the fame mouth with Kennebek. On this river is an excellent port called Wifcaffet, in the township of Pownalborough. At the head of navigation on this river is Newcastle, which extends from Sheepfcut to Damarifcotta river. Pemaquid and Damarifcotta are fmall rivers; the former has a beautiful harbour, but is not navigable above its mouth.

Bays and Capes.] The fea coaft is indented with innumerable bays. Thofe worth noticing are Penobscot bay, at the mouth of Penobscot river, which is long and capacious. Its eaft fide is lined with a cluster of fmall islands. On a fine peninfula in this bay, the British, in the late war, built a fort and made a fettlement, which is now a township of Maffachusetts, and a commodious fituation for the lumber trade. It has been called hitherto by its old Indian name Majabagadufe, or, for the fake of brevity, Bagadufe. At the diftance of about four leagues weftwardly, is Broad Bay, on the western fhore of which, Pemaquid point or cape projects into the fea. Cafco Bay is between Cape Elizabeth, and Cape Small Point. It is twenty-five miles wide, and about fourteen in length. It is a moft beautiful bay, interfperfed with small islands, and forms the entrance into Sagadalok. It has a fufficient depth of water for veffels of any burden. Wells bay lies between Cape Neddik and Cape Porpoife.

Ponds or lakes.] Sabago pond is about twenty miles north-weft of Falmouth. Cobefciconti ponds are between Amarafcoggin and Kennebek rivers. Befides thefe there are Moufom and Lovel's ponds, and feveral


Mountains.] Agamemticus, a noted land-mark for failors, is about eight miles from the fea, in latitude 43° 16′, and lies in the township of York, a few miles weftward of Wells.

Chief towns. Portland is a peninfula, that was formerly part of Falmouth. In July 1786, the compact part of the town and the port were incorporated by the name of Portland. It has an excellent, fafe and capacious harbour, but incapable of defence, except by a navy, and carries on a foreign trade, and the fifhery, and builds fome thips. The town is growing, and capable of great improvements. The old town of Falmouth, which included Portland, was divided into three parishes, which contained more than 700 families, in flourishing circumftances, when the British troops burnt it in 1775. It is now chiefly rebuilt.

Kittery is a pretty little town on the east fide of the mouth of Pifcataqua river, and is famous for fhip-building. One of its prefent inhabiLants * is one of the first genuifes in that line in America.

York, Wells,

* Mr. Peck.


Berwick, Arundel, Biddeford and Scarborough, are all confiderable


Climate.] The heat in fummer is intense, and the cold in winter equally extreme. All fresh water lakes, ponds and rivers are ufually paffable on ice, from Christmas, until the middle of March. The longest day is fifteen hours and fixteen minutes, and the shortest eight hours and fortyfour minutes. The climate is very healthful. Many of the inhabitants live ninety years.

Face of the country, Soil, and Produce.] The face of the country, inregard to evennefs or roughnefs, is fimilar to the reft of the New-England ftates. About Cafco-Bay, it is level and fandy, and the foil thin and poor. Throughout this country, there is a greater proportion of dead fwamps than in any other part of New-England. The tract lying between Paffamaquady and Penobscot rivers, is white pine land, of a strong moift foil, with fome mixture of oaks, white afh, birch, and other trees, and the interior parts are interfperfed with beech ridges. The fea-coaft is gencrally barren. In many towns the land is good for grazing. Wells and Scarborough have large tracts of falt marth. The inland parts of Main are fertile, but newly and thinly fettled. The low fwamps are useless.

The grain raifed here is principally Indian corn-little or no wheatfome rye, barley, oats, and peas. The inhabitants raife excellent potatoes, in large quantities, which are frequently ufed inftead of bread. Their butter has the preference to any in New-England, owing to the goodness of the grafs, which is very fweet and juicy. Apples, pears, plums, peaches, and cherries grow here very well. Plenty of cyder, and fome perry is made in the fouthern and western parts of Main. The perry is made from choak pears, and is an agreeable liquor, having fomething of the harfhnefs of claret wine, joined with the fweetnefs of metheglin.

