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The inhabitants are almost entirely of English defcent. There are no Dutch, French, or Germans, and very few Scotch or Irish people in any part of New England.
Character, Manners, &c.] In addition to what has been already faid on thefe particulars, under New England, it may be obferved, that the peo ple of Connecticut are remarkably fond of having all their difputes, even thofe of the most trivial kind, fettled according to law. The prevalence of this litigious fpirit, affords employment and fupport for a numerous body of lawyers. The number of actions entered annually upon the feveral dockets in the ftate, juftifies the above obfervations. That party fpirit, however, which is the bane of political happiness, has not raged with fuch violence in this state as in Maffachufetts and Rhode-Ifland. Public proceedings have been conducted generally, and efpecially of late, with much calmness and candour. The people are well informed in regard to their rights, and judicious in the methods they adopt to fecure them. The ftate was never in greater political tranquility than at prefent.
The clergy, who are numerous, and, as a body, very refpecable, have hitherto preferved a kind of ariftocratical balance in the very democratical government of the ftate; which has happily operated as a check upon the overbearing fpirit of republicanifm. It has been lamented that the unhappy religious difputes which have too much prevailed among fome of the clergy; and the too great attention that others have paid to their temporal concerns, to the neglect of their flocks; and an inattention to the qualifications of those who have been admitted to the facred office, have, heretofore, confiderably diminished their influence. It is a pleafing circumftance that the rage for theological difputation is abating, and greater ftriétnefs is obferved in the admiffion of candidates to the ministry. Their influence is on the increase; and it is no doubt to be attributed, in part, to their increafing influence, that an evident reformation in the manners of the people of this ftate, has taken place fince the peace. In regard to learning and abilities, the clergy at the prefent day are equal to their predeceffors at any former period.
Religion.] The beft in the world, perhaps, for a republican government. As to the mode of exercising church government and difcipline, it might not improperly be called a republican religion. Each church is a feparate jurifdiction, and claims authority to choofe their own minifter, to exercise government, and enjoy gofpel ordinances within itfelf. The churches, however, are not independent of each other; they are affociated for mutual benefit and convenience. The affociations have power to license candidates for the ministry, to confult for the general welfare, and to recommend measures to be adopted by the churches, but have no authority to enforce them. When difputes arife in churches, councils are called by the parties) to fettle them; but their power is only advifory. There are as many affociations in the ftate as there are counties; and they meet twice in a year. Thefe are all combined in one general affociation, who meet annually.
All religions that are confiftent with the peace of fociety, are tolerated in Connecticut; and a fpirit of liberality and catholicifm is in reafing. There are very few religious fects in this ftate. The bulk of the people are Congregationalifts. Befides thefe there are Epifcopalians and baptils;
and formerly there was a foclety of Sandimanians at New-Haven; but they are now reduced to a very small number. The Epifcopalian churches are refpectable, and are under the fuperintendence of a bishop. There were twenty-nine congregations of the Baptifts in 1784. These congregations, with those in the neighbouring ftates, meet in affociations, by delegation, annually. These affociations confift of messengers chofen and fent by the churches. Some of their principles are, The imputation of Adam's fin to his pofterity-the inability of man to recover himfelf-effectual calling by fovereign grace-juftification by imputed righteoufnefs-immerfion for baptifm, and that on profeffion of faith and repentance-congregational churches, and their independency-reception into them upon evidence of found converfion.' The Baptifts, during the late war, were warm and active friends to their country; and, by their early approbation of the new form of government *, have manifested the continuance of their patriotic fentiments.
Damages fuftained in the late war.] After the establishment of the peace in 1783, a number of gentlemen were appointed by the general affembly to eftimate the damage done by the British troops, in the feveral towns which they ravaged. The following is the refult of their enquiries,
loffes of men not on oath
Amount of loffes, £145,788 15 6 23,217 6 a 9,806 9 2
L. 178,812 10 8
£• 34,867 9 2 2,077 O
L. 6,365 11 8 369 17 7
£.6.735 9 3
Fairfield, (burnt in 1779)
£40,807 2 10
New-Haven, ravaged by Governor Tryon July 1779 £24,893 7 6 Eaft-Haven
4,882 16 4
474 O 3 586 0 I
£, 30,836 4 2
Amount of the loffes in the whole ftate in money,}. 294,235 16
valued as in 1774
In their affociation at New-York, October 1787. .
Chief Towns.] There are a great number of very pleasant towns, both maritime and inland, in Connecticut. It contains five incorporated towns or cities. Two of thefe, Hartford and New-Haven, are the capitals of the state. The general affembly is holden at the former in May, and at the latter in October, annually.
HARTFORD (City) is fituated at the head of navigation on the weft fide of Connecticut river, about fifty miles from its entrance into the found. Its buildings are a ftate-houfe-two churches for congregationalifts-a diftillery, befides upwards of 300 dwelling-houses, a number of which are handfomely built with brick.
The town is divided by a small river, with high romantic banks. Over this river is a bridge connecting the two divifions of the town. Hartford is advantageously fituated for trade, has a very fine back country, enters largely into the manufacturing business, and is a rich flourishing commercial town.
NEW-HAVEN (city) lies round the head of a bay, which makes up about four miles north from the found. It covers part of a large plain, which is circumfcribed on three fides by high hills or mountains. Two fmall rivers bound the city eaft and weft. The town was originally laid out in fquares of fixty rods. Many of these fquares have been divided by crofs ftreets. Four ftreets run north-weft and fouth-eaft, these are croffed by others at right angles-Near the centre of the city is the public fquare; on and around which are the public buildings, which are a statehoufe, college and chapel, three churches for Congregationalifts, and one for Epifcopalians. Thefe are all handfome and commodious buildings. The college, chapel, state-house, and one of the churches are of brick. The public fquare is encircled with rows of trees, which render it both convenient and delightful. Its beauty, however, is greatly diminished by the burial ground, and feveral of the public buildings, which occupy a confiderable part of it.
Many of the ftreets are ornamented with two rows of trees, one on each fide, which give the city a rural appearance. The profpect from the fteeples is greatly variegated, and extremely beautiful. There are about 500 dwelling-houfes in the city, principally of wood, and well built, and fome of them elegant. The treets are fandy, but neat and cleanly. Within the limits of the city, are between 3 and 4000 fouls. About one in feventy die annually; this proves the healthfulness of its climate. Indeed as to pleafantnefs of fituation, and falubrity of air, NewHaven is not exceeded by any city in America. It carries on a confiderable trade with New-York and the Weft-India Islands, and is flourishing *.
NEW-LONDON (city) ftands on the weft fide of the river Thames, near its entrance into the found, in latitude 41° 25'. It has two places for public worship, one for Epifcopalians and one for Congregationalists, and about 300 dwelling-houfes. Its harbour is the best in Connecticut, and as good as any in the United-States; and is defended by fort Trumbull
and *The following account of the number of inhabitants in the city of New
and fort Grifwold, the one in New-London, the other in Groton. A confiderable part of the town was burnt by the infamous Benedict Arnold, in 1781. It has fince been rebuilt.
NORWICH (City) ftands at the head of Thames river, 12 or 14 miles north from New-London. It is a commercial city, has a rich and extenfive back country, and avails itself of its natural advantages at the head of navigation. Its fituation upon a river which affords a great number of convenient feats for mills and water machines of all kinds, render it very eligible in a manufactural view.
The inhabitants are not neglectful of the advantages which nature has fo liberally given them. They manufacture paper of all kinds, stockings,
New-Haven, and their different ages, together with the number of buildings of different kinds, is the refult of an accurate enumeration, September aoth, 1787. As it may furnish fufficient date from which, at any future enumeration, feveral valuable and instructive calculations may be made, it is thought proper to preserve it.
Age No. Age No.
Total number of fouls
Number of ftudents
3339 | Number of Families
3436 - 2 2 2 MIN 3+
Barns and Shops
1645 Total buildings of all kinds
In 1724 there were 163 buildings of all kinds, from which we may conclude, the number of fouls and buildings has doubled fince that time, in periods of about twenty years.
clocks and watches, chaifes, buttons, stone and earthen ware, wire, oil,
MIDDLETON (City) is pleasantly fituated on the western bank of Connecticut river, fifteen miles fouth of Hartford. It is the principal town in Middlesex county-has about 300 houfes-a court-houfe-one church for Congregationalífts-one for Epifcopalians-a naval office-and carries on a large and increafing trade.
Four miles fouth of Hartford is WETHERSFIELD, a very pleafaat town of between two and three hundred houfes fituated on a fine foil, with an elegant brick church for Congregationalifts. A fair is held here twice a year. This town is noted for raiting onions.
Windfor, Farmington, Litchfield, Milford, Stratford, Fairfield and Guilford, are all confiderable and very pleafant towns.
Curiofities.] Two miles weft of New-Haven is a mountain, on the top of which is a cave, remarkable for having been the refidence of generals Whaley and Goff, two of the judges of Charles I. who was beheaded. They arrived at Boston July 27th, 1660, and came to New-Haven the March following. May 11th, 1661, they retired and concealed them felves behind Weft-mountain, three miles from New-Haven; and the 19th of Auguft, they removed to Milford, where they lived concealed until the 13th of October, 1664; when they returned to New-Haven, and immediately proceeded to Hadley, where they remained concealed for about ten years, in which time Whaley died. Goffe foon after abdicated. In 1665, John Dixwell, Efq. another of the king's judges, vifited them while at Hadley, and afterwards proceeded to New-Haven, where he lived many years, and was known by the name of John Davis. Here he died, and was buried in the public burying-place, where his grave-ftone is flanding to this day, with this infcription, J. D. Efq. deceafed March 18th, in the 82d year of his age, 1688.'
In the town of Pomfret is a cave rendered remarkable by the humorous" adventure of General Putnam. This cave is defcribed, and the story ele gantly told by Colonel Humphreys, in his life of that hero. The ftory and the defcription I fhall infert in his own words.
Soon after Mr. Putnam removed to Connecticut, the wolves, then very numerous, broke into his fheep-fold, and killed feventy fine sheep and goats, befides wounding many lambs and kids. This havoc was com mitted by a fhe-wolf, which, with her annual whelps, had for feveral. years infefted the vicinity. The young were commonly destroyed by the vigilance of the hunters, but the old one was too fagacious to come within reach of gun-fhot: upon being clofely purfued, the would gene rally fly to the western woods, and return the next winter with another litter of whelps.