Timber.] On the high lands are oak in fome places, but not plenty, maple, beech, and white birch. The white birch in this part of the country, is unlike that which grows in other parts. It is a large fightly tree, fit for many ufes. Its bark, which is compofed of a great number of thickneffes, is, when feparated, fmoother and fofter than any paper. The clay-lands produce fir. The timber of this tree is unfit for ufe, but it yields the balfam which is fo much admired. This balfam is contained in finall protuberances, like blifters, under the fmooth bark of the tree. The fir-tree is an ever-green, refembling the fpruce, but very tapering, and not very large or tall.

Trade, Manufactures, &c.] From the first fettlement of Main until the year 1774 or 1775, the inhabitants generally followed the lumber trade to the neglect of agriculture. This afforded an immediate profit. Large quantities of corn and other grain were annually imported from Bolton and other places, without which it was fuppofed the inhabitants could not have fubfifted. But the late war, by rendering thefe refources precarious, put the inhabitants upon their true intereft, i. e. the cultivation of their lands, which, at a little diftance from the fea, are well adapted for raifing grain. The inhabitants now raife a fuflicient quantity for their own confumption; though too many are still more fond of the axe than of the



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plough. Their wool and flax are very good-hemp has not been fufficiently tried. Almoft every family manufacture wool and flax into cloth, and make husbandry utenfils of every kind for their own ufe.

Mines and Minerals.] Iron and Bog-ore are found in many places, in great plenty, and works are erected to manufacture it into iron. There is a ftone in Lebanon, which yields copperas and fulphur.

Exports.] This country abounds with lumber of the various kinds, fuch as mafts, which of late, however, have become fcarce, white-pine boards, fhip-timber, and every fpecies of fplit lumber, manufactured from pine and oak; thefe are exported from Quamphegon, in Berwick, Sacofalls, in Biddeford, and Pepperillborough, Prefumfcut-falls, in Falmouth, and Amerafcoggin-falls, in Brunfwick. The rivers abound with falmon. in the fpring feafon. On the fea-coaft fifh of various kinds are caught in plenty. Of thefe the cod fish are the principal. Dried fish furnishes a capital article of export.

Animals.] In this country are deer, moose, beaver, otters, fables, brown fquirrels, white-rabbits, bars, which have frequently destroyed corn-fields, wolves, which are deftructive to fheep, mountain-cats, porcupines, or hedge-hogs-partridges, but no quails, wild-geefe and ducks, and other water-fowls, abound on the fea-coaft in their feafons. No venomous ferpents are found east of Kennebek-river.

Character and Religion.] The inhabitants are a hardy robuft fet of people. The males are early taught the use of the mufquet, and from their frequent ufe of it in fowling, are expert marks-men. The people in general are humane and benevolent. The common people ought, by 'law, to have the advantage of a school education, but there is here, as in other parts of New-England, too visible a neglect.

In March, 1788, the general-court ordered that a tract of land, fix miles fquare, fhould be laid out between Kennebek and Penobscot rivers, to the northward of Waldo patent, to be appropriated for the foundation of a college.

As to religion, the people are moderate Calvinists. Notwithstanding Epifcopacy was established by their former charter, the churches are principally on the congregational plan; but are candid, catholic, and tolerant towards thofe of other perfuafions.

In 1785, they had feventy-two religious affemblies, to fupply which were thirty-four ministers.

Hiftory. The first attempt to fettle this country was made in 1607, on the weft fide of Sagadahok, near the fea. No permanent fettlement, however, was at this time effected. It does not appear that any further attempts were made until between the years 1620 and 1630.

In 1636, courts were held at Saco and other places, of which fome records are extant. From thefe records it appears, that the courts acted both in a legislative and a judicial capacity. Very few of their orders and laws are to be found. They proceeded in a fummary method, attending more to fubftance than forin, making the laws of England their gencral rule.

